تريم

( Tarim, Yemen )

Tarim (Arabic: تَرِيْم, romanized: Tarīm) is a historic town situated in Wadi Hadhramaut (Arabic: وادي حضرموت, lit. 'Valley of Hadhramaut'), Yemen. It is widely acknowledged as the theological, juridical, and academic center of the Hadhramaut Valley. An important center of Islamic learning, it is estimated to contain the highest concentration of descendants of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad known as the Sadah (Arabic: سادة, romanized: sādah) anywhere in the world. The city is distinguished for producing numerous Islamic scholars, including Imam al-Haddad. Additionally, Tarim is also home to Dar al-Mustafa, a well-known educational institution for the study o...Read more

Tarim (Arabic: تَرِيْم, romanized: Tarīm) is a historic town situated in Wadi Hadhramaut (Arabic: وادي حضرموت, lit. 'Valley of Hadhramaut'), Yemen. It is widely acknowledged as the theological, juridical, and academic center of the Hadhramaut Valley. An important center of Islamic learning, it is estimated to contain the highest concentration of descendants of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad known as the Sadah (Arabic: سادة, romanized: sādah) anywhere in the world. The city is distinguished for producing numerous Islamic scholars, including Imam al-Haddad. Additionally, Tarim is also home to Dar al-Mustafa, a well-known educational institution for the study of traditional Islamic Sciences.

Pre-7th century  An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at Shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut

Wadi Hadhramaut and its tributaries have been inhabited since the Stone Age. Small mounds of flint chippings – debris from the manufacture of stone tools and weapons – and windblown dust can be found close to canyon walls. Further north and east are lines of Thamudic ‘triliths’ with a few surviving crude inscriptions. On the fringes of the Rub' al Khali north of Mahra, a seemingly ancient track leads – according to local legend – to the lost city of Ubar.[1]

Hadhramaut's early economic importance stemmed from its part in the incense trade. Authorities exploited their position on the overland route from Dhufar through Mahra, Hadhramaut and Shabwa to the Hejaz and Eastern Mediterranean to tax caravans in return for protection. Shabwa was Hadhramaut's capital for most of the Himyaritic period. The kingdom of Saba' had its capital at Marib. The Himyaritic civilization flourished from c. 800 BC to 400 CE, when the incense trade was diverted to the newly opened sea route via Aden and the Red Sea.[1] Early in the 6th century, Abyssinians invaded Yemen, encouraged by Byzantines to protect Yemenite Christians from Dhu Nuwas, the anti-Christian ruler of Najran[2] who converted to Judaism. The Yemenites opposed Ethiopian rule and sought the Sassanid Persians for assistance. The result was that the Persians took over about 570 CE. The Persians appear to have been in Hadhramaut, but the only clear evidence of their presence is at Husn al-Urr, a fort between Tarim and Qabr Hud.

7th–8th centuries

In 625, Badhan, the Persian Governor of Sanaa accepted Islam and the rest of the country soon followed. Arab historians agree that Tarim was established in the fourth century of Hijra. The citizens of Tarim converted to Islam in the early days of Islam when the delegation of Hadhramaut met the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in Medina in the tenth year of Hijra (631). Tarim is often referred to as Al-Siddiqi City, in honor of Abu-Bakr al-Siddiq, the first caliph of Sunni Islam (r. 632–634). Abu Bakr prayed that Allah would increase Tarim's scholars and water, as its citizens stood with him during the Ridda wars after the Prophet's death (632–633). A battle occurred in Al-Nujir Fortress. in which many of the Prophet's companions (Sahabah) were injured and taken to Tarim for treatment. Some companions however died, and were buried in the cemetery of Zambal.[3]

As part of the Great Arab Expansion, Hadhramis formed a major part of the Arab armies that conquered North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. In the mid-8th century, a preacher from Basra called "Abdullah bin Yahya" arrived in Hadhramaut and established the Ibadhi rite of Islam. By the 10th century conflict had erupted between the Hashid and Bakil, the two dominant tribes in the Northern Highlands. Sheikh al-Hadi Yahya bin al-Hussain bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi (a sayyid) was called from Medina to settle this affair at Sa'da in 893–897. He founded the Zaidi Imamate which reigned until Imam Al-Badr was deposed in 1962.[4] In 951 CE, Imam Aḥmad bin `Isā Al-Muhājir arrived from Iraq with a large number of followers, and established the Shafi`i madhab of Sunni Islam (according to majority of historians),[5] which remains dominant in the region. A Rabat, or University, was first established in Zabid, in the Tihama, and, later, in Tarim. The latter still functions.

15th century

In 1488, the Kathiris, led by Badr Abu Towairaq, invaded Hadhramaut from the High Yemen and established their dola, first in Tarim and then in Seiyun. The Kathiris employed mercenaries, mainly Yafa'is from the mountains north-east of Aden. About a hundred years after arriving their momentum was lost. The Yafa'is usurped western Hadhramaut and created a separate dola, based at Al-Qatn.[citation needed]

British and the Qu'aiti Dynasty: 1882–1967  Tarim in 1929

In 1809, disaster struck Hadhramaut following a Wahhabi invasion. Valuable books and documents from the Robat at Tarim were destroyed by fire or by dumping in wells. While the Wahhabi occupation was short-lived, it ravaged the economy. As a result, emigration increased, the top destination being Hyderabad (India), where the Nizam employed a considerable army. Here, a Yemeni soldier named Umar bin Awadh al Qu'aiti rose to the rank of Jemadar and amassed a fortune. Umar's influence enabled him to create the Quaiti dynasty in the late 19th century. Having secured all valuable land excluding the areas around Saiyun and Tarim, the Qu'aitis signed a treaty with the British in 1888, and created a unified sultanate in 1902 that became part of the Aden Protectorate.[citation needed]

Ingrams' Peace

Despite establishing a regionally advanced administration, by the 1930s the Qu'aiti Sultan Saleh bin Ghalib (r. 1936–1956) was facing stiff pressure to modernize – a task for which he seriously lacked resources. These demands were largely initiated by returning Yemeni emigrants, such as the Kaf Sayyids of Tarim. The family of Al-Kaf had made fortunes in Singapore, and wished to spend some of their wealth improving living conditions at home. Led by Sayyid Abu Bakr al-Kaf bin Sheikh, they built a motor road from Tarim to Shihr – hoping to use it to import goods into Hadhramaut, but were frustrated by opposition from the camel-owning tribes who had a transport monopoly between the coast and interior.[6]

In February 1937, a peace between the Qu'aiti and Kathiri sultanates, totally unprecedented in the history of that region, was brought about essentially by the efforts of two men: Sayyid Abu Bakr al-Kaf and Harold Ingrams, the first political officer in Hadhramaut. Sayyid Abu Bakr used his personal wealth to finance this peace, which was known universally thereafter as "Ingrams Peace." This brought some stability, permitting introduction of administrative, educational and development measures.[7] Tarim remained under Kathiri rule. However, Tarim, alongside the neighboring settlement of Al Ghuraf, were pockets of Kathiri territory in the country of the Tamim. The Tamim, a subset of the larger Bani Dhanna tribe,[8] occupied the land in between Tarim and Seiyoun and owed political allegiance to the Qu'aiti Sultanate.[9]

Modern era: 1967 to present

In November 1967, the British withdrew from South Yemen in the face of mass riots and an increasingly deadly insurgency. Their arch-enemies, the National Liberation Front, which was dominated by Marxists, seized power, and Tarim, with the rest of South Yemen, came under communist rule. The Aden Protectorate became an independent Communist state, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY). Hadhramaut, despite being part of the communist-aligned PDRY continued to live to a great extent on remittances from abroad. In 1990, South and North Yemen were unified.[10] The town has remained unaffected during the Yemeni Civil War.[11]

^ a b Ellis, Jim (1997) ^ Haas, Christopher (13 March 2014). "Geopolitics and Georgian Identity in Late Antiquity: The Dangerous World of Vakhtang Gorgasali". In Tamar Nutsubidze; Cornelia B. Horn; Basil Lourié (eds.). Georgian Christian Thought and Its Cultural Context. Brill. pp. 29–44, 36–39. ISBN 9789004264274. ^ Ba Udhan, H. (June 2005). "Tarim at a Glance". Yemen Times. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. ^ Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi (2005). A short History of the Yemenite Shiites. ^ Ubaidillah al-Saqqaf, Abdurrahman bin. Nasim Hajir fī Ta'kid Qawli 'an Madhhab al-Imam al-Muhājir (in Arabic). ^ W. Clarence-Smith. Middle Eastern Entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia (PDF). The University of London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2008. ^ Smith, R. (2002). Ingrams Peace (1937–1940). Hadramawt: Some Contemporary Documents of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. ^ Ho, Engseng (2010). The graves of Tarim: genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. The California world history library (Nachdr. ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: Univ. of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24454-2. ^ Ingrams, W. H. (October 1938). "The Hadhramaut: Present and Future". The Geographical Journal. 92 (4): 289–311. doi:10.2307/1787216. JSTOR 1787216. ^ Cite error: The named reference No Room at the Inn was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Yemen conflict controls". Al Jazeera. August 2016.
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