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Context of Peru


Peru ( (listen); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River. Peru has a population of over 32 million,...Read more


Peru ( (listen); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River. Peru has a population of over 32 million, and its capital and largest city is Lima. At 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.

Peruvian territory was home to several cultures during the ancient and medieval periods, and has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 10th millennium BCE. Notable pre-colonial cultures and civilizations include the Caral-Supe civilization (the earliest civilization in the Americas and considered one of the cradles of civilization,) the Nazca culture, the Wari and Tiwanaku empires, the Kingdom of Cusco, and the Inca Empire, the largest known state in the pre-Columbian Americas.

The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and Charles V established a viceroyalty in 1542 with the official name of the Kingdom of Peru that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in Lima. Higher education started in the Americas with the official establishment of the National University of San Marcos in Lima in 1551. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the foreign military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824 and its first congress decided to adopt Bolivar's republican system over San Martín's monarchist proposal that was supported by a large part of the population and aristocracy. In the ensuing years, the country first suffered from political instability until a period of relative economic and political stability began due to the exploitation of guano that ended with the War of the Pacific. In the 20th century, the country endured coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. In the 1990s, the country implemented a neoliberal economic model which is still in use to this day. As the 2000s commodities boom took place, Peru experienced a period of constant economic growth, while government finances, poverty reduction and progress in social sectors improved. The nation has more recently adopted the Lima Consensus, an economic ideology of neoliberalism, deregulation and free market policies that has made foreign portfolio investment in Peru attractive. Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at 1.8%, with the most recent annual rate standing at 1.9% in 2020. Though statistical poverty has decreased significantly – from nearly 60% in 2004 to 20.5% in 2018.

The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions, which ranks 82nd on the Human Development Index. It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% (in 2017) and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6% (as of 2018). Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing, along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology. The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.

Peru has a population that includes Mestizos, Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechuan languages, Aymara, or other Indigenous languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in diverse fields, making the country a world-renowned gastronomical destiny, along with other topics such as art, literature, and music.

More about Peru

Basic information
  • Currency Peruvian sol
  • Native name Perú
  • Calling code +51
  • Internet domain .pe
  • Mains voltage 220V/60Hz
  • Democracy index 6.53
Population, Area & Driving side
  • Population 29381884
  • Area 1285216
  • Driving side right
    Prehistory and Pre-Columbian Peru
    Remains of a Caral/Norte Chico pyramid in the arid Supe Valley

    The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 12,500 BCE in the Huaca Prieta settlement.[1] Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important....Read more

    Prehistory and Pre-Columbian Peru
    Remains of a Caral/Norte Chico pyramid in the arid Supe Valley

    The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 12,500 BCE in the Huaca Prieta settlement.[1] Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.[2] The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Caral/Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BCE.[3] These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BCE[4] along what is now Peru's Pacific coast was an example of early pre-Inca culture.

    Moche earrings depicting warriors, made of turquoise and gold (1–800 CE)

    The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BCE was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious center in Chavín de Huantar.[5] After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century CE, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Moche.

    The Moche, who reached their apogee in the first millennium CE, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork.[6] The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as a loose confederation of walled cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru, the Chimu flourished from about 1140 to 1450.[7] Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo.[7] In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia,[8] and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 CE.[9]

    The citadel of Machu Picchu, an iconic symbol of pre-Columbian Peru

    In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in the pre-Columbian Americas with their capital in Cusco.[10] The Incas of Cusco originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the emperor Pachacuti.[11] Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui, the Incas came to control most of the Andean region, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco.[12] From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, from southern Colombia to northern Chile, between the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Amazon rainforest in the east. The official language of the empire was Quechua,[13] although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as "The Four Regions" or "The Four United Provinces." Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti, the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.[14] The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun."[15]

    Conquest and colonial period

    Atahualpa (also Atahuallpa), the last Sapa Inca, became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huáscar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. In December 1532, a party of conquistadors (supported by the Chankas, Huancas, Cañaris and Chachapoyas as Indian auxiliaries) led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca. The Spanish conquest of Peru was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima, which was then known as "La Ciudad de los Reyes" (The City of Kings). The conquest of Peru led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The last Inca resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards annihilated the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba in 1572.

    Monastery of Santa Catalina de Siena in Arequipa

    The Indigenous population dramatically collapsed overwhelmingly due to epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish as well as exploitation and socio-economic change.[16] Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce.[17] With the discovery of the great silver and gold lodes at Potosí (present-day Bolivia) and Huancavelica, the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.[18] The commercial and population exchanges between Latin America and Asia undergone via the Manila Galleons transiting through Acapulco, had Callao at Peru as the furthest endpoint of the trade route in the Americas.[19] In relation to this, Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, governor of Panama was also responsible for settling Zamboanga City in the Philippines, which now speak a Spanish Creole by employing Peruvian soldiers and colonists.[20] Because of lack of available workforce, African slaves were added to the labor population. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicism, with Spanish clerics believing like Puritan divines of English colonies later that the Native Peoples "had been corrupted by the Devil, who was working "through them to frustrate" their foundations.[21] It only took a generation to convert the population. They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha in the city of Cusco. The church employed the Inquisition, making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs, and monastery schools, educating girls, especially of the Inca nobility and upper class, "until they were old enough either to profess [to become a nun] or to leave the monastery and assume the role ('estado') in the Christian society that their fathers planned to erect" in Peru.[22] Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations.[23] In this endeavor, the church came to play an important role in the acculturation of the Natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers.

    Main façade of the Lima Metropolitan Cathedral and the Archbishop's palace, Lima

    By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.[24] In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty.[25] The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed.[26] As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the expense of the territories that formed the Viceroyalty of Peru; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires and Bogotá, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

    Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.[27] The conquest and colony brought a mix of cultures and ethnicities that did not exist before the Spanish conquered the Peruvian territory. Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peruvian culture.[23] Two of the most important Indigenous rebellions against the Spanish were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa in 1742, and Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco.[28]

    The Battle of Ayacucho was decisive in ensuring Peruvian independence.

    In the early 19th century, while most South American nations were swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.

    The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America, and Native uprisings all contributed to a favorable climate to the development of emancipation ideas among the Criollo population in South America. However, the Criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies.

    After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, José de San Martín created the Army of the Andes and crossed the Andes in 21 days. Once in Chile, he joined forces with Chilean army General Bernardo O'Higgins and liberated the country in the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú in 1818.[29] On 7 September 1820, a fleet of eight warships arrived in the port of Paracas under the command of General José de San Martin and Thomas Cochrane, who was serving in the Chilean Navy. Immediately on 26 October, they took control of the town of Pisco. San Martin settled in Huacho on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north and blockaded the port of Callao in Lima. At the same time in the north, Guayaquil was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. Because Peru was the stronghold of the Spanish government in South America, San Martin's strategy to liberate Peru was to use diplomacy. He sent representatives to Lima urging the Viceroy that Peru be granted independence, however, all negotiations proved unsuccessful.

    San Martín proclaiming the independence of Peru. Painting by Juan Lepiani.

    The Viceroy of Peru, Joaquín de la Pazuela named José de la Serna commander-in-chief of the loyalist army to protect Lima from the threatened invasion by San Martin. On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela, which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru. This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. To avoid a military confrontation, San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, José de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down. De la Serna abandoned the city, and on 12 July 1821, San Martin occupied Lima and declared Peruvian independence on 28 July 1821. He created the first Peruvian flag. Upper Peru (Bolivia) remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of Simón Bolívar liberated it three years later. José de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[30]

    Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north, liberating the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Battles of Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha a year later. In July 1822, Bolivar and San Martin gathered in the Guayaquil Conference. Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled. The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru, giving him the power to organize the military.

    With the help of Antonio José de Sucre, they defeated the larger Spanish army in the Battle of Junín on 6 August 1824 and the decisive Battle of Ayacucho on 9 December of the same year, consolidating the independence of Peru and Alto Peru. Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.[31]

    19th century
    The Battle of Angamos, during the War of the Pacific.

    From the 1840s to the 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla, through increased state revenues from guano exports.[32] However, by the 1870s, these resources had been depleted, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise.[33] Peru embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but also bankrupted the country.

    In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on 5 April 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau. Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, to self determine their national affiliation. However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and neither of the countries could determine the statutory framework. After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s.

    20th century
    The signing of the Rio Protocol in January 1942.

    Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía. The Great Depression caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).[34] The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades. A final peace treaty in 1929, signed between Peru and Chile called the Treaty of Lima, returned Tacna to Peru. Between 1932 and 1933, Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia.

    Later, in 1941, Peru and Ecuador fought the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, after which the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. In a military coup on 29 October 1948, General Manuel A. Odría became president. Odría's presidency was known as the Ochenio. He came down hard on APRA, momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his regime. Odría was succeeded by Manuel Prado Ugarteche. However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, via a coup d'état led by Ricardo Pérez Godoy. Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by Fernando Belaúnde Terry who assumed presidency until 1968. Belaúnde was recognized for his commitment to the democratic process.

    On October 3, 1968, another coup d'état led by a group of officers led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado brought the army to power with the aim of applying a doctrine of "social progress and integral development", nationalist and reformist, influenced by the CEPAL theses on dependence and underdevelopment. Six days after the golpe, Velasco proceeded to nationalize the International Petroleum Corporation (IPC), the North American company that exploited Peruvian oil, and then launched a reform of the state apparatus, an agrarian reform. It was the biggest agrarian reform ever undertaken in Latin America: it abolished the latifunda system and modernized agriculture through a more equitable redistribution of land (90% of the peasants formed cooperatives or agricultural societies of social interest). Land was to be owned by those who cultivated it, and large landowners were expropriated. The only large properties allowed were cooperatives. Between 1969 and 1976, 325,000 families received land from the state with an average size of 73.6 acres. The "revolutionary government" also planned massive investments in education, elevated the Quechua language – spoken by nearly half the population but hitherto despised by the authorities – to a status equivalent to that of Spanish and established equal rights for natural children. Peru wished to free itself from any dependence and carried out a third-world foreign policy. The United States responded with commercial, economic and diplomatic pressure. In 1973, Peru seemed to triumph over the financial blockade imposed by Washington by negotiating a loan from the International Development Bank to finance its agricultural and mining development policy. The relations with Chile became very tense after the coup d'état of the general Pinochet. General Edgardo Mercado Jarrin (Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Army) and Admiral Guillermo Faura Gaig (Minister of the Navy) both escaped assassination attempts within weeks of each other. In 1975, General Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti seized power and broke with the policies of his predecessor. His regime occasionally participated in Operation Condor in collaboration with other American military dictatorships.[35][36]

    Peru engaged in a two week long conflict with Ecuador during the Paquisha War in early 1981 as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries. The economic policy President Alan García distanced Peru from international markets further, resulting in lower foreign investment in the country.[37] After the country experienced chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was later replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. The per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's GDP dropped 20% at which national reserves were a negative $900 million. The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of violent rebel rural insurgent movements, like Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and MRTA, which caused great havoc throughout the country.[38][39] The Shining Path had appeared in the universities in the 1970s. These students, many of them from peasant backgrounds, then returned to their communities and organized local party committees. The abandonment by the state of certain rural regions favored the establishment of the party. In June 1979, demonstrations for free education were severely repressed by the army: 18 people were killed according to the official report, but non-governmental estimates put the death toll at several dozen. This event led to a radicalization of political protests in the countryside and eventually to the outbreak of armed struggle. After the beginning of the armed struggle, the new recruits of the Shining Path were generally peasants with little political background, rather than truly political militants.[40]

    The Peruvian armed forces grew frustrated with the inability of the García administration to handle the nation's crises and drafted Plan Verde – which involved the genocide of impoverished and indigenous Peruvians, the control or censorship of the media in Peru and the establishment of a neoliberal economy controlled by a military junta in Peru – as an effort to overthrow his government.[41][42][43][44] Alberto Fujimori assumed the presidency in 1990 and according to Rospigliosi, the head of the National Intelligence Service (SIN) General Edwin “Cucharita” Díaz and Vladimiro Montesinos played a key role with making President Fujimori abide by the military's demands while "an understanding was established between Fujimori, Montesinos and some of the military officers" involved in Plan Verde prior to Fujimori's inauguration.[45][46] Fujimori would go on to adopt many of the policies outlined in Plan Verde.[44][46] Fujimori's policies, prescribed by Hernando de Soto, led to the immediate suffering of poor Peruvians who saw unregulated prices increase rapidly, with those living in poverty seeing prices increase so much that they could no longer afford food.[47] De Soto advocated for the collapse of Peru's society, with the economist saying that a civil crisis was necessary to support the policies of Fujimori.[48] These drastic measures caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991 and 57% in 1992.[38][39]

    Due to his controversial governance, Fujimori faced opposition to his reform efforts and utilized coup proposals from Plan Verde, dissolving Congress, suspending the judiciary, arresting several opposition leaders and assuming full powers in the auto-golpe ("self-coup") of 5 April 1992.[49][44][50] He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Fujimori's administration was dogged by insurgent groups, most notably the Sendero Luminoso (also called the Shining Path), who carried out terrorist campaigns across the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Fujimori cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by both the Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the Barrios Altos massacre and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Sendero Luminoso. Those incidents subsequently came to symbolize the human rights violations committed in the last years of violence.[51] His Programa Nacional de Población – an implementation of one of Plan Verde's proposals for the "total extermination" of impoverished Peruvians that would possibly be sympathetic to insurgent groups – also resulted with the forced sterilization of at least 300,000 poor and indigenous women.[45][52][53]

    In early 1995, once again Peru and Ecuador clashed in the Cenepa War, but in 1998 the governments of both nations signed a peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went into a self-imposed exile, initially avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities.[54]

    21st century

    Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth.[54] In spite of human rights progress since the time of insurgency, many problems are still visible and show the continued marginalization of those who suffered through the violence of the Peruvian conflict.[55] A caretaker government presided over by Valentín Paniagua took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. Afterwards Alejandro Toledo became president in 2001 to 2006.

    On 28 July 2006, former president Alan García became President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections. In May 2008, Peru became a member of the Union of South American Nations. In April 2009, former president Alberto Fujimori was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in killings and kidnappings by the Grupo Colina death squad during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s.[56] On 5 June 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected president. During his presidency, Prime Minister Ana Jara and her cabinet were successfully censured, which was the first time in 50 years that a cabinet had been forced to resign from the Peruvian legislature.[57] In 2016, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was elected, though his government was short-lived as he resigned in 2018 amid various controversies surrounding his administration. Vice president Martín Vizcarra then assumed office in March 2018 with generally favorable approval ratings.[58] Alan García was involved in the Operation Car Wash scandal and as police tried to arrest him, he committed suicide on 17 April 2019. Later that year, in July, police arrested Alejandro Toledo in California. Amid the crisis, on 30 September 2019, President Vizcarra dissolved the congress, and elections were held on 26 January 2020. The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed on 6 March 2020. During the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, most Peruvians were under a stay-at-home order by President Martin Vizcarra. However, an economic crisis triggered by the pandemic led to his removal from the presidency,[59] seen by many as a coup by congress, and the far-right government of Manuel Merino, the new president, received a lot of backlash. Protests sprang across the country, and after five days, Merino resigned.[60] He was replaced by Francisco Sagasti.[61] Sagasti led a provisional, centrist government, and enforced many of Vizcarra's former policies. Elections were held on 11 April 2021, and Pedro Castillo of the Free Peru party won the first round, followed closely by Keiko Fujimori.[62]

    On 28 July 2021, Pedro Castillo was sworn in as the new president of Peru after a narrow win in a tightly contested run-off election.[63] The new Peruvian president Castillo appointed Guido Bellido, a member of Free Peru Party, as prime minister.[64] That same year, Peru celebrated the bicentenary of independence on its 200th anniversary.[65] In March and April 2022, protests and demonstrations against the government of President Castillo were widely spread in the country. The demonstrators demanded the removal of President Pedro Castillo, because of difficult economic conditions and the allegations of corruption.[66][67] Castillo faced multiple impeachment votes during his presidency from the opposition controlled Congress. On December 7, just hours before Congress was set to begin a third impeachment effort, Castillo tried to prevent this by attempting to dissolve the opposition-controlled legislature and create an "exceptional emergency government." In response, Congress quickly held an emergency session on the same day, during which it voted 101-6 (with 10 abstentions) to remove Castillo from office and replace him with Vice President Dina Boluarte. She became the country’s first female president.[68][69] Castillo was arrested after trying to flee to the Mexican embassy and was charged with the crime of rebellion.[70]

    ^ Dillehay, Tom D. (2017). Where the Land Meets the Sea. University of Texas Press. p. 4. ISBN 9781477311493. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2019. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mayer was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Haas was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cordy-Collins, Alana (1992). "Archaism or Tradition?: The Decapitation Theme in Cupisnique and Moche Iconography". Latin American Antiquity. 3 (3): 206–220. doi:10.2307/971715. JSTOR 971715. S2CID 56406255. ^ "Chavin (Archaeological Site)". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2014. ^ Beck, Roger B.; Black, Linda; Krieger, Larry S.; Naylor, Phillip C.; Shabaka, Dahia Ibo (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X. ^ a b Keatinge, Richard W.; Conrad, Geoffrey W. (1983). "Imperialist expansion in Peruvian prehistory: Chimu administration of a conquered territory". Journal of Field Archaeology. 10 (3): 255–283. ^ Blom, Deborah E.; Janusek, John W. (2004). "Making Place: Humans as Dedications in Tiwanaku". World Archaeology. 36: 123–141. doi:10.1080/0043824042000192623. S2CID 154741300. ^ Pre-Inca Cultures Archived 3 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Cite error: The named reference Altroy was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Demarest, Arthur Andrew; Conrad, Geoffrey W. (1984). Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–59. ISBN 0-521-31896-3. ^ Peru The Incas Archived 3 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine ^ Torero Fernández de Córdoba, Alfredo. (1970) "Lingüística e historia de la Sociedad Andina", Anales Científicos de la Universidad Agraria, VIII, 3–4, págs. 249–251. Lima: UNALM. ^ "The Inca – All Empires". Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. ^ "The Inca" at the Wayback Machine (archived 10 November 2009) The National Foreign Language Center at the University of Maryland. 29 May 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2014. ^ Lovell, W. George (1992). "'Heavy Shadows and Black Night': Disease and Depopulation in Colonial Spanish America". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 82 (3): 426–443. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1992.tb01968.x. JSTOR 2563354. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bakewell was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Suarez was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Schottenhammer, Angela (2019). "Connecting China with the Pacific World?". Orientierungen. Zeitschrift zur Kultur Asiens: 144. ISSN 0936-4099. Archived from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021. The wreck excavation could prove that European style jewelry was being made in the Philippines. Some 56 intact storage jars were discovered. Investigations revealed that they had come from kilns in South China, Cochin China (Vietnam), and Siam (Thailand), and one was of Spanish design. The archaeology of the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, consequently, also provides us with intriguing new insights into the trans-Pacific trade connection and the commodities involved. Each time a galleon arrived at Acapulco, a market, la feria, was organized. This attracted all kinds of people such as Indian peddlers, Mexican and Peruvian merchants, soldiers, the king's officials, and friars, as well as a few Chinese and some Filipinos. From Acapulco, the goods were transported into the hinterlands, into Mexico City, and various other places, including Peru. The Peruvian port at that time was Callao and the Ciudad de los Reyes, that is Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Generally speaking, much of what was not sold (rezagos) directly in Acapulco was redirected towards Peru. Peruvian ships, mainly loaded with silver, mercury, cacao from Guayaquil, and Peruvian wines, sailed to ports along the Mexican and Guatemalan coasts, returning with Asian goods and leftover cargo from the galleon ships. Besides Callao and Guayaquil, Paita was also frequently a port of call. ^ "Second book of the second part of the Conquests of the Filipinas Islands, and chronicle of the religious of our Father, St. Augustine". Zamboanga City History. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021. He (Governor Don Sebastían Hurtado de Corcuera) brought a great reenforcement of soldiers, many of them from Perú, as he made his voyage to Acapulco from that kingdom. ^ Russell Bourne, Gods of War, Gods of Peace (New York: Harcourt Books, 2002), 7–9. ^ Kathryn Burns, Colonial Habits (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1999), 15–40. ^ a b Conquest and Colony of Peru."Conquest and Colony of Peru". Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2014. ^ Cite error: The named reference Andrien was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Burkholder was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Phelan was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Peru". Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2014. ^ "Túpac Amaru II". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2018. ^ Scheina, 2003, Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791–1899, p. 58. ^ Gootenberg (1991) p. 12. ^ Discover Peru (Peru cultural society). War of Independence Archived 21 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 July 2014 ^ Gootenberg (1993) pp. 5–6. ^ Gootenberg (1993) p. 9. ^ Klarén, Peter (2000). Peru: society and nationhood in the Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 262–276, ISBN 0195069285. ^ "Francisco Morales Bermudez, ex-Peruvian military ruler, dies at 100". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 16 July 2022. ^ Brands, Hal (15 September 2010). "The United States and the Peruvian Challenge, 1968–1975". Diplomacy & Statecraft. Taylor & Francis. 21 (3): 471–490. doi:10.1080/09592296.2010.508418. S2CID 154119414. ^ "Welcome, Mr. Peruvian President: Why Alan García is no hero to his people". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. 2 June 2010. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019. ^ a b Leonard, Thomas M. (2013). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Taylor and Francis. p. 685. ISBN 9781135205157. The inflation rate in 1990 was 7,650%....President Fujimori immediately implemented a program of severe austerity and privatization programs. The economic shock therapy hit the poor the hardest, but brought inflation down to 139% in 1991 and 57% in 1992. ^ a b Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean 1992. ECLAC. 31 December 1992. p. 31. ISBN 9789210601191. Archived from the original on 16 March 2023. Retrieved 20 December 2021. ^ Luis Rossell, Historias gráficas de la violencia en el Perú, 1980–1984, 2008 ^ Rospigliosi, Fernando (1996). Las Fuerzas Armadas y el 5 de abril: la percepción de la amenaza subversiva como una motivación golpista. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos. pp. 46–47. ^ Gaussens, Pierre (2020). "The forced serilization of indigenous population in Mexico in the 1990s". Canadian Journal of Bioethics. 3 (3): 180+. doi:10.7202/1073797ar. S2CID 234586692. a government plan, developed by the Peruvian army between 1989 and 1990s to deal with the Shining Path insurrection, later known as the 'Green Plan', whose (unpublished) text expresses in explicit terms a genocidal intention ^ Burt, Jo-Marie (September–October 1998). "Unsettled accounts: militarization and memory in postwar Peru". NACLA Report on the Americas. Taylor & Francis. 32 (2): 35–41. doi:10.1080/10714839.1998.11725657. the military's growing frustration over the limitations placed upon its counterinsurgency operations by democratic institutions, coupled with the growing inability of civilian politicians to deal with the spiraling economic crisis and the expansion of the Shining Path, prompted a group of military officers to devise a coup plan in the late 1980s. The plan called for the dissolution of Peru's civilian government, military control over the state, and total elimination of armed opposition groups. The plan, developed in a series of documents known as the "Plan Verde," outlined a strategy for carrying out a military coup in which the armed forces would govern for 15 to 20 years and radically restructure state-society relations along neoliberal lines. ^ a b c Alfredo Schulte-Bockholt (2006). "Chapter 5: Elites, Cocaine, and Power in Colombia and Peru". The politics of organized crime and the organized crime of politics: a study in criminal power. Lexington Books. pp. 114–118. ISBN 978-0-7391-1358-5. important members of the officer corps, particularly within the army, had been contemplating a military coup and the establishment of an authoritarian regime, or a so-called directed democracy. The project was known as 'Plan Verde', the Green Plan. ... Fujimori essentially adopted the 'Plan Verde,' and the military became a partner in the regime. ... The autogolpe, or self-coup, of April 5, 1992, dissolved the Congress and the country's constitution and allowed for the implementation of the most important components of the 'Plan Verde.' ^ a b Rospigliosi, Fernando (1996). Las Fuerzas Armadas y el 5 de abril: la percepción de la amenaza subversiva como una motivación golpista. Lima, Peru: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos. pp. 28–40. ^ a b Avilés, William (Spring 2009). "Despite Insurgency: Reducing Military Prerogatives in Colombia and Peru". Latin American Politics and Society. Cambridge University Press. 51 (1): 57–85. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2009.00040.x. S2CID 154153310. ^ Pee, Robert (2018). The Reagan Administration, the Cold War, and the Transition to Democracy Promotion. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 178–180. ISBN 978-3319963815. ^ Nash, Nathaniel C. (24 February 1991). "The World; Fujimori In the Time Of Cholera". The New York Times. p. Section 4, Page 2. Archived from the original on 31 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021. ^ Cameron, Maxwell A. (June 1998). "Latin American Autogolpes: Dangerous Undertows in the Third Wave of Democratisation". Third World Quarterly. Taylor & Francis. 19 (2): 228. doi:10.1080/01436599814433. the outlines for Peru's presidential coup were first developed within the armed forces before the 1990 election. This Plan Verde was shown to President Fujimorti after the 1990 election before his inauguration. Thus, the president was able to prepare for an eventual self-coup during the first two years of his administration ^ "El "Plan Verde" Historia de una traición". Oiga. 647. 12 July 1993. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2022. ^ Black, Jan (2018). Latin America Its Problems and Its Promise: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Taylor and Francis. p. 355. ISBN 9780429974694. Archived from the original on 16 March 2023. Retrieved 20 December 2021. In September 1992, a small, elite squad within Peru's antiterrorist police (established under Garcia) captured the Shining Path leader, Abimael Guzman. Within the next few weeks, using information in Guzman's hideout, police arrested more than 1,000 suspected guerillas. During the next few years, the Shining Path was decimated. ^ Gaussens, Pierre (2020). "The forced serilization of indigenous population in Mexico in the 1990s". Canadian Journal of Bioethics. 3 (3): 180+. doi:10.7202/1073797ar. S2CID 234586692. a government plan, developed by the Peruvian army between 1989 and 1990s to deal with the Shining Path insurrection, later known as the 'Green Plan', whose (unpublished) text expresses in explicit terms a genocidal intention ^ Back, Michele; Zavala, Virginia (2018). Racialization and Language: Interdisciplinary Perspectives From Perú. Routledge. pp. 286–291. Archived from the original on 4 August 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021. At the end of the 1980s, a group of military elites secretly developed an analysis of Peruvian society called El cuaderno verde. This analysis established the policies that the following government would have to carry out in order to defeat Shining Path and rescue the Peruvian economy from the deep crisis in which it found itself. El cuaderno verde was passed onto the national press in 1993, after some of these policies were enacted by President Fujimori. ... It was a program that resulted in the forced sterilization of Quechua-speaking women belonging to rural Andean communities. This is an example of 'ethnic cleansing' justified by the state, which claimed that a properly controlled birth rate would improve the distribution of national resources and thus reduce poverty levels. ... The Peruvian state decided to control the bodies of 'culturally backward' women, since they were considered a source of poverty and the seeds of subversive groups ^ a b "Peru". The Economist. 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. ^ White, Gavin David (2009). "Displacement, decentralisation and reparation in post-conflict Peru". Forced Migration Review. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017. ^ "Peru's Fujimori sentenced to 25 years prison". Reuters. 7 April 2009. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2018. ^ "Peru's Prime Minister Ana Jara deposed over spy row". BBC. BBC News. 31 March 2015. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017. ^ "Peru's Vizcarra Begins Presidency With 57 Pct Approval Rating". U.S. News & World Report. 15 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. ^ "Peruvian Congress votes to impeach President Martín Vizcarra". BBC News. 10 November 2020. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021. ^ "Peru's President Merino resigns after deadly crackdown on protesters". BBC News. 16 November 2020. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021. ^ "Francisco Sagasti sworn in as interim Peruvian leader". BBC News. 18 November 2020. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2021. ^ "Pedro Castillo declared president-elect of Peru". BBC News. 20 July 2021. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021. ^ "Peru: Pedro Castillo sworn in as president". 28 July 2021. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021. ^ "Peru's new President Castillo names leftist PM". 29 July 2021. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021. ^ "The bicentennial of Peru's independence: A historic opportunity". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022. ^ "Deadly protests in Peru as people take to streets over high costs, inflation". NBC News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2022. ^ "Thousands march in Peru calling for president's removal". France 24. 6 November 2022. Archived from the original on 9 November 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2022. ^ "Peru's President Accused of Coup After Move to Dissolve Congress". 7 December 2022. Archived from the original on 8 December 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2022. ^ "Peru's President Pedro Castillo replaced by Dina Boluarte after impeachment". BBC News. 7 December 2022. Archived from the original on 8 December 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2022. ^ "Peru president removed from office and charged with 'rebellion' after alleged coup attempt". the Guardian. 8 December 2022. Archived from the original on 7 December 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
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Stay safe
    Stay safe
    Night in Lima

    Dial 911 for all emergency services, but dialing the old 105 can also connect you with the police. In Lima and some of the larger cities there is a sort of local police called "Serenazgo": you may ask for help but they have no tourist oriented services.

    ...Read more
    Stay safe
    Night in Lima

    Dial 911 for all emergency services, but dialing the old 105 can also connect you with the police. In Lima and some of the larger cities there is a sort of local police called "Serenazgo": you may ask for help but they have no tourist oriented services.

    Be aware of your surroundings and try to avoid unlit or unpopulated areas, especially at night. There is a lot of petty crime that can turn violent. Avoid groups of male youngsters since there are many small gangs trying to rob passers-by. If you witness a robbery be very careful before intervening, since robbers may be armed and are quite prone to shooting if they feel threatened. Armed robberies of tourists are fairly common. A dirty old backpack with valuable contents is safer than a new one with old clothes in it. It's often good not to look too rich. Some travelers don't use wallets, but keep the bills and coins directly in their pocket. Let's say some little bills on the left side and the rest on the right side. Thus, the pickpocket's job gets much harder. Don't walk around with debit or credit cards in your pocket. Leave them in a safe place when you do not immediately need them, because tourists have been kidnapped and forced to take out money each day for a period of a few days. If you want to take large amounts of cash out with you, a neck wallet is always a good idea - you can hide it under your shirt. Watch out for false bills. Every bank has posters that explain what to check for when getting higher valued bills. The only security element that has not been falsified is the bichrome 10, 20, 50, 100 or 200 now also used on US$ bills. Don't be shy about checking any bills you receive. Most Peruvians do so, too. You may get false bills even at upscale places or (quite unusually, but it's been known to happen) banks, so check there too. A possible petty scam is to replace 5-Soles coins with very similar-looking 5-Boliviano coins when giving change. Bolivianos are worth about half the amount of Soles, but you will likely be out the whole amount, considering Bolivian currency is useless in Peru. Small quantities of drugs for personal use or possession (up to 2 g for powdered cocaine or 8 g for marijuana) are permitted by law (Section 299 of the Penal Code of Peru) provided that the user is in possession of only one type of drug. However, though possession in these amounts is legal, buying or selling these drugs is illegal. When taking a taxi, take a quick look in the back seat and in the trunk, to make sure there is nobody hiding there. There have been reports of armed robberies/kidnappings taking place in taxis. Afterwards, tourists are blindfolded and driven outside the city and left behind by the highway. At the border crossing from Ecuador (Huaquillas) to Peru people have tried to steal passports by acting like plain-clothed police officers. They give you another form to fill in which is fake. This has taken place although police and customs personnel have been next to them. When traveling on buses, it is recommended to keep your backpack under your seat with the strap hooked around your leg.Police Tourist police are dressed in white shirts, instead of the usual green ones, and normally speak English and are quite helpful to tourists. The common police officer does not speak any other language but Spanish but normally will try to help.

    Dealing with the police can take a lot of time. In order to get a copy of a police report you need to go to a Banco de la Nación and pay S/3. Without this the police won't give you a copy, and you can only arrange this during working days.

    Natural disasters

    Located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, earthquakes may occur in Peru. If you're near the coast when the ground starts shaking, beware of tsunamis.

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