سقطرى

( Socotra )

Socotra or Soqotra (; Arabic: سُقُطْرَىٰ Suquṭrā; Somali: Suqadara) is an island of the Republic of Yemen in the Indian Ocean, under the de facto control of the UAE-backed Southern Transitional Council, a secessionist participant in Yemen’s ongoing civil war. Lying between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea and near major shipping routes, Socotra is the largest of the four islands in the Socotra archipelago. Since 2013, the archipelago has constituted the Socotra Governorate.

The island of Socotra represents around 95% of the landmass of the Socotra archipelago. It lies 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula, but is considered to be part of Africa. The island is isolated and home to a high number of endemic species. Up to a third of its plant life is endemic. It has been...Read more

Socotra or Soqotra (; Arabic: سُقُطْرَىٰ Suquṭrā; Somali: Suqadara) is an island of the Republic of Yemen in the Indian Ocean, under the de facto control of the UAE-backed Southern Transitional Council, a secessionist participant in Yemen’s ongoing civil war. Lying between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea and near major shipping routes, Socotra is the largest of the four islands in the Socotra archipelago. Since 2013, the archipelago has constituted the Socotra Governorate.

The island of Socotra represents around 95% of the landmass of the Socotra archipelago. It lies 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula, but is considered to be part of Africa. The island is isolated and home to a high number of endemic species. Up to a third of its plant life is endemic. It has been described as "the most alien-looking place on Earth." The island measures 132 kilometres (82 mi) in length and 49.7 kilometres (30.9 mi) in width. In 2008 Socotra was recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In 2018, the United Arab Emirates invaded Socotra and relieved Yemeni government soldiers of their duties.

There was initially an Oldowan lithic culture in Socotra. Oldowan stone tools were found in the area around Hadibo by V.A. Zhukov, a member of the Russian Complex Expedition in 2008.[1][2][3]

Socotra appears as Dioskouridou (Διοσκουρίδου νῆσος), meaning "the island of the Dioscuri",[4] in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a first-century AD Greek navigation aid. A recent discovery of texts in several languages, including a wooden tablet in Palmyrene dated to the third century AD, indicate the diverse origins of those who used Socotra as a trading base in antiquity.[5]

In 2001, a group of Belgian speleologists of the Socotra Karst Project investigated a cave on the island of Socotra. There, they came across a large number of inscriptions, drawings and archaeological objects.[6][7] Further investigation showed that these had been left by sailors who visited the island between the first century BC and the sixth century AD. Most of the texts are written in the Indian Brāhmī script; there are also inscriptions in South Arabian, Ethiopic, Greek, Palmyrene and Bactrian scripts and languages. This corpus of nearly 250 texts and drawings constitutes one of the main sources for the investigation of Indian Ocean trade networks in that time period.[8]

A local tradition, based on the third-century apocryphal Acts of Thomas, holds that the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52. In 880, an Ethiopian expeditionary force conquered the island and an Oriental Orthodox bishop was consecrated. The Ethiopians were later dislodged by a large armada sent by Imam Al-Salt bin Malik of Oman.[9][10] In the tenth century, the Arab geographer Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani stated that, in his time, most of the inhabitants were Christian. Socotra is also mentioned in The Travels of Marco Polo; Marco Polo did not pass anywhere near the island, but recorded a report that "the inhabitants are baptised Christians and have an 'archbishop'" who, it is further explained, "has nothing to do with the Pope in Rome, but is subject to an archbishop who lives at Baghdad." They were Eastern Christians but also practised ancient magic rituals despite the warnings of their archbishop.[11]

 
Photo of local men from Socotra taken by Charles K. Moser, 1918[12]

In 1507, a Portuguese fleet commanded by Tristão da Cunha with Afonso de Albuquerque landed at the then capital of Suq and captured the port after a stiff battle. Their objective was to set a base in a strategic place on the route to India and to liberate the presumed friendly Christians from Islamic rule. The architect Tomás Fernandes started to build a fortress at Suq, the Forte de São Miguel de Socotorá. The lack of a proper harbour for wintering led to the loss of many moored Portuguese ships, the most important of which was the Santo António galleon under the command of captain Manuel Pais da Veiga.[13] The infertility of the land led to famine and sickness in the garrison, and the Portuguese abandoned the island in 1511.[14]

 
1893 map of the Bombay Presidency including Aden Province and Socotra

The Mahra sultans took control of Socotra in 1511, and the inhabitants were converted to Islam during their rule.[15] In 1737, however, Captain de la Garde-Jazier, commander of a French naval expedition heading for Mocha, was surprised to find Christian tribes living in the interior of Socotra during a five-week stopover on the island. He reported in a letter home that the tribesmen, "due to lack of missionaries, had only retained a faint knowledge of Christianity."[16]

In 1834, the East India Company stationed a garrison on Socotra, in the expectation that the Mahra sultan of Qishn and Socotra, who resided at Qishn on the mainland, would accept an offer to sell the island. The lack of good anchorages proved to be as much a problem for the British as the Portuguese, and there was nowhere for a coaling station to be used by the new steamship line on the Suez-Bombay route. Faced with the unexpected firm refusal of the sultan to sell, the British left in 1835. After the capture of Aden by the British in 1839, they lost all interest in acquiring Socotra.

In January 1876, in exchange for a payment of 3,000 thalers and a yearly subsidy, the sultan pledged "himself, his heirs and successors, never to cede, to sell, to mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, the Island of Socotra or any of its dependencies." Additionally, he pledged to assist any European vessel that wrecked on the island and protect the crew, the passengers and the cargo, in exchange for a suitable reward.[17] In April 1886, the British government, concerned about reports that the German navy had been visiting various ports in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean to secure a naval base, decided to conclude a protectorate treaty with the sultan in which he promised this time to "refrain from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign nation or power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government", and give immediate notice to the British Resident at Aden of any attempt by another power to interfere with Socotra and its dependencies.[18] Apart from those obligations, this preemptive protectorate treaty, designed above all to seal off Socotra against competition from other colonial powers, left the sultan in control of the island. In 1897, the P&O ship Aden sank after being wrecked on a reef near Socotra, with the loss of 78 lives. As some of the cargo had been plundered by islanders, the sultan was reminded of his obligations under the agreement of 1876.[19]

From 17 December 1896 until 12 February 1897, the British explorers Theodore and Mabel Bent visited the island,[20] following on from the botanical visits of Bayley Balfour and Schweinfurth in the early 1880s. They were accompanied by a young Englishman, Ernest Bennett.

In October 1967, in the wake of the departure of the British from Aden and southern Arabia, the Mahra Sultanate, as well as the other states of the former Aden Protectorate, were abolished. On 30 November of the same year, Socotra became part of South Yemen. The attitude of the South Yemeni government to the Soviet Union enabled the Soviet Navy to use the archipelago as a supply and supporting base for its operations in the Indian Ocean from 1971 to the late 1980s.[21][22][23]

Since Yemeni unification in 1990, it has been a part of the Republic of Yemen.

In 2015, cyclone Chapala and cyclone Megh struck Socotra, causing severe damage to the island's infrastructure, homes, roads, and power. Due to the collective impacts of Chapala and Megh, various Gulf Cooperation Council states sent 43 planes with supplies to the island by 19 November.[24] The United Arab Emirates sent a ship and a plane, carrying 500 tons[ambiguous] of food, 10 tons[ambiguous] of blankets and tents, and 1,200 barrels of food.[25]

In 2016 the United Arab Emirates increased supplies delivered to Socotra, which had been largely abandoned and forgotten during the ongoing conflict. In October 2016, the 31st cargo aircraft landed in Socotra Airport containing two tons[ambiguous] of aid.[26][27] At that time, the UAE also established a military base on the island as part of the Saudi-led intervention.[26]

In 2017, some Yemeni political factions accused the United Arab Emirates of looting, claiming that Emirati forces had ravaged the flora of the island.[28]

On January 29, 2018, the local Southern Transitional Council leadership on the archipelago declared their support for the STC during Hadi infighting in and around Aden.[29]

On April 30, 2018, the United Arab Emirates, as part of the ongoing Saudi-led intervention in Yemen, landed troops on the island and took control of Socotra Airport and seaport.[30][26] On May 14, 2018, Saudi troops were also deployed on the island and a deal was brokered between the United Arab Emirates and Yemen for a joint military training exercise and the return of administrative control of Socotra airport and seaport under Yemeni control.[31][32]

In May 2019, the Yemeni government accused the United Arab Emirates of landing around 100 separatist troops in Socotra, which the UAE denied, deepening a rift between the two nominal allies in Yemen's civil war.[33]

In February 2020, a regiment of the Yemeni Army stationed in Socotra rebelled and pledged allegiance to the UAE-backed separatist Southern Transitional Council in Socotra, renouncing the UN-backed government of Hadi.[34] The Southern Transitional Council seized control of the island in June 2020.[35]

On 2 March 2021, the UAE deployed military officials to the island. Around the same time, the Emirates also sent a ship carrying ammunition to the militias in Socotra. Confirming the information, an adviser to Yemeni Information Minister Muammar Al-Iryani, Mukhtar Al-Rahbi said it was a set up of military escalation in the region.[36]

^ Amirkhanov, K.A.; Zhukov, V.A.; Naumkin, V.V.; Sedov, A.V. (2009). Эпоха олдована открыта на острове Сокотра. Pripoda (in Russian) (7). ^ Davuov, O. M.; Shunkov, M. V. "Международньій Симлозиум "Древнейшие Миграции Человека В Евразии" Махачкала, 6 – 12 сентября 2009 года". Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. ^ Zhukov, Valery A. (2014) The Results of Research of the Stone Age Sites in the Island of Socotra (Yemen) in 2008-2012. - Moscow: Triada Ltd. 2014, pps 114, ill. 134 (in Russian)ISBN 978-5-89282-591-7 ^ Great Britain. Naval Intelligence Division (2005). "Appendix: Socotra". Western Arabia and the Red Sea. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 611. ISBN 9781136209956. ^ Sidebotham, Steven E. (2011). Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route. California. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-520-24430-6. ^ "La grotte sanctuaire de Suqutra". Archéologia (in French) (396). January 2003. ^ Robin, C.; Gorea, M. (2002). "Les vestiges antiques de la grotte de Hôq (Suqutra, Yémen) (note d'information)". Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (in French). 146 (2): 409–445. doi:10.3406/crai.2002.22441. ^ Bukharin, Mikhail D.; De Geest, Peter; Dridi, Hédi; Gorea, Maria; Jansen Van Rensburg, Julian; Robin, Christian Julien; Shelat, Bharati; Sims-Williams, Nicholas; Strauch, Ingo (2012). Strauch, Ingo (ed.). Foreign Sailors on Socotra. The inscriptions and drawings from the cave Hoq. Bremen: Dr. Ute Hempen Verlag. p. 592. ISBN 978-3-934106-91-8. ^ Martin, E. G. (1974). "Mahdism and holy wars in Ethiopia before 1600". Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. 4: 114. JSTOR 41223140. ^ Missick, Stephen Andrew (12 April 2016). "Socotra: The Mysterious Island of the Assyrian Church of the East". Church of Beth Kokheh Journal. Retrieved 27 May 2019. ^ Polo, Marco (1958). The Travels of Marco Polo. Translated and introduction by Ronald Latham. Penguin Books. pp. 296–297. ISBN 978-0-14-044057-7. ^ Photo from ‘The Isle of Frankincense’ by Charles K. Moser, formerly United States Consul-General to Aden, Arabia. Page 271 in The National Geographic Magazine, January to June 1918, Vol. XXXIII, 266-278. ^ Monteiro, Alexandre (June 2012). "Uma página dos Descobrimentos: a ilha de Socotorá no século XVI". National Geographic Portugal (in Portuguese): 42–45. ^ Diffie, Bailey Wallys; Winius, George Davison (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese empire, 1415–1580. University of Minnesota Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8166-0782-2. ^ Bowersock, Glen Warren; Brown, Peter; Grabar, Oleg (1999). Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. p. 753. ISBN 978-0674511736. ^ The goal of the 4-ship expedition, which sailed from Pondicherry (French India), was to force the ruler of Mocha to stop harassing French traders and abide by the provisions of a treaty of commerce signed with France 25 years earlier. While at Socotra, the troops practised landing on beaches with their crafts. Henri Labrousse, Récits de la mer Rouge et de l'océan Indien, Economica, Paris, 1992, p.74. ^ A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sunnuds related to India and Neighbouring Countries, Calcutta, 1876, volume VII, page 191-192. ^ A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sunnuds related to India and Neighbouring Countries, Calcutta, 1909, volume VIII, page 185. ^ A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sunnuds related to India and Neighbouring Countries, Calcutta, 1909, volume VIII, page 72. ^ The Bents published their findings in a 1900 monograph, Southern Arabia. Mabel Bent, the only known woman diarist in English to have visited and left a written record of the island, chronicled their stay, cf. The Travel Chronicles of Mrs J Theodore Bent, Vol. 3, 286-308, Oxford, 2010. ^ Mirovalev, Mansur. "Russia language". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 21 May 2022. ^ "32. South Yemen (1967-1990)". uca.edu. Retrieved 21 May 2022. ^ "Soviets bolster an Arab ally. Military buildup in South Yemen worries US officials". Christian Science Monitor. 11 March 1988. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 21 May 2022. ^ Yemen: Cyclones Chapala and Megh Flash Update 11 (PDF) (Report). United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 19 November 2015. ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 February 2016. ^ "Khalifa Foundation sends aid to Socotra Archipelago". ReliefWeb. Emirates News Agency. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016. ^ a b c "Socotra: How a strategic island became part of a Gulf power struggle". The Jerusalem Post. 6 May 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018. ^ "UAE offers a helping hand to the island of Socotra". The National. Retrieved 8 May 2018. ^ Forster, Robert (2017), The Southern Transitional Council: Implications for Yemen's Peace Process, Middle East Policy 24.3, pp. 133–144 ^ "the Southern Transitional Council's branch in Socotra declared their support for the STC in Aden on January 29th, 2018, according to a Southern Transitional Council statement". Stcaden.com. Retrieved 7 May 2018. ^ "Yemen officials say Emiratis boost forces on Socotra island". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. ^ "Yemen PM: Crisis over UAE deployment to Socotra over". Al Jazeera. ^ "Yemen, UAE Agree on Deal Over Socotra". Albawaba News. ^ Aziz El Yaakoubi (9 May 2019). "Yemen government accuses UAE of landing separatists on remote island". Reuters. ^ "Second army regiment rebels against Yemen government in Socotra". Middle East Monitor. 28 February 2020. ^ Mukhashaf, Mohammed; El Yaakoubi, Aziz (21 June 2020). Kasolowsky, Raissa (ed.). "Yemen separatists seize remote Socotra island from Saudi-backed government". Reuters. On Saturday, the STC announced it had seized government facilities and military bases on the main island of Socotra, a sparsely populated archipelago which sits at the mouth of the Gulf of Aden on one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. ^ "UAE sends military officials to Yemeni island: Adviser". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
Photographies by:
Andrey Kotov200514 - CC BY-SA 4.0
Statistics: Position (field_position)
1437
Statistics: Rank (field_order)
1008

Add new comment

Esta pregunta es para comprobar si usted es un visitante humano y prevenir envíos de spam automatizado.

Security
478129536Click/tap this sequence: 4355

Google street view