New York City

New York, often called New York City or simply NYC, is the most populous city in the United States, located at the southern tip of New York State on one of the world's largest natural harbors. The city comprises five boroughs, each of which is coextensive with a respective county. It is a global city and a cultural, financial, high-tech, entertainment, and media center with a significant influence on commerce, health care, scientific output, life sciences, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, dining, art, fashion, and sports. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and is sometimes described as the world's most important city and the capital of the world.

With an estimated population in 2022 of 8,335,897 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), the city is the most densely populated major city in the United States. New Yor...Read more

New York, often called New York City or simply NYC, is the most populous city in the United States, located at the southern tip of New York State on one of the world's largest natural harbors. The city comprises five boroughs, each of which is coextensive with a respective county. It is a global city and a cultural, financial, high-tech, entertainment, and media center with a significant influence on commerce, health care, scientific output, life sciences, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, dining, art, fashion, and sports. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and is sometimes described as the world's most important city and the capital of the world.

With an estimated population in 2022 of 8,335,897 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), the city is the most densely populated major city in the United States. New York has more than double the population of Los Angeles, the nation's second-most populous city. New York is the geographical and demographic center of both the Northeast megalopolis and the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. by both population and urban area. With more than 20.1 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and 23.5 million in its combined statistical area as of 2020, New York City is one of the world's most populous megacities. The city and its metropolitan area are the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. In 2021, the city was home to nearly 3.1 million residents born outside the U.S., the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world.

New York City traces its origins to Fort Amsterdam and a trading post founded on the southern tip of Manhattan Island by Dutch colonists in approximately 1624. The settlement was named New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) in 1626 and was chartered as a city in 1653. The city came under English control in 1664 and was renamed New York after King Charles II granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. The city was temporarily regained by the Dutch in July 1673 and was renamed New Orange; however, the city has been named New York since November 1674. New York City was the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. The modern city was formed by the 1898 consolidation of its five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, and Staten Island, and has been the largest U.S. city ever since.

Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the world's premier financial and fintech center and the most economically powerful city in the world. As of 2022, the New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan economy in the world with a gross metropolitan product of over US$2.16 trillion. If the New York metropolitan area were its own country, it would have the tenth-largest economy in the world. The city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by market capitalization of their listed companies: the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq. New York City is an established safe haven for global investors. As of 2023, New York City is the most expensive city in the world for expatriates to live. New York City is home to the highest number of billionaires, individuals of ultra-high net worth (greater than US$30 million), and millionaires of any city in the world.

Early history

In the pre-Columbian era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquians, including the Lenape. Their homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included the present-day areas of Staten Island, Manhattan, the Bronx, the western portion of Long Island (including Brooklyn and Queens), and the Lower Hudson Valley.[1]

The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, an explorer from Florence in the service of the French crown.[2] He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême).[3] A Spanish expedition, led by the Portuguese captain Estêvão Gomes sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio ('Saint Anthony's River').[4]

In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company.[5] He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch called North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson's first mate described the harbor as "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river as "a mile broad" and "full of fish".[6]

Hudson claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland ('New Netherland'). The first non–Native American inhabitant of what became New York City was Juan Rodriguez, a merchant from Santo Domingo who arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch colonists.[7][8]

Dutch rule
 
The Castello Plan, a 1660 map of New Amsterdam in Lower Manhattan
 
New Amsterdam, centered in what eventually became Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it New York

A permanent European presence near New York Harbor was established in 1624, making New York the 12th-oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States, with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island.[9][10]

The colony of New Amsterdam was centered on what became Lower Manhattan. Its area extended from the southern tip of Manhattan to modern-day Wall Street, where a 12-foot (3.7 m) wooden stockade was built in 1653 to protect against Native American and English raids.[11] In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band,[12] for "the value of 60 guilders"[13] (about $900 in 2018).[14] A frequently told but disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.[15][16]

Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly.[17] To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (patroons, or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swaths of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.[18]

Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).[17][19]

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000.[20][21] Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship.[22] The Dutch West India Company attempted to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.[23]

English rule
 
The Fall of New Amsterdam by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, part of the Conquest of New Netherland
 
Fort George and New York with British Navy ships of the line c. 1731

In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed.[22][23] The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom.[24]

In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda after the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the victorious Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of what is now Suriname on the northern South American coast, which they had gained from the English;[25] and in return, the English kept New Amsterdam. The fledgling settlement was promptly renamed "New York" after the Duke of York (the future King James II and VII).[26] After the founding, the duke gave part of the colony to proprietors George Carteret and John Berkeley. Fort Orange, 150 miles (240 km) north on the Hudson River, was renamed Albany after James's Scottish title.[27]

On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Anthony Colve of the Dutch navy seized New York from the English at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III, the Prince of Orange.[28] The Dutch soon returned the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.[29][30]

Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670.[31] By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200.[32] New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population in 1702 alone.[33][34]

In the early 18th century, New York grew in importance as a trading port while as a part of the colony of New York.[35] It became a center of slavery, with 42% of households enslaving Africans by 1730.[36] Most cases were that of domestic slavery; others were hired out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banking and shipping industries trading with the American South. During construction in Foley Square in the 1990s, the African Burying Ground was discovered; the cemetery included 10,000 to 20,000 of graves of colonial-era Africans, some enslaved and some free.[37]

The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish freedom of the press in North America.[38] In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.[39]

American Revolution  The Battle of Long Island, one of the largest battles of the American Revolutionary War, which took place in Brooklyn on August 27, 1776

The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty organization emerged in the city and skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there.[40] The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn.[41] A British rout of the Continental Army at the Battle of Fort Washington in November 1776 eliminated the last American stronghold in Manhattan, causing George Washington and his forces to retreat across the Hudson River to New Jersey, pursued by British forces.[42][43]

After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America.[44] The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown, with as many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation, which had become the largest such community on the continent.[45][46] When the British forces evacuated New York at the close of the war in 1783, they transported thousands of freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia, England, and the Caribbean.[47]

The attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776.[48] Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed nearly 500 buildings, about a quarter of the structures in the city, including Trinity Church.[49][50]

Post-revolutionary period and early 19th century  A portrait of the first inauguration of George Washington in 1789

In January 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital, shortly after the war.[51] New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States.[52] As the U.S. capital, New York City hosted several events of national scope in 1789; the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time; and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on present-day Wall Street.[52]

In 1790, for the first time, New York City surpassed Philadelphia as the nation's largest city. At the end of 1790, the national capital was moved to Philadelphia.[53][54]

During the 19th century, New York City's population grew from 60,000 to 3.43 million.[55] Under New York State's gradual emancipation act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties.[56][57] Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-Black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate Black children.[58] It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state.[59] Free Blacks struggled afterward with discrimination and interracial abolitionist activism continued. New York City's population jumped from 123,706 in 1820 (10,886 of whom were Black and of which 518 were enslaved) to 312,710 by 1840 (16,358 of whom were Black).[60]

A painting of a snowy city street with horse-drawn sleds and a 19th-century fire truck under blue sky Broadway, which follows the Native American Wecquaesgeek Trail through Manhattan, in 1840[61]

Also in the 19th century, the city was transformed by both commercial and residential development relating to its status as a national and international trading center, as well as by European immigration, respectively.[62] The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass almost all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes.[63] Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.[64]

Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.[65]

The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom more than 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, representing upward of one-quarter of the city's population.[66] There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.[67][68]

American Civil War  Depiction of lynching during the New York City draft riots in 1863

Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called on the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on.[58] Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class.[58]

The draft riots deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on Black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and Black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants.[67]

At least 120 people were killed.[69] Eleven Black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of Blacks to flee. The Black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865. The White working class had established dominance.[67][69] Violence by longshoremen against Black men was especially fierce in the docks area.[67] It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.[70]

Late 19th and early 20th century  Manhattan's Little Italy in the Lower East Side, c. 1900

In 1886, the Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, was dedicated in New York Harbor. The statue welcomed 14 million immigrants as they came to the U.S. via Ellis Island by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a symbol of the United States and American ideals of liberty and peace.[71][72]

In 1898, the City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens.[73] The opening of the New York City Subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together.[74] Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.[75]

In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board.[76] In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, killed 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.[77]

A man working on a steel girder high about a city skyline. A construction worker atop the Empire State Building during its construction in 1930. The Chrysler Building is visible behind him.

New York's non-White population was 36,620 in 1890.[78] New York City was a prime destination in the early 20th century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America.[79] The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition.[80] The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height.[citation needed]

New York City became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history.[81] The Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.[82]

Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.[83]

Late 20th and early 21st centuries A two-story building with brick on the first floor, with two arched doorways, and gray stucco on the second floor off of which hang numerous rainbow flags. Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots and the cradle of the modern LGBTQ+ rights movement.[84][85][86]

In 1969, the Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent protests by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan.[87] They are widely considered to be the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement[84][88][89][90] and the modern fight for LGBT rights.[91][92] Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. The transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter.[93]

 October 1975 New York Daily News front page on President Ford's refusal to help the city avert bankruptcy

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.[94] Growing fiscal deficits in 1975 led the city to appeal to the federal government for financial aid; President Gerald Ford gave a speech denying the request, which was paraphrased on the front page of the next day's issue of the New York Daily News as "FORD TO CITY: DROP DEAD".[95] The Municipal Assistance Corporation was formed and granted oversight authority over the city's finances.[96] While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.[97]

By the mid-1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America.[citation needed] New York City's population exceeded 8 million for the first time in the 2000 United States census, breaking the previous peak census population set in the 1970 census;[98] further records were set in 2010, and 2020 U.S. censuses.[99] Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy.[100]

 The World Trade Center, in Lower Manhattan, during the September 11 attacks in 2001

The advent of Y2K was celebrated with fanfare in Times Square.[101] New York City suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, attacks.[102] Two of the four airliners hijacked that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, resulting in the collapse of both buildings and the deaths of 2,753 people, including 343 first responders from the New York City Fire Department and 71 law enforcement officers.[103] The North Tower became, and remains, the tallest building to ever be destroyed.[citation needed]

The area was rebuilt with a new World Trade Center, the National September 11 Memorial and Museum, and other new buildings and infrastructure,[104] including the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city's third-largest hub.[105] The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere[106] and the seventh-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m), a reference to the year of U.S. independence.[107][108][109]

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.[110]

New York City was heavily affected by Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Sandy's impacts included flooding that led to the days-long shutdown of the subway system[111] and flooding of all East River subway tunnels and of all road tunnels entering Manhattan except the Lincoln Tunnel.[112] The New York Stock Exchange closed for two consecutive days due to weather for the first time since the Great Blizzard of 1888.[113] At least 43 people died in New York City as a result of Sandy, and the economic losses in New York City were estimated to be roughly $19 billion.[114] The disaster spawned long-term efforts towards infrastructural projects to counter climate change and rising seas, with $15 billion in federal funding received through 2022 towards those resiliency efforts.[115][116]

In March 2020, the first case of COVID-19 in the city was confirmed in Manhattan.[117] With its great population density and its exposure to global travelers, the city rapidly replaced Wuhan, China, to become the global epicenter of the pandemic during the early phase, straining the city's healthcare infrastructure.[118][119] Through March 2023, New York City had recorded more than 80,000 deaths from COVID-19-related complications.[120]

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The combined British-Hessian assault force of 8,000 men grossly outnumbered the fort's 3,000 defenders.... At 3:00 P.M., after a fruitless attempt to gain gentler surrender terms for his men, Magaw surrendered Fort Washington and its 2,800 surviving defenders to the British." ^ Schenawolf, Harry. "Washington's Retreat Across New Jersey: A British Fox Chase", Revolutionary War Journal, August 5, 2019. Accessed December 31, 2023. ^ Aggarwala, Rohit T. "'I want a Packet to arrive': Making New York City the headquarters of British North America 1696-1783", New York History, Winter 2017. Accessed December 29, 2023. "One of New York City's key distinctions in the late colonial period was its role as the headquarters of the British Army in North America, almost continuously from 1755 to 1783." ^ "Finding Freedom: Deborah", Museum of the American Revolution, May 4, 2018. Accessed December 31, 2023. "They ran to the British Army which offered freedom to enslaved people owned by rebel masters based on the 1779 Philipsburg Proclamation issued by British General Henry Clinton. Historians estimate that 10,000 enslaved people sought freedom by escaping to the British during the Revolutionary War." ^ Goulet, L.; and Tsaltas-Otoomanelli, Mary. "Black Loyalists In The Evacuation Of New York City, 1783", The Gotham Center for New York City History, November 15, 2023. Accessed December 31, 2023. "By 1783, New York City had become the largest fugitive slave community in North America.... Free and self-emancipated Black people entered New York City during the British occupation seeking protection." ^ Hinks, Peter P. (2007). Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 508. ISBN 978-0-313-33144-2. ^ Mattera, John. Conference House Park The Daily Plant : Thursday, September 7, 2006, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed December 29, 2023. ^ Trinity Church bicentennial celebration, May 5, 1897, By Trinity Church (New York, N.Y.) p. 37, ISBN 978-1-356-90825-7 ^ New York City (NYC) The Great Fire of 1776, Baruch College. Accessed December 29, 2023. "The fire started in a wooden building near White Hall Slip, called the Fighting Cocks Tavern, a fun house visited by the city's most disreputable residents. It was fanned by winds south west of the city and spread rapidly into the night, demolishing 493 buildings and houses in the process." ^ "January Highlight: Superintending Independence, Part 1", Harvard University Declaration Resources Project, January 4, 2017. Accessed December 29, 2023. "From January 11, 1785 through 1789, the Congress of the Confederation met in New York City, at City Hall (which later became Federal Hall) and at Fraunces Tavern." ^ a b "The People's Vote: President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789)". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. ^ "Residence Act". Web Guides: Primary Documents in American History. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on February 22, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017. ^ Fortenbaugh, Robert (1948). "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. p. 9. Retrieved October 30, 2021. ^ Smil, Vaclav (2019). Growth: From Microorganisms to Megacities. The MIT Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-262-04283-3. ^ "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Negro Slavery in New York" (L. 1799, Ch. 62) ^ Harper, Douglas (2003). "Emancipation in New York". Slave North. Retrieved February 6, 2013. ^ a b c "New York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War Online Exhibit". New-York Historical Society (physical exhibit). September 3, 2007. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2012. ^ When Did Slavery End in New York State?, New-York Historical Society. Accessed January 16, 2024. "In 1799, New York passed a Gradual Emancipation act that freed slave children born after July 4, 1799, but indentured them until they were young adults. In 1817 a new law passed that would free slaves born before 1799 but not until 1827." ^ Cite error: The named reference Census1790to1990 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Shorto, Russell (February 9, 2004). "The Streets Where History Lives". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2013. ^ Rosenwaike, Ira (1972). Population History of New York City. Syracuse University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8156-2155-3. ^ Bridges, William (1811). Map of the City Of New York And Island Of Manhattan With Explanatory Remarks And References.; Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68. ^ Mushkat, Jerome (1990). Fernando Wood: A Political Biography. Kent State University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-87338-413-1. ^ Waxman, Sarah. "History of Central Park, New York", NY.com. Accessed January 16, 2024. "New York's Central Park is the first urban landscaped park in the United States." ^ "Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York". Virtual New York. City University of New York. Retrieved October 31, 2021. ^ a b c d Harris, Leslie M. (2003). "The New York City Draft Riots". In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863. University of Chicago Press. Excerpted from pages 279–288. ISBN 9780226317755. ^ M.G. Leonard (January 20, 1847). "H. Doc. 29-54 - Paupers and criminals. Memorial of the Corporation of the City of New York, relative to the exportation from abroad of paupers and criminals. January 25, 1847. Read, and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary". GovInfo.gov. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 8–9. Retrieved June 22, 2023. 'Leaving their homes,' [immigrants] say, 'with the brightest prospects,' alluring representations presented to them of the blessed state of American life, a few scanty coins in their pockets, though feeling in the enjoyment of rugged health, and surrounded by their young and innocent offspring, little did they imagine the trials to which they would be exposed; but at length they discover to their sorrow, and very natural discontent, that the foul steerage of some ocean-tossed ship is to form the filthy receptacle of persons, crowded too with hordes of human beings, with scarcely space enough to contain the half of them—certainly not more that the quarter of them comfortably; and thus huddled together en masse, they become the "emigrant passengers" destined to this country. ^ a b McPherson, James M.; Hogue, James Keith (2001). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-07-743035-1. ^ Cook, Adrian (1974). The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 193–195. ISBN 9780813162553. ^ Statue of Liberty, UNESCO. Accessed December 28, 2023. "Inaugurated in 1886, the sculpture stands at the entrance to New York Harbour and has welcomed millions of immigrants to the United States ever since." ^ The Immigrant's Statue, Statue of Liberty National Monument. Accessed December 28, 2023. "Between 1886 and 1924, almost 14 million immigrants entered the United States through New York. The Statue of Liberty was a reassuring sign that they had arrived in the land of their dreams." ^ "The 100 Year Anniversary of the Consolidation of the 5 Boroughs into New York City". NYC100 Centennial Celebration. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 28, 2010. ^ Cudahy, Brian J. (2004). The New York Subway: Its Construction and Equipment : Interborough Rapid Transit, 1904. Fordham University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8232-2401-2. ^ Blake, Angela M. (2009). How New York Became American, 1890–1924. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 63–66. ISBN 978-0-8018-8874-8. ^ Sheard, Bradley (1998). Lost Voyages: Two Centuries of Shipwrecks in the Approaches to New York. Aqua Quest Publications, Inc. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-881652-17-5. ^ "The 1911 Triangle Factory Fire". Kheel Center, Cornell University. Retrieved February 9, 2017. ^ Rosenwaike, Ira (1972). Population History of New York City. Syracuse University Press. Table 30. ISBN 978-0-8156-2155-3. ^ Gates, Henry Louis Jr.; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks (2009). Harlem Renaissance Lives from the African American National Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-538795-7. ^ Roche, Linda De (2015). The Jazz Age: A Historical Exploration of Literature: A Historical Exploration of Literature. ABC-CLIO. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-61069-668-5. ^ "New York Urbanized Area: Population & Density from 1800 (Provisional)". Demographia. Retrieved July 8, 2009. ^ Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". The Tiger—The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-201-62463-2. ^ Burns, Ric (August 22, 2003). "The Center of the World—New York: A Documentary Film (Transcript)". PBS. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2008. ^ a b Goicichea, Julia (August 16, 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019. ^ "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service. Retrieved May 1, 2011. ^ Rosenberg, Eli (June 24, 2016). "Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2016. ^ Murphy, Timothy (2013). Reader's Guide to Lesbian and Gay Studies. Routledge. p. 572. ISBN 978-1-135-94234-2. ^ "Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S." University of Kentucky. Archived from the original on November 18, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2017. ^ Frizzell, Nell (June 28, 2013). "Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement". PinkNews. Retrieved August 31, 2017. ^ "Stonewall riots". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 31, 2017. ^ "Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument". National Park Service. June 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2017. ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group. January 21, 2013. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013. ^ Williams, Cristan (January 25, 2013). "So, what was Stonewall?". The TransAdvocate. Retrieved March 28, 2017. ^ Tannenbaum, Allan (February 2004). "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2011. ^ Roberts, Sam. "Infamous 'Drop Dead' Was Never Said by Ford", The New York Times, December 28, 2006. Accessed February 20, 2024. "Mr. Ford, on Oct. 29, 1975, gave a speech denying federal assistance to spare New York from bankruptcy. The front page of The Daily News the next day read: "FORD TO CITY: DROP DEAD."... Moreover, the speech spurred New York's civic, business and labor leaders to rally bankers in the United States and abroad, who feared their own investments would be harmed if New York defaulted on its debt." ^ Chan, Sewell. "Felix G. Rohatyn, Financier Who Piloted New York’s Rescue, Dies at 91", The New York Times, December 14, 2019. Accessed February 20, 2024. "For nearly two decades, from 1975 to 1993, as chairman of the state-appointed Municipal Assistance Corporation, Mr. Rohatyn had a say, often the final one, over taxes and spending in the nation's largest city, a degree of influence for an unelected official that rankled some critics. His efforts to meld private profit with the public good defined him: In the perception of many his name was synonymous with two institutions — the M.A.C., which was hastily created in 1975 to save the city from insolvency, and Lazard (formerly Lazard Frères), the storied investment firm that started as a dry-goods business in New Orleans in 1848." ^ Effgen, Christopher (September 11, 2001). "New York Crime Rates 1960–2009". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved October 28, 2010. ^ Population - Decennial Census - Census 2000, New York City Department of City Planning. Accessed January 27, 2024. "According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the population of New York City as of April 1, 2000, was 8,008,278, the largest enumerated census population in the city's history. The previous peak was in 1970, when the enumerated population stood at 7,894,862." ^ Population, New York City Department of City Planning. Accessed January 27, 2024. "The enumerated population of New York City’s was 8,804,190 as of April 1, 2020, a record high population. This is an increase of 629,057 people since the 2010 Census." ^ Waller, Irvin (2013). Smarter Crime Control. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4422-2170-3. ^ "THE YEAR 2000: THE OVERVIEW; 2000 Draws Rave Reviews After Opening Night Night Jitters". The New York Times. January 6, 2000. Retrieved October 28, 2023. ^ Dieterle, David A. (2017). Economics: The Definitive Encyclopedia from Theory to Practice [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-313-39708-0. ^ Nelson, Joshua Q. "Former FDNY commissioner on losing 343 firefighters on 9/11: 'We had the best fire chiefs in the world'", Fox News, September 11, 2021. Accessed January 30, 2024. "Of the 2,753 people killed at the World Trade Center, 343 were first responders from the Fire Department of New York, while another 71 were law enforcement officers from 10 different agencies." ^ Greenspan, Elizabeth (2013). Battle for Ground Zero: Inside the Political Struggle to Rebuild the World Trade Center. St. Martin's Press/Harvard University. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-137-36547-7. ^ "World Trade Center Transportation Hub". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Archived from the original on January 3, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2017. The state-of-the-art World Trade Center Transportation Hub, completed in 2016, serves 250,000 Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) daily commuters and millions of annual visitors from around the world. At approximately 800,000 square feet, the Hub, designed by internationally acclaimed architect Santiago Calatrava, is the third-largest transportation center in New York City. ^ Hetter, Katia; Boyette, Chris (November 12, 2013). "It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2014. ^ "New York City Skyscraper Diagram". SkyscraperPage.com. Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved January 22, 2013. ^ "One World Trade Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved February 9, 2017. The roof height is the same as original One World Trade Center. The building is topped out by a 124-meter (408-foot) spire. So the tower rises 1,776 feet (541-meter) which marks the year of the American declaration of Independence. ^ Lesser, Benjamin (April 30, 2012). "It's official: 1 World Trade Center is now New York's tallest skyscraper". Daily News. New York. Retrieved January 22, 2013. ^ Nocera, Joe (September 14, 2012). "Two Days in September". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2017. On the left, that anger led, a year ago, to the rise of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Thus, Anniversary No. 2: Sept. 17, 2011, was the date Occupy Wall Street took over Zuccotti Park in Lower Manhattan, which soon led to similar actions in cities across the country. The movement's primary issue was income inequality—"We are the 99 percent", they used to chant. ^ Flegenheimer, Matt. "Flooded Tunnels May Keep City's Subway Network Closed for Several Days", The New York Times, October 30, 2012. Accessed January 15, 2024. "As the remnants of Hurricane Sandy left the city on Tuesday, transit officials surveyed the damage to the system, which they shut down on Sunday night as a precaution. What they found was an unprecedented assault: flooded tunnels, battered stations and switches and signals likely damaged." ^ Superstorm Sandy: The Devastating Impact On The Nation's Largest Transportation Systems, United States Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Surface Transportation, Maritime, Freight, and Ports, December 6, 2012. Accessed January 15, 2024. "The most damaging impact of the storm, from a transportation standpoint, was on the highway, transit, and rail tunnels in and out of Manhattan. All seven of the subway tunnels under the East River flooded, as did the Hudson River subway tunnel, the East River and Hudson River commuter rail tunnels, and the subway tunnels in lower Manhattan. Three of the four highway tunnels into Manhattan flooded, leaving only the Lincoln Tunnel open. While some subway service was restored three days after the storm, the PATH train service to the World Trade Center was only restored on November 26, four weeks after the storm, and subway service between the Rockaway peninsula and Howard Beach is not expected to be re-opened for months." ^ Strasburg, Jenny; Cheng, Jonathan; and Bunge, Jacob. "Behind Decision to Close Markets", The Wall Street Journal, October 29, 2012. Accessed January 15, 2024. "Superstorm Sandy forced regulators and exchange operators to keep U.S. stock markets closed Tuesday, in the first weather-related shutdown to last more than one day since the Blizzard of 1888. The decision to close the New York Stock Exchange and other U.S. equity markets for a second straight day—reached by midafternoon Monday—renewed questions about the industry's disaster preparedness." ^ "NYC Still Vulnerable to Hurricanes 10 Years After Sandy", Bloomberg Businessweek, October 13, 2022. Accessed January 15, 2024. "Hurricane Sandy swept through New York City in October 2012, leading to 43 deaths and an estimated $19 billion in damages.... New York needs to step up its efforts and spend the $15 billion in federal grants that it received for recovery efforts, a new report by New York City Comptroller Brad Lander released on Thursday said." ^ Cite error: The named reference ClimateResiliency2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Ten Years After Sandy; Barriers to Resilience, New York City Comptroller Brad Lander, October 13, 2022. Accessed January 15, 2024. "Of the $15 billion of federal grants appropriated for Sandy recovery and resilience, the City has spent $11 billion, or 73%, as of June 2022." ^ West, Melanie Grayce (March 1, 2020). "First Case of Coronavirus Confirmed in New York State". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 10, 2020. ^ "When New York City was the COVID-19 pandemic epicenter: The impact on trauma care", The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, August 2022. Accessed January 13, 2024. "During early spring 2020, New York City (NYC) rapidly became the first US epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic." ^ Robinson, David. "COVID-19: How New York City became epicenter of coronavirus pandemic, what that means", The Journal News, March 27, 2020. Accessed January 13, 2024. "New York City's rise this month to become the new coronavirus pandemic's epicenter has far-reaching implications for communities statewide. Most pressing, the rapidly spreading virus that originated in Wuhan, China, threatens to overwhelm New York state's entire medical system, prompting a dire push for thousands of new hospital beds to treat infected New Yorkers. Further, the outbreak, which topped 44,600 confirmed cases statewide as of Friday, including 23,000 in New York City alone, is also devastating the entire state's economy and draining government coffers at all levels.... Why New York City's density, tourism made it vulnerable to coronavirus" ^ "Tracking Coronavirus in New York: Latest Map and Case Count", The New York Times, March 23, 2023. Accessed January 13, 2024 "Since the beginning of the pandemic, a total of 6,805,271 cases have been reported. At least 1 in 243 residents have died from the coronavirus, a total of 80,109 deaths."
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