Bashkortostan

Context of Bashkortostan

Bashkortostan (Bashkir: Башҡортостан; Russian: Башкортостан), officially the Republic of Bashkortostan, also known as Bashkiria, is a republic of Russia located between the Volga and the Ural Mountains in Eastern Europe. The republic borders Perm Krai to the north, Sverdlovsk Oblast to the northeast, Chelyabinsk Oblast to the east, Orenburg Oblast to the south, Tatarstan to the west and Udmurtia to the northwest. It covers 143,600 square kilometres (55,400 square miles) and has a population of 4 million. It is the seventh-most populous federal subject in Russia and the most populous republic. Its capital and largest city is Ufa.

Bashkortostan was established on 28 November [O.S. 15 November] 1917. On 20 March 1919 it was transformed into the Bashkir ASSR, the first autonomous republic in the Russian SFSR. On 11 October 1990, it adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty. In the Constitution of Bashkortostan ...Read more

Bashkortostan (Bashkir: Башҡортостан; Russian: Башкортостан), officially the Republic of Bashkortostan, also known as Bashkiria, is a republic of Russia located between the Volga and the Ural Mountains in Eastern Europe. The republic borders Perm Krai to the north, Sverdlovsk Oblast to the northeast, Chelyabinsk Oblast to the east, Orenburg Oblast to the south, Tatarstan to the west and Udmurtia to the northwest. It covers 143,600 square kilometres (55,400 square miles) and has a population of 4 million. It is the seventh-most populous federal subject in Russia and the most populous republic. Its capital and largest city is Ufa.

Bashkortostan was established on 28 November [O.S. 15 November] 1917. On 20 March 1919 it was transformed into the Bashkir ASSR, the first autonomous republic in the Russian SFSR. On 11 October 1990, it adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty. In the Constitution of Bashkortostan and Constitution of Russia, Bashkortostan is defined as a state.

More about Bashkortostan

Population, Area & Driving side
  • Population 4016481
  • Area 143600
History
  • The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan date from the early Paleolithic period, but the Bronze Age spurred an upsurge in the population of this territory.[1] When people of the Abashevo culture started settling here, they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals.

    Bashkortostan takes its name from its native people, the Bashkirs. The Slavonic name of the country, Bashkiriya, formed at the end of the 16th century. Originally it appeared in the forms Bashkir land, Bashkir, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde. The ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 7th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote about Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube River, close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary Ibn-Ruste described the Bashkirs as "an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik River".

    ...Read more

    The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan date from the early Paleolithic period, but the Bronze Age spurred an upsurge in the population of this territory.[1] When people of the Abashevo culture started settling here, they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals.

    Bashkortostan takes its name from its native people, the Bashkirs. The Slavonic name of the country, Bashkiriya, formed at the end of the 16th century. Originally it appeared in the forms Bashkir land, Bashkir, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde. The ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 7th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote about Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube River, close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary Ibn-Ruste described the Bashkirs as "an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik River".

    Cave paintings in the Shulgan-Tash Nature Reserve. 
    Cave paintings in the Shulgan-Tash Nature Reserve.
    Mausoleum of Turahan, 14th-century building. 
    Mausoleum of Turahan, 14th-century building.
    Bashkirs near Hamburg during the Napoleonic Wars, c. 1813. 
    Bashkirs near Hamburg during the Napoleonic Wars, c. 1813.
    The Red Army cavalry unit, made up of Bashkirs, Russian Civil War, 1919. 
    The Red Army cavalry unit, made up of Bashkirs, Russian Civil War, 1919.

    After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down in the 14th century, the territory of modern Bashkortostan became divided between the Kazan and Siberia Khanates and the Nogai Horde. The tribes that lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join Muscovy.[citation needed] The Bashkir rebellion of 1662–1664 and the Bashkir rebellion of 1704–1711 were primarily caused by the Russian government's violations of the terms and conditions previously agreed between the Bashkirs and the Russian authorities.

     The monument for the national hero of Bashkortostan, Salawat Yulayev, who led a rebellion against the Russian Empire.

    Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established, an indication that the tsarist government recognized the rights of Bashkirs, Tatars, and other Muslim nations to profess Islam and perform religious rituals. Ufa Governorate (guberniya), with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865—another step towards territorial identification.

    After the Russian Revolution of 1917 were All-Bashkir Qoroltays (conventions) on which a decision on the need to create a national federal republic within Russia. As a result, on 28 November 1917, the Bashkir Regional (Central) Shuro (Council) proclaimed the establishment of territorial and national autonomy in areas of Orenburg, Perm, Samara, and Ufa provinces with a predominantly Bashkir population.

    In December 1917, delegates to the All-Bashkir (constituent) Congress, representing the interests of the population edge of all nationalities, voted unanimously for the resolution (Farman #2) of the Bashkir regional Shuro for the proclamation of national-territorial autonomy (of the Republic) Bashkurdistan. The congress formed the government of Bashkurdistan, the Pre-parliament—Kese-Qoroltay and other bodies of power and administration, and decisions were made on how to proceed.

    In March 1919, based on the agreements of the Russian Government with the Bashkir Government was formed Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights—the first among other Russian regions. The administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia.

    On 11 October 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR.[2] On 25 February 1992, the Bashkir ASSR was renamed the Republic of Bashkortostan.[3]

    On 31 March 1992, a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. On 3 August 1994,[4] a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed, granting the republic autonomy. This agreement was unilaterally abolished on 7 July 2005.[5]

    ^ "Главархитектура г. Уфы – История г. Уфы". Gorodufa.ru. Archived from the original on August 31, 2021. Retrieved August 26, 2015. ^ Ross, Cameron (May 3, 2002). Regional Politics in Russia. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-5890-5. Archived from the original on January 25, 2024. Retrieved September 15, 2023. ^ Об изменении наименования государства Башкирская Советская Социалистическая Республика / Закон Республики Башкортостан от 25 февраля 1992 г. № ВС-10/12 ^ Solnick, Steven (May 29, 1996). "Asymmetries in Russian Federation Bargaining" (PDF). The National Council for Soviet and East European Research: 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 28, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2019. ^ Turner, Cassandra (May 2018). "We Never Said We're Independent": Natural Resources, Nationalism, and the Fight for Political Autonomy in Russia's Regions (Undergraduate thesis). University of Mississippi. p. 49. As the treaty was not successfully re-approved, Bashkortostan lost its autonomy on July 7th, 2005.
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