Quito

Quito (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkito] ; Quechua: Kitu), officially San Francisco de Quito, is the capital of Ecuador, with an estimated population of 2.8 million in its metropolitan area. It is also the capital of the province of Pichincha. Quito is located in a valley on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes.

Quito's elevation of 2,850 m (9,350 ft) makes it either the highest or the second highest capital city in the world. This varied standing is because Bolivia is a country with multiple capitals; if La Paz is considered the Bolivian national capital, it tops the list of highest capitals, but if Sucre is specified as the capital, then it is the second highest, behind Quito.

Quito is the political and cultural center of Ecuador as the country's major governmental, administrative, and cultural institutions are located...Read more

Quito (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkito] ; Quechua: Kitu), officially San Francisco de Quito, is the capital of Ecuador, with an estimated population of 2.8 million in its metropolitan area. It is also the capital of the province of Pichincha. Quito is located in a valley on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes.

Quito's elevation of 2,850 m (9,350 ft) makes it either the highest or the second highest capital city in the world. This varied standing is because Bolivia is a country with multiple capitals; if La Paz is considered the Bolivian national capital, it tops the list of highest capitals, but if Sucre is specified as the capital, then it is the second highest, behind Quito.

Quito is the political and cultural center of Ecuador as the country's major governmental, administrative, and cultural institutions are located within the city. The majority of transnational companies with a presence in Ecuador are headquartered there. It is also one of the country's two major industrial centers—the port city of Guayaquil being the other one.

The date of its first habitation is unknown, but archaeological evidence suggests that it was first settled by sedentary populations between 4400 and 1600 BC. In the late fifteenth century, the Inca Emperor Huayna Capac defeated the Quitu, the region's original inhabitants, and incorporated Quito into the Inca Empire, designating it into the capital of the Inca Empire's northern region. The Spanish conquest of the city in 1534 is the date most frequently cited as the city's official founding, making Quito the oldest capital in South America.

Quito's historic center is among the largest and best-preserved in the Americas. In 1978, Quito and Kraków were the first World Cultural Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO. Quito is the capital city closest to the Equator, which runs through the northern part of the metropolitan area in the parish of San Antonio.

Pre-Columbian period

The oldest traces of human presence in Quito were excavated by American archeologist Robert E. Bell in 1960, on the slopes of the Ilaló volcano, located between the eastern valleys of Los Chillos and Tumbaco. Hunter-gatherers left tools of obsidian glass, dated to 8000 BC. This archeological site, called EI Inga, was brought to Robert Bell's attention by Allen Graffham. as a geologist in Ecuador, Graffham pursued his amateur interest in archeology. He made surface collections at the site during 1956.[1] The discovery of projectile points, particularly specimens with basal fluting, stimulated his interest, and he made several visits to the site to collect surface materials. Graffham's previous interest in Paleo-Indian remains, and his experience with early human-made materials in Kansas and Nebraska in the Central Plains of the United States, led him to believe that the site was an important discovery.[1]

The second important vestige of human settlement was found in the current neighborhood of Cotocollao (1500 BC), northwest of Quito. The prehistoric village covered over 26 hectares in an area irrigated by many creeks. Near the ancient rectangular houses, there are burials with pottery and stone offerings. The Cotocollao people extracted and exported obsidian to the coastal region.[2]

The priest Juan de Velasco wrote about a Kingdom of Quito. His source was a lost work by Marcos de Niza, the existence of which has not been confirmed. His account said that another people, known as the Cara or the Schyris, came from the coast and took over the entire region by AD 890. He goes on by saying that this kingdom lasted until the Inca took over the territory in the 15th century. However archeological evidence does not indicate unity among the different ethnic groups in the region. The local Quitu or Quillaco tribe is distinct in its art and architecture from its neighbors.

By the 20th century, many prominent historians who began more academic studies, doubted the account of the Quitu-Cara kingdom. They think it was a legendary pre-Hispanic account of the highlands.[3][4][5]

These days most historians deny the existence of the kingdom of Quito in favor of a more fragmented region. The Quitu ruled over Quito at the time of the Inca invasion by Topa Inca Yupanqui under the reign of his father.[6] In the early 21st century, there were spectacular new finds of 20-meter deep tombs in the La Florida neighborhood of Quito. Dating to AD 800 they provide evidence of the high quality of craftsmanship among the Quitu, and of the elaborate and complex character of their funerary rites. In 2010 the Museo de Sitio La Florida opened to preserve some of the artifacts from the tombs and explain this complex culture.[7]

Colonial period  Quito in 1615 by the Inca painter Guamán Poma in his work "Nueva corónica y buen gobierno". Royal Library, Denmark.[8] Artwork that shows a far view of the city. Mid-18th century.

Incan uprising against the Spanish continued during 1534. The conquistador Diego de Almagro founded Santiago de Quito (in present-day Colta, near Riobamba) on 15 August 1534, renamed as San Francisco de Quito on 28 August 1534. The city was later refounded at its present location on 6 December 1534 by 204 settlers led by Sebastián de Benalcázar, who captured leader Rumiñahui, effectively ending all organized resistance.[9] Rumiñahui was executed on 10 January 1535.

On 28 March 1541 Quito was declared a city, and on 23 February 1556 it was given the title Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de San Francisco de Quito ("Very Noble and Loyal City of San Francisco of Quito"), marking the start of its next phase of urban development. In 1563 Quito became the seat of a Real Audiencia (administrative district) of Spain. It was classified as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1717, after which the Audiencia was part of the new Viceroyalty of New Granada. Under both Viceroyalties, the district was administered from Quito, (see Real Audiencia de Quito).

 Map of the city of Quito dated 1805. Made by Juan Pío Montúfar, 2nd Marquis of Selva Alegre and president of the Junta Soberana de Quito of 1809. Entry into the city of Quito of the Spanish troops sent by the Viceroy of Peru in 1809, painting of 1809 by Francisco Javier Cortés. Museo de América (Madrid).[10] Quito by Rafael Salas (mid-19th century painting)

The Spanish established Roman Catholicism in Quito. The first church (El Belén) was built before the city was officially founded. In January 1535 the San Francisco Convent was constructed, the first of about 20 churches and convents built during the colonial period. The Spanish converted the indigenous population to Christianity and used them as labor for construction.[citation needed]

In 1743, after nearly 210 years of Spanish colonization, Quito was a city of about 10,000 inhabitants.[citation needed] Quito briefly proclaimed its de facto independence from Spain between 1765 and 1766 during the Quito Revolt. On 10 August 1809, a movement was again started in Quito to win independence from Spain. On that date a plan for government was unveiled, which appointed Juan Pío Montúfar as president and prominent pro-independence figures in other government positions.

This initial movement was defeated on 2 August 1810, when colonial troops arrived from Lima, Peru, and killed the leaders of the uprising and about 200 other settlers.[citation needed] A chain of conflicts climaxed on 24 May 1822, when Antonio José de Sucre, under the command of Simón Bolívar, led troops into the Battle of Pichincha, on the slopes of the volcano. Their victory established the independence of Quito and the surrounding areas.

Republican Ecuador

In 1833 members of the Society of Free Inhabitants of Quito were assassinated by the government after they conspired against it. On 6 March 1845 the Marcist Revolution began. In 1875 the country's president, Gabriel García Moreno, was assassinated in Quito. Two years later, in 1877, Archbishop José Ignacio Checa y Barba was killed by poison while celebrating Mass in Quito.[citation needed]

In 1882 insurgents rose up against the regime of dictator Ignacio de Veintimilla. However, this did not end the violence that was occurring throughout the country. On 9 July 1883 the liberal commander Eloy Alfaro participated in the Battle of Guayaquil, and after further conflict he became the president of Ecuador on 4 September 1895. Upon completing his second term in 1911, he moved to Europe. He returned to Ecuador in 1912 and attempted to return to power unsuccessfully; he was arrested on 28 January 1912, and imprisoned, then lynched by a mob that stormed the prison. His body was dragged through the streets of Quito to a city park, where it was burned.[citation needed]

In 1932 the Four Days' War broke out. This was a civil war that followed the election of Neptalí Bonifaz and the subsequent realization that he carried a Peruvian passport. On 12 February 1949 a realistic broadcast of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds led to citywide panic, and the deaths of more than twenty people who died in fires set by mobs.[11][12]

21st century

In 2011 the city's population was 2,239,191 people. Since 2002 the city has been renewing its historic center. The old airport, built on filling in a lagoon, was closed to air traffic on 19 February 2013. The area was redeveloped as the "Parque Bicentenario" (Bicentenary Park). The new Mariscal Sucre International Airport, 45 minutes from central Quito, opened to air traffic on 20 February 2013.

During 2003 and 2004, the bus lines of the Metrobus (Ecovia) were constructed, traversing the city from the north to the south.[citation needed] Many avenues and roads were extended and enlarged, depressed passages were constructed, and roads were restructured geometrically to increase the flow of traffic. A new subway system was opened with one line on December 1, 2023.

^ a b "Robert E. Bell Archaeological Investigation at the Site of EI Inga, Ecuador | Sam Noble Museum". Sam Noble Museum. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017. ^ Lleras, Roberto. The Cambridge Prehistory of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. ^ Rostworowski, María. History of the Inca Realm. Translated by Iceland, Harry B. Cambridge University Press. ^ Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. Los cronistas del Perú. ^ González Suárez, Federico. Historia General del Ecuador. ^ Cabello de Balboa, Miguel. Miscelánea antártica. ^ "El Telégrafo". ^ Guamán Poma (1615). "Guaman Poma, Nueva corónica y buen gobierno (1615)". Royal Library, Denmark website. p. 1011. ^ "City" (in Spanish). Quito Distrito Metropolitano. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2008. ^ Bruquetas, Rocío; Medina, Dolores (2015). "Vista de la entrada en la ciudad de Quito de las tropas españolas en 1809. Conservación y restauración" (PDF). Anales del Museo de América (in Spanish) (23): 129–142. ISSN 1133-8741. Wikidata Q111319599. ^ Brown, Robert J. (2004). Manipulating the Ether. McFarland. pp. 251–252. ISBN 0-7864-2066-9. ^ "Episode 200: We Interrupt This Program (11.4.2022)". Criminal. 4 November 2022. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
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