Sagrada Família

Sagrada Família

The Basílica de la Sagrada Família (Catalan: [bəˈzilikə ðə lə səˈɣɾaðə fəˈmiljə]; Spanish: Basílica de la Sagrada Familia; 'Basilica of the Holy Family'), also known as the Sagrada Família, is a large unfinished Roman Catholic minor basilica in the Eixample district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Designed by the Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926), his work on the building is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. On 7 November 2010, Pope Benedict XVI consecrated the church and proclaimed it a minor basilica.

On 19 March 1882, construction of the Sagrada Família began under architect Francisco de Paula del Villar. In 1883, when Villar resigned, Gaudí took over as chief architect, transforming the project with his architectural and engineering style, combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms. Gaudí devoted ...Read more

The Basílica de la Sagrada Família (Catalan: [bəˈzilikə ðə lə səˈɣɾaðə fəˈmiljə]; Spanish: Basílica de la Sagrada Familia; 'Basilica of the Holy Family'), also known as the Sagrada Família, is a large unfinished Roman Catholic minor basilica in the Eixample district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Designed by the Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926), his work on the building is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. On 7 November 2010, Pope Benedict XVI consecrated the church and proclaimed it a minor basilica.

On 19 March 1882, construction of the Sagrada Família began under architect Francisco de Paula del Villar. In 1883, when Villar resigned, Gaudí took over as chief architect, transforming the project with his architectural and engineering style, combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms. Gaudí devoted the remainder of his life to the project, and he is buried in the crypt. At the time of his death in 1926, less than a quarter of the project was complete.

Relying solely on private donations, the Sagrada Família's construction progressed slowly and was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War. In July 1936, revolutionaries set fire to the crypt and broke their way into the workshop, partially destroying Gaudí's original plans, drawings and plaster models, which led to 16 years of work to piece together the fragments of the master model. Construction resumed to intermittent progress in the 1950s. Advancements in technologies such as computer aided design and computerised numerical control (CNC) have since enabled faster progress and construction passed the midpoint in 2010. However, some of the project's greatest challenges remain, including the construction of ten more spires, each symbolising an important Biblical figure in the New Testament. It was anticipated that the building would be completed by 2026, the centenary of Gaudí's death but this has now been delayed due to the Coronavirus pandemic.

The basilica has a long history of splitting opinion among the residents of Barcelona: over the initial possibility it might compete with Barcelona's cathedral, over Gaudí's design itself, over the possibility that work after Gaudí's death disregarded his design, and the 2007 proposal to build a tunnel nearby as part of Spain's high-speed rail link to France, possibly disturbing its stability. Describing the Sagrada Família, art critic Rainer Zerbst said "it is probably impossible to find a church building anything like it in the entire history of art", and Paul Goldberger describes it as "the most extraordinary personal interpretation of Gothic architecture since the Middle Ages". The basilica is not the cathedral church of the Archdiocese of Barcelona, as that title belongs to the Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia.

History Background
Model of the complete design

The Basílica de la Sagrada Família was the inspiration of a bookseller, Josep Maria Bocabella, founder of Asociación Espiritual de Devotos de San José (Spiritual Association of Devotees of St. Joseph).[1]

After a visit to the Vatican in 1872, Bocabella returned from Italy with the intention of building a church inspired by the basilica at Loreto.[1] The apse crypt of the church, funded by donations, was begun 19 March 1882, on the festival of St. Joseph, to the design of the architect Francisco de Paula del Villar, whose plan was for a Gothic revival church of a standard form.[1] The apse crypt was completed before Villar's resignation on 18 March 1883, when Antoni Gaudí assumed responsibility for its design, which he changed radically.[1] Gaudi began work on the church in 1883 but was not appointed Architect Director until 1884.

Construction
New stonework at the Sagrada Família (left) is visible against the stained and weathered older sections (right).

On the subject of the extremely long construction period, Gaudí is said to have remarked: "My client is not in a hurry."[2] When Gaudí died in 1926, the basilica was between 15 and 25 percent complete.[3][4] After Gaudí's death, work continued under the direction of Domènec Sugrañes i Gras until interrupted by the Spanish Civil War in 1936.

Parts of the unfinished basilica and Gaudí's models and workshop were destroyed during the war by Catalan anarchists.[citation needed] The present design is based on reconstructed versions of the plans that were burned in a fire as well as on modern adaptations. Since 1940, the architects Francesc Quintana, Isidre Puig Boada, Lluís Bonet i Gari and Francesc Cardoner have carried on the work. The illumination was designed by Carles Buïgas. The current director and son of Lluís Bonet, Jordi Bonet i Armengol, has been introducing computers into the design and construction process since the 1980s. Mark Burry of New Zealand serves as Executive Architect and Researcher.[5] Sculptures by J. Busquets, Etsuro Sotoo and the controversial Josep Maria Subirachs decorate the fantastical façades. Barcelona-born Jordi Fauli took over as chief architect in 2012.[6]

The central nave vaulting was completed in 2000 and the main tasks since then have been the construction of the transept vaults and apse. As of 2006[update], work concentrated on the crossing and supporting structure for the main steeple of Jesus Christ as well as the southern enclosure of the central nave, which will become the Glory façade.

The church shares its site with the Sagrada Família Schools building, a school originally designed by Gaudí in 1909 for the children of the construction workers. Relocated in 2002 from the eastern corner of the site to the southern corner, the building now houses an exhibition.[citation needed]

Historical photographs of the Sagrada Família

1905

1915

1930. Aerial photograph by Walter Mittelholzer, ETH-Bibliothek.

2019 [7]

Construction status
In this model, parts already built are shown in brown (2021).
Base of the Christ steeple under construction (2009)

Chief architect Jordi Fauli announced in October 2015 that construction is 70 percent complete and has entered its final phase of raising six immense steeples. The steeples and most of the church's structure are to be completed by 2026, the centennial of Gaudí's death; as of a 2017 estimate, decorative elements should be complete by 2030 or 2032.[8] Visitor entrance fees of €15 to €20 finance the annual construction budget of €25 million.[9]Computer-aided design technology has been used to accelerate construction of the building. Current technology allows stone to be shaped off-site by a CNC milling machine, whereas in the 20th century the stone was carved by hand.[10]

Japanese artist Etsuro Sotoo at work in the gypsum workshop

In 2008, some renowned Catalan architects advocated halting construction[11] to respect Gaudí's original designs, which, although they were not exhaustive and were partially destroyed, have been partially reconstructed in recent years.[12]

In 2018, the stone type needed for the construction was found in a quarry in Brinscall, near Chorley, England.[13]

Recent history AVE tunnel

Since 2013, AVE high-speed trains have passed near the Sagrada Família through a tunnel that runs beneath the centre of Barcelona. The tunnel's construction, which began on 26 March 2010, was controversial. The Ministry of Public Works of Spain (Ministerio de Fomento) claimed the project posed no risk to the church.[14][15] Sagrada Família engineers and architects disagreed, saying there was no guarantee that the tunnel would not affect the stability of the building. The Board of the Sagrada Família (Patronat de la Sagrada Família) and the neighborhood association AVE pel Litoral (AVE by the Coast) had led a campaign against this route for the AVE, without success.[citation needed]

In October 2010, the tunnel boring machine reached the church underground under the location of the building's principal façade.[14] Service through the tunnel was inaugurated on 8 January 2013.[16] Track in the tunnel makes use of a system by Edilon Sedra in which the rails are embedded in an elastic material to dampen vibrations.[17] No damage to the Sagrada Família has been reported to date.

Consecration

The main nave was covered and an organ installed in mid-2010, allowing the still-unfinished building to be used for religious services.[18] The church was consecrated by Pope Benedict XVI on 7 November 2010 in front of a congregation of 6,500 people.[19] A further 50,000 people followed the consecration Mass from outside the basilica, where more than 100 bishops and 300 priests were on hand to offer Holy Communion.[20]

Starting on 9 July 2017, there is an international mass celebrated at the basilica on every Sunday and holy day of obligation, at 9 a.m, open to the public (until the church is full). Occasionally, Mass is celebrated at other times, where attendance requires an invitation. When masses are scheduled, instructions to obtain an invitation are posted on the basilica's website. In addition, visitors may pray in the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament and Penitence.[21]

Fire

On 19 April 2011, an arsonist started a small fire in the sacristy which forced the evacuation of tourists and construction workers.[22] The sacristy was damaged, and the fire took 45 minutes to contain.[23]

COVID-19 pandemic

On 11 March 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, construction was stopped and the basilica was closed.[24] This is the first time the construction has been halted since the Spanish Civil War.[25] The Gaudí House Museum in Park Güell was also closed. The basilica reopened, initially to key workers, on 4 July 2020.[26]

^ a b c d "Sagrada Família". gaudiclub.com. The Gaudí & Barcelona Club. ^ Cite error: The named reference Time was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Gladstone, Valerie (22 August 2004). "ARCHITECTURE: Gaudí's Unfinished Masterpiece Is Virtually Complete". The New York Times. ^ Fitzpatrick, Lisa (28 September 2011). "The Gaudí code". Barcelona Metropolitan. Retrieved 13 February 2019. ^ "A Completion Date for Sagrada Família, Helped by Technology". ArchitectMagazine.com. Retrieved 9 November 2015. ^ Charles , Makah. Sagrada Familia . Photograph. Barcelona, June 12, 2019. ^ Cunningham, Sharon (30 October 2017). "What are the main milestones for the Sagrada Família in the future?". Blog Sagrada Família. ^ Wilson, Joseph. "Barcelona's La Sagrada Familia Basilica enters final years of construction". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 9 November 2015. ^ Daniel, Paul. "Diamond tools help shape the Sagrada Família". Industrial Diamond Review. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2010. ^ Fancelli, Agustí (4 December 2008). "¿Por qué no parar la Sagrada Familia?" [Why not stop the Sagrada Familia?] (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2010. (English tr.) ^ Burry, Mark; Gaudí, Antoni (2007). Gaudí Unseen. Berlin: Jovis Verlag. ISBN 978-3-939633-78-5. ^ Titley, Megan (2 May 2018). "Barcelona's iconic Basilica de la Sagrada Familia built with stone from Lancashire". Lancashire Post. Retrieved 2 May 2018. ^ a b Comorera, Ramon (13 October 2010). "La tuneladora del AVE perfora ya a cuatro metros de la Sagrada Família" [The tunnel boring machine of the AVE is already excavating four meters from the Sagrada Família]. El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 November 2010. ^ ADIF (Administrator of Railway Infrastructures). "Madrid – Zaragoza Barcelona – French Border Line Barcelona Sants-Sagrera – high-speed tunnel". Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010. ^ "El AVE alcanza Girona". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 8 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013. ^ Comorera, Ramon (12 March 2012). "Doble aislante de vibraciones en las obras de Gaudí" [Double Isolation of Vibrations at the Gaudí constructions]. El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 March 2012. ^ Montañés, José Ángel (13 March 2009). "La Sagrada Familia se abrirá al culto en septiembre de 2010". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 June 2009. (English tr) ^ "Pope Benedict consecrates Barcelona's Sagrada Familia". BBC News. 7 November 2010. ^ "Visita histórica del Papa a Barcelona para dedicar la Sagrada Família". La Vanguardia. 7 November 2010. ^ "Worship at the Basilica". Sagrada Família. Retrieved 5 September 2017. ^ Woolls, Daniel (19 April 2011). "Fire in Barcelona church sees tourists evacuated". The Star. Toronto. ^ "Fire by suspected arsonist at Sagrada Familia". The Telegraph. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2013. ^ "Junta agrees to stop works and visits to the Basilica". Sagrada Família. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020. ^ "Spain's La Sagrada Familia will not restart construction works until after visitors return". The Olive Press. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020. ^ "Coronavirus: Barcelona's Sagrada Familia basilica reopens to key workers". BBC. 4 July 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
Photographies by: Cmr97 - CC BY-SA 3.0 es, Bewahrerderwerte - CC BY-SA 4.0, Danny Fay - CC BY 3.0, Canaan - CC BY-SA 4.0, Mikipons - CC BY-SA 3.0 es, Cmr97 - CC BY-SA 3.0 es,