Cartagena de Indias

( Cartagena, Colombia )
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Cartagena ( KAR-tə-HAY-nə), known since the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Spanish: [kaɾtaˈxena ðe ˈindjas] (listen)), is a city and one of the major ports on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region, bordering the Caribbean sea. Cartagena's past role as a link in the route to West Indies provides it with important historical value for world exploration and preservation of heritage from the great commercial maritime routes. As a former Spanish colony, it was a key port for the export of Bolivian silver to Spain and for the import of enslaved Africans under the asiento system. It was defensible against pirate attacks in the Caribbean. The city's strategic locati...Read more

Cartagena ( KAR-tə-HAY-nə), known since the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Spanish: [kaɾtaˈxena ðe ˈindjas] (listen)), is a city and one of the major ports on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region, bordering the Caribbean sea. Cartagena's past role as a link in the route to West Indies provides it with important historical value for world exploration and preservation of heritage from the great commercial maritime routes. As a former Spanish colony, it was a key port for the export of Bolivian silver to Spain and for the import of enslaved Africans under the asiento system. It was defensible against pirate attacks in the Caribbean. The city's strategic location between the Magdalena and Sinú Rivers also gave it easy access to the interior of New Granada and made it a main port for trade between Spain and its overseas empire, establishing its importance by the early 1540s.

Modern Cartagena is the capital of the Bolívar Department, and had a population of 876,885 according to the 2018 census, making it the second-largest city in the Caribbean region, after Barranquilla, and the fifth-largest city in Colombia. The metropolitan area of Cartagena is the sixth-largest urban area in the country, after metropolitan area of Bucaramanga. Economic activities include the maritime and petrochemical industries, as well as tourism.

The present city—named after Cartagena, Spain—was founded on 1 June 1533; but settlement by various indigenous people in the region around Cartagena Bay dates from 4000 BC. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena had a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire. It was a center of political, ecclesiastical, and economic activity. In 1984, Cartagena's colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

It was also the site of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias in 1741 during the War of Jenkins' Ear between Spain and Britain.

 
According to descriptions that survive, the homes of the prehistoric inhabitants of the city may have looked very similar to these Taíno culture huts in Baconao
Pre-Columbian era: 4000 BC – AD 1500

The Puerto Hormiga Culture, founded in the Caribbean coast region, particularly in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the Cartagena Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now Colombia. Archeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the current departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, dating from around 4000 BC. The primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mild climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life.[1][2][3]

Archeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to be around 3000 BC. The rise of a much more developed culture, the Monsú, who lived at the end of the Dique Canal near today's Cartagena neighborhoods Pasacaballos and Ciénaga Honda at the northernmost part of Barú Island, has been hypothesized. The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga culture's use of the art of pottery and also to have developed a mixed economy of agriculture and basic manufacture. The Monsú people's diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh and salt-water fish.[4]

The development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area. Until the Spanish colonization, many cultures derived from the Karib, Malibu and Arawak language families lived along the Colombian Caribbean coast. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, whose language was closely related to the Chibcha language family.[5][6]

Around AD 1500, the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family.

Mocana villages of the Carib people around the Bay of Cartagena included:[7]

on sandy island facing the ocean in what is present-day downtown: Kalamarí (Calamari) on the island of Tierrabomba: Carex on Isla Barú, then a peninsula: Bahaire on present-day Mamonal, the eastern coast of the exterior bay: Cospique in the suburban area of Turbaco: Yurbaco Tribe

Heredia found these settlements "...largely surrounded with the heads of dead men placed on stakes."[8]: 481 

Some subsidiary tribes of the Kalamari lived in today's neighborhood of Pie de la Popa, and other subsidiaries from the Cospique lived in the Membrillal and Pasacaballos areas. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence. These tribes, though physically and administratively separated, shared a common architecture, such as hut structures consisting of circular rooms with tall roofs, which were surrounded by defensive wooden palisades.[9]

First sightings by Europeans: 1500–1533
 
Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city and explorer of its hinterland

Rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500–01. On 14 February 1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosa's voyage to Uraba. However, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510 along with 300 of Alonso de Ojeda's men, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, and before Juan de la Cosa could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area. Similar contracts were signed in 1508 with Diego de Nicuesa for the settlement of Veragua and with Alonso de Ojeda for the settlement of Uraba, "where gold had already been obtained on earlier voyages," according to Floyd.[10][8]

After the failed effort to find Antigua del Darién in 1506 by Alonso de Ojeda and the subsequent unsuccessful founding of San Sebastián de Urabá in 1517 by Diego de Nicuesa, the southern Caribbean coast became unattractive to colonizers. They preferred the better known Hispaniola and Cuba.[11]

Although the royal control point for trade, the Casa de Contratación gave permission to Rodrigo de Bastidas (1460–1527) to again conduct an expedition as adelantado to this area, Bastidas explored the coast and sighted the Magdalena River Delta in his first journey from Guajira to the south in 1527, a trip that ended in the Gulf of Urabá, the location of the failed first settlements. De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate.[12][13][14][15]

Colonial era: 1533–1717
 
Map of the city recently established and without walls (c.1550)
 
Cartagena de Indias painted in 1671 by Arnoldus Montanus[16]
 
The historic center is surrounded by 11 kilometers of defensive walls. These were complemented by fortifications along the coast, making Cartagena a militarily impregnable city. The walls, made in several stages, were designed to protect the city from continual pirate attacks, was built between 1614 and 1796.
 
The Convento de Santo Domingo, built between 1565 and 1630, is the oldest church of Cartagena de Indias.
 
Iglesia de San Pedro Claver built between 1580 and 1654. The body of Saint Peter Claver is located in its main altar.

Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia entered the Bay of Cartagena with three ships, a lighter, 150 men, and 22 horses, on 14 January 1533. He soon found the village of Calamari abandoned. Proceeding onwards to Turbaco, where Juan de la Cosa had been mortally wounded 13 years earlier, Heredia fought an all-day battle before claiming victory. Using India Catalina as a guide, Heredia embarked on a three-month exploration expedition. He returned to Calamari in April 1533 with gold pieces, including a solid gold porcupine weighing 132 pounds. In later expeditions, Heredia raided the Sinú tombs and temples of gold. His rule as governor of Cartagena lasted 22 years, before perishing on his return to Spain in 1544.[7]: 14–17 [8]: 479–85 

Cartagena was founded on 1 June 1533 by the Spanish commander, Pedro de Heredia, in the former location of the indigenous Caribbean Calamarí village. The town was named after the port city of Cartagena, in Murcia in southeast Spain, where most of Heredia's sailors had resided.[17] King Philip II gave Cartagena the title of "city" (ciudad) in 1574, adding "most noble and loyal" in 1575.[7]: 23 

The city's increasing importance as a port for the export of Bolivian silver from Potosí to Spain, made it an obvious target for pirates and corsairs, encouraged by France, England, and Holland. In 1544, the city was pillaged by 5 ships and 1,000 men under the command of the French pirate Jean-François Roberval, who took advantage of the city still without walls. Heredia was forced to retreat to Turbaco until a ransom was paid. A defensive tower, San Felipe del Boqueron, was built in 1566 by Governor Anton Davalos. It was supposed to protect the anchorage and the Bahia de las Animas, a water lane into Plaza de lar Mar (current day Plaze de la Aduana), but the fort's battery had limited range. Then the French pirate Martin Cote struck in 1569 with 1,000 men, ransacking the city.[7]: 23–24 [18]: 97–98 

A few months after the disaster of the invasion of Cote, a fire destroyed the city and forced the creation of a firefighting squad, the first in the Americas.[19][full citation needed]

In 1568, Sir John Hawkins tried to persuade Governor Martín de las Alas to open a trade fair in the city which would allow his men to sell foreign goods. This was a violation of Spanish law, which forbade trade with foreigners. Many in the settlement suspected this would have allowed Hawkins to sack the port afterwards; and as such the governor declined. Hawkins bombarded the city for 8 days, but failed to make any significant impacts and withdrew.[20][21] Then Francis Drake attacked in April 1586 with 23 ships and 3,000 men. Drake burned 200 houses and the cathedral, departing only after a ransom was paid a month later.[7]: 24 [22][23]

Spain then commissioned Bautista Antonelli in 1586 to design a master scheme for defending its Caribbean ports. This included a second visit to Cartagena in 1594 when he drew up plans for a walled city.[18]

In 1610, the Holy Office of the Inquisition was established in Cartagena and The Palace of Inquisition was completed in 1770. Sentences were pronounced in the main city plaza, today's Plaza de Bolivar, during the Autos de Fe ceremonies. Crimes under its jurisdiction included those of heresy, blasphemy, bigamy and witchcraft. A total of 767 people were punished, which ranged from fines, wearing a Sanbenito, life imprisonment, or even death for five unlucky souls. The Inquisition was abolished with independence in 1811.[7]: 28 

 
An illustration of the Raid on Cartegena in 1697 by French privateers. The raid was led by Bernard Desjean, Baron de Pointis, who made off with roughly 2,000,000 livres in loot. The burning settlement is seen in the background (1698, Pierre Landry).

The first slaves were brought by Pedro de Heredia to work as "macheteros", clearing the underbrush. By the 17th century, Cartagena had become an important slave market in the New World, centered around the Plaza de los Coches. European slave traders began to bring enslaved peoples from Africa during this period. Spain was the only European power that did not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves and therefore the Spanish Empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants from other European nations the license to trade enslaved people to their overseas territories.[24][25][26][7]: 30 [18]: 135 

Gov. Francisco de Murga made the Inner Bay an "impregnable lagoon", according to Segovia, which included the forts El Boquerón, Castillo Grande, Manzanillo, and Manga. Besides the walls built to defend the historic district of Calamari, Francisco de Murga enclosed Getsemani with protective walls starting in 1631. This included the battery of Media Luna of San Antonio, located between the bastions of Santa Teresa and Santa Barbara, which protected the only gate and causeway to the mainland.[18]: 98, 130 

The practice of Situado is exemplified in the magnitude of the city's subsidy between 1751 and 1810, when the city received the sum of 20,912,677 Spanish reales.[22][23][page needed]

 
The policies of the Bourbon Dynasty in Spain, such as those of Philip V, stimulated the economic growth and consolidation of the Spanish America.
 
Juan Díaz de Torrezar Pimienta as governor was the mastermind of the reconstruction of the city after the destruction of 1697.

The Raid on Cartagena, in April 1697 during the Nine Years' War, by Sir Bernard Desjean, Baron de Pointis and Jean Baptiste Ducasse was a severe blow to Cartagena. The Baron's forces included 22 large ships, 500 cannon, and 4,000 troops, while Ducasse's forces consisted of 7 ships and 1,200 buccaneers. They quickly overwhelmed Sancho Jimeno de Orozco's force of 30 men in the San Luis de Bocachica fortification. Then, San Felipe de Barajas also fell and the city came under bombardment. When the Half Moon Gate was breached and Getsemani island occupied, Governor Diego de los Rios capitulated. The Baron left after a month of plunder (roughly 2 million livres) and Ducasse followed a week later.[7]: 31–32 

When King Philip II employed the Italian engineer Juan Bautista Antonelli to design a master plan of fortifications for Cartagena, construction would actually continue for the next two hundred years. On 17 March 1640, three Portuguese ships under the command of Rodrigo Lobo da Silva, ran aground in the Bocagrande Channel. This accelerated the formation of a sand bar, which soon connected the Bocagrande Peninsula to the island of Tierrabomba. The defense of the bay then shifted to two forts on either side of Bocachica, San Jose and San Luis de Bocachica. San Luis was replaced by San Fernando after the 1741 English raid. The next narrow passage was formed by the Island of Manzanillo, where San Juan del Manzanillo was constructed and Santa Cruz O Castillo Grande opposite on Cruz Grande at Punta Judio, both connected by a floating chain. Finally, there was San Felipe del Boquerón, later San Sebastián del Pastelillo. The city itself was circled with a ring of bastions connected by curtains. The island of Getsemani was also fortified. Protecting the city on the landward side, atop San Lázaro hill, was the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas[27] named in honor of Spain's King Philip IV and Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza, Marquis of Barajas' father, the Count of Barajas. Completed in 1654, the fort was expanded in the 18th century, and included underground corridors and galleries.[7]: 25–26 [28][18]: 76 [18]: 69–72 

 
The final serious attempt to take the city and invade New Granada was made by Edward Vernon, who failed in one of the biggest military expeditions ever sent there.
 
Blas de Lezo, the one-eyed, one-legged, one-handed Spanish mariner, was one of those who defended the city in 1741.
Viceregal era: 1717–1811

The 18th century began poorly for the city economically, as the Bourbon dynasty discontinued the Carrera de Indias convoys. However, with the establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and the constant Anglo-Spanish conflicts, Cartagena took on the stronghold as the "gateway to the Indies of Peru". By 1777, the city included 13,700 inhabitants with a garrison of 1300. The population reached 17,600 in 1809.[18]: 31–33, 36 

In 1731, Juan de Herrera y Sotomayor founded the Military Academy of Mathematics and Practice of Fortifications in Cartagena. He is also known for designing the Puerta del Reloj starting in 1704.[18]: 43, 138–39 

1741 attack
 
Siege of Cartagena de Indias of 1741, where Spanish Empire forces of 2,800 men, commanded by Blas de Lezo, defeated the British fleet and armies of 23,600 soldiers under Admiral Edward Vernon. The failed siege was decisive for the victory of the War of Jenkins' Ear, and allowed the Spanish Crown to maintain economic dominance in the Caribbean until the Seven Years' War.[29]

Starting in mid-April 1741, the city endured a siege by a large British armada under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon. The engagement, known as Battle of Cartagena de Indias, was part of the larger War of Jenkins' Ear. The British armada included 50 warships, 130 transport ships, and 25,600 men, including 2,000 North American colonial infantry. The Spanish defense was under the command of Sebastián de Eslava and Don Blas de Lezo. The British were able to take the Castillo de San Luis at Bocachica and land marines on the island of Tierrabomba and Manzanillo. The North Americans then took La Popa hill.[7]: 33–35 

Following a failed attack on San Felipe Barajas on 20 April 1741, which left 800 British dead and another 1,000 taken prisoner, Vernon lifted the siege. By that time he had many sick men from tropical diseases. An interesting footnote to the battle was the inclusion of George Washington's half brother, Lawrence Washington, among the North American colonial troops. Lawrence later named his Mount Vernon estate in honor of his commander.[7]: 35–36 

Silver Age (1750–1808)
 
Mestiza of Cartagena de Indias by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1799
 
Criollo of Cartagena de Indias by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1796

In 1762, Antonio de Arebalo published his Defense Plan, the Report on the estate of defense on the avenues of Cartagena de Indias. This engineer continued the work to make Cartagena impregnable, including the construction from 1771 to 1778, of a 3400 yards long underwater jetty across the Bocagrande called the Escollera. Arebalo had earlier completed San Fernando, and the fort-battery of San Jose in 1759, then added El Angel San Rafael on El Horno hill as added protection across the Bocachica.[18]: 55, 81–94 

Among the censuses of the 18th century was the special census of 1778, imposed by the governor of the time, D. Juan de Torrezar Diaz Pimienta – later Viceroy of New Granada – by order of the Marquis of Ensenada, Minister of Finance – so that he would be provided numbers for his Catastro tax project, which imposed a universal property tax he believed would contribute to the economy while at the same time increasing royal revenues dramatically. The census of 1778, besides having significance for economic history, required each house to be described in detail and its occupants enumerated, making the census an important tool[30] The census revealed what Ensenada had hoped. However, his enemies in the court convinced King Charles III to oppose the tax plan.

1811 to the 21st century
 
Puerta del Reloj in 1917.[31]
 
Baroque colonial houses in a street of Cartagena, photo taken in 1871[32]

For more than 275 years, Cartagena was under Spanish rule. With Napoleon's imprisonment of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, and the start of the Peninsular War, the Latin American wars of independence soon followed. In Cartagena, on 4 June 1810, Royal Commissioner Antonio Villavicencio and the Cartagena City Council banished the Spanish Governor Francisco de Montes on suspicions of sympathy for the French emperor and the French occupation forces which overthrew the king. A Supreme Junta was formed, along with two political parties, one led by Jose Maria Garcia de Toledo representing the aristocrats, and a second led by Gabriel and German Piñeres representing the common people of Getsemani. Finally, on 11 November, a Declaration of Independence was signed proclaiming "a free state, sovereign and independent of all domination and servitude to any power on Earth".[7]: 49–51  The support for a declaration of independence by working class leader and artisan Pedro Romero was key in pushing the Junta to adopting it.[33]

Spain's reaction was to send a "pacifying expedition" under the command of Pablo Morillo, The Pacifier, and Pascual de Enrile, which included 59 ships, and 10,612 men. The city was placed under siege on 22 August 1815. The city was defended by 3000 men, 360 cannons, and 8 ships plus ancillary small watercraft, under the command of Manuel del Castillo y Rada and Juan N. Enslava. However, by that time, the city was under the rule of the Garcia de Toledo Party, having exiled German and Gabriel Piñeres, and Simon Bolivar. By 5 December, about 300 people per day died from hunger or disease, forcing 2000 to flee on vessels provided by the French mercenary Louis Aury. By that time, 6000 had died. Morillo, in retaliation after entering the city, shot nine of the rebel leaders on 24 February 1816, at what is now known as the Camellon de los Martires. These included José María García de Toledo and Manuel del Castillo y Rada.[7]: 55–60 

Finally, a patriot army led by General Mariano Montilla, supported by Admiral José Prudencio Padilla, laid siege to the city from August 1820 until October 1821. A key engagement was the destruction of almost all of the royalist ships anchored on Getsemani Island on 24 June 1821. After Governor Gabriel Torres surrendered, Simon Bolivar the Liberator, bestowed the title "Heroic City" onto Cartagena. The Liberator spent 18 days in the city from 20 to 28 July 1827, staying in the Government Palace in Proclamation Square and the guest of a banquet hosted by Jose Padilla at his residence on Calle Larga.[7]: 60, 67 

Unfortunately, the toll of war, in particular from Morillo's siege long affected the city. With the loss of the funds it had received as the main colonial military outpost, and the loss of population, the city deteriorated. It suffered a long decline in the aftermath of independence, and was largely neglected by the central government in Bogotá. In fact, its population did not reach pre-1811 numbers until the start of the 20th century.[34]

These declines were also due to disease, including a devastating cholera epidemic in 1849. The Canal del Dique that connected it to the Magdalena River also filled with silt, leading to a drastic reduction in the amount of international trade. The rise of the port of Barranquilla only compounded the decline in trade. During the presidency of Rafael Nuñez, who was a Cartagena native, the central government finally invested in a railroad and other infrastructure improvements and modernization that helped the city to recover.[35]

Cartagena is the capital of the Bolívar department.[36]

^ "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango". Lablaa.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2013. ^ "Colombia Pais Maravilloso". Pwp.supercabletv.net.co. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ "Universidad del Norte". Uninorte.edu.co. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango". Lablaa.org. 4 June 2005. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ "X Cátedra de Historia Ernesto Restrepo Tirado – El Caribe en la Nación Colombiana" Guerra, Langbaek et al. Ed. Aguilar, Bogotá, 2007. ISBN 958-8250-31-5. ^ Allaire, Louis (1997). "The Caribs of the Lesser Antilles". In Samuel M. Wilson, The Indigenous People of the Caribbean, pp. 180–85. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1531-6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lemaitre, Eduardo (1994). A Brief History of Cartagena. Medellin: Compania Litografica Nacional S.A. p. 13. ISBN 9789586380928. ^ a b c Parry, John; Keith, Robert (1984). New Iberian World: A Documentary History of the Discovery and Settlement of Latin America to the Early 17th Century, Vol. II. New York: Times Books. p. 454. ISBN 9780812910704. ^ Lemaitre, Eduardo; Historia Extensa de Cartagena de Indias, Ed. Aguilar 1976. Edited before the ISBN system was enforced in Colombia, no reedition. ^ Floyd, Troy (1973). The Columbus Dynasty in the Caribbean, 1492–1526. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 49, 89, 95, 135. ^ "Diego de Nicuesa". Bruceruiz.net. 22 April 2002. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ Related Articles. "Rodrigo de Bastidas (Colombian explorer) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ "Rodrigo de Bastidas". Bruceruiz.net. 3 July 2002. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ Lemaitre, Eduardo; Historia Extensa de Cartagena de Indias, Ed. Aguilar 1976. ^ Corrales, Manuel Ezequiel; Documentos para la historia de la Provincia de Cartagena, Tomo II, Imp. M. Rivas, Cartagena de Indias, 1883. ^ "The Atlantic World: America and the Netherlands (Cartagena)". Library of Congress. ^ "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango". Lablaa.org. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ a b c d e f g h i Segovia, Rodolfo (2009). The Fortifications of Cartagena de Indias. Bogota: el Ancora Editores. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9789583601347. ^ De Castellanos, Juan; Historia de Cartagena, Bogotá: Biblioteca de Cultura Popular de Colombia, 1942.[page needed] ^ "Historia general y natural de las Indias, islas y tierra-firme del mar océano. Primera parte – Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes". Cervantesvirtual.com. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ "Sir John Hawkins". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ a b Meisel Roca, Adolfo (April 2002). "Crecimiento a Traves de los Subsidios – Cartagena de Indias y El Situado, 1751-1810" [Growth Through Subsidies – Cartagena de Indias and Surrounding Area, 1751-1810] (PDF). Cuadernos de Historia Económica y Empresarial [Journal of History, Economics, and Business] (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2022. ^ a b "The Caribbean Raid 1585-1586: Sir Francis Drake: A Pictorial Biography by Hans P. Kraus (Rare Book and Special Collections Reading Room, Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2021. ^ Génesis y desarrollo de la esclavitud en Colombia siglos XVI y XVII (in Spanish). Universidad del Valle. 2005. ISBN 9789586703383. ^ Alvaro Gärtner (2005). Los místeres de las minas: crónica de la colonia europea más grande de Colombia en el siglo XIX, surgida alrededor de las minas de Marmato, Supía y Riosucio. Universidad de Caldas. ISBN 9789588231426. ^ "La esclavitud negra en la América española" (in Spanish). gabrielbernat.es. 2003. ^ "Castillo San Felipe de Barajas". Incartagenaguide.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016. ^ "Pirate Encyclopedia: Port of Cartagena". Ageofpirates.com. Retrieved 24 June 2010. ^ Álvarez, Jesús (23 October 2014). "El hombre que causó la mayor derrota sufrida jamás por la Armada inglesa" ["The man who caused the greatest defeat ever suffered by the English Navy]. ABC de Sevilla (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020. ^ This is used today by restoration architects in Cartagena's city center. The original census is preserved in the Museum of History of the city while a copy rests in the Archivo de Indias in Seville ^ FERNANDO CARREÑO ARRÁZOLA (25 June 2017). "Retratos de la nostalgia". El Universal (Cartagena). ^ "Street in Cartagena 1850-1930". New York Public Library. ^ "Biography of Pedro Romero – Black, Working Class Hero of Cartagena's Independence". Cartagena Explorer. 25 October 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019. ^ "Consequences of Cartagena's Independence". Cartagena Explorer. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019. ^ "History of Cartagena – A Comprehensive Guide to the History of Cartagena, Colombia". Cartagena Explorer. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019. ^ "Cartagena | Colombia". Encyclopedia Britannica.
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