Context of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan (UK: (listen), US: ; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, [ɑːzæɾbɑjˈdʒɑn]), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the South Caucasus region and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia (Republic of Dagestan) to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south. Baku is the capital and largest city.

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic in 1918 and became the first secular democratic Muslim-majority state. In 1920, the country was incorporated into the Soviet Un...Read more

Azerbaijan (UK: (listen), US: ; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, [ɑːzæɾbɑjˈdʒɑn]), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the South Caucasus region and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia (Republic of Dagestan) to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south. Baku is the capital and largest city.

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic in 1918 and became the first secular democratic Muslim-majority state. In 1920, the country was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan SSR. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, shortly before the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the same year. In September 1991, the ethnic Armenian majority of the Nagorno-Karabakh region formed the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh. The region and seven surrounding districts are internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, pending a solution to the status of Nagorno-Karabakh through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE, although became de facto independent with the end of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. Following the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in 2020, the seven districts and parts of Nagorno-Karabakh were returned to Azerbaijani control.

Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic. It is one of six independent Turkic states and an active member of the Organization of Turkic States and the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 182 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OSCE, and the NATO PfP program. It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the CIS, and the OPCW. Azerbaijan is also an observer state of the WTO.

The vast majority of the country's population (97%) is nominally Muslim, but the constitution does not declare an official religion and all major political forces in the country are secularist. Azerbaijan is a developing country and ranks 91st on the Human Development Index. It has a high rate of economic development, literacy, and a low rate of unemployment. However, the ruling New Azerbaijan Party, in power since 1993, has been accused of authoritarian leadership under the leadership of both Heydar Aliyev and his son Ilham Aliyev, and deteriorating the country's human rights record, including increasing restrictions on civil liberties, particularly on press freedom and political repression.

More about Azerbaijan

Basic information
  • Native name Azərbaycan
  • Calling code +994
  • Internet domain .az
  • Mains voltage 220V/50Hz
  • Democracy index 2.68
Population, Area & Driving side
  • Population 10180770
  • Area 86600
  • Driving side right
History
  • Antiquity
     
    Petroglyphs in Gobustan National Park dating back to the 10th millennium BC indicating a thriving culture

    The earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of Azykh Cave.[1]

    Early settlements included the Scythians during the 9th century BC.[2] Following the Scythians, Iranian Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras river.[3] The Medes forged a vast empire between 900 and 700 BC, which was integrated into the Achaemenid Empire around 550 BC.[4] The area was conquered by the Achaemenids leading to the spread of Zoroastrianism.[5]

    ...Read more
    Antiquity
     
    Petroglyphs in Gobustan National Park dating back to the 10th millennium BC indicating a thriving culture

    The earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of Azykh Cave.[1]

    Early settlements included the Scythians during the 9th century BC.[2] Following the Scythians, Iranian Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras river.[3] The Medes forged a vast empire between 900 and 700 BC, which was integrated into the Achaemenid Empire around 550 BC.[4] The area was conquered by the Achaemenids leading to the spread of Zoroastrianism.[5]

    From the Sasanid period to the Safavid period
    The Maiden Tower and the Palace of the Shirvanshahs in the Old City of Baku are a UNESCO World Heritage Site, built in the 11th-12th centuries.
    Maiden Tower 
    Palace of the Shirvanshahs 

    The Sasanian Empire turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in 252, while King Urnayr officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century.[6] Despite Sassanid rule, Albania remained an entity in the region until the 9th century, while fully subordinate to Sassanid Iran, and retained its monarchy. Despite being one of the chief vassals of the Sasanian emperor, the Albanian king had only a semblance of authority, and the Sasanian marzban (military governor) held most civil, religious, and military authority.[7]

    In the first half of the 7th century, Caucasian Albania, as a vassal of the Sasanians, came under nominal Muslim rule due to the Muslim conquest of Persia. The Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sasanians and Byzantines from the South Caucasus and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after Christian resistance led by King Javanshir was suppressed in 667. The power vacuum left by the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate was filled by numerous local dynasties such as the Sallarids, Sajids, and Shaddadids. At the beginning of the 11th century, the territory was gradually seized by the waves of Oghuz Turks from Central Asia, who adopted a Turkoman ethnonym at the time.[8] The first of these Turkic dynasties established was the Seljuk Empire, which entered the area now known as Azerbaijan by 1067.[9]

    The pre-Turkic population that lived on the territory of modern Azerbaijan spoke several Indo-European and Caucasian languages, among them Armenian[10][11][12][13][14] and an Iranian language, Old Azeri, which was gradually replaced by a Turkic language, the early precursor of the Azerbaijani language of today.[15] Some linguists have also stated that the Tati dialects of Iranian Azerbaijan and the Republic of Azerbaijan, like those spoken by the Tats, are descended from Old Azeri.[16][17] Locally, the possessions of the subsequent Seljuk Empire were ruled by Eldiguzids, technically vassals of the Seljuk sultans, but sometimes de facto rulers themselves. Under the Seljuks, local poets such as Nizami Ganjavi and Khaqani gave rise to a blossoming of Persian literature on the territory of present-day Azerbaijan.[18][19]

    The local dynasty of the Shirvanshahs became a vassal state of Timur's empire and assisted him in his war with the ruler of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh. Following Timur's death, two independent and rival states emerged: Qara Qoyunlu and Aq Qoyunlu. The Shirvanshahs returned, maintaining for numerous centuries to come a high degree of autonomy as local rulers and vassals as they had done since 861. In 1501, the Safavid dynasty of Iran subdued the Shirvanshahs and gained its possessions. In the course of the next century, the Safavids converted the formerly Sunni population to Shia Islam,[20][21][22] as they did with the population in what is modern-day Iran.[23] The Safavids allowed the Shirvanshahs to remain in power, under Safavid suzerainty, until 1538, when Safavid king Tahmasp I (r. 1524–1576) completely deposed them, and made the area into the Safavid province of Shirvan. The Sunni Ottomans briefly managed to occupy parts of present-day Azerbaijan as a result of the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578–1590; by the early 17th century, they were ousted by Safavid Iranian ruler Abbas I (r. 1588–1629). In the wake of the demise of the Safavid Empire, Baku and its environs were briefly occupied by the Russians as a consequence of the Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723. Despite brief intermissions such as these by Safavid Iran's neighboring rivals, the land of what is today Azerbaijan remained under Iranian rule from the earliest advent of the Safavids up to the course of the 19th century.[24][25]

    Modern history
     
    Territories of the khanate (and sultanates) in the 18th–19th century

    After the Safavids, the area was ruled by the Iranian Afsharid dynasty. After the death of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747), many of his former subjects capitalized on the eruption of instability. Numerous self-ruling khanates with various forms of autonomy[26][27][28][29][30] emerged in the area. The rulers of these khanates were directly related to the ruling dynasties of Iran and were vassals and subjects of the Iranian shah.[31] The khanates exercised control over their affairs via international trade routes between Central Asia and the West.[32]

    Thereafter, the area was under the successive rule of the Iranian Zands and Qajars.[33] From the late 18th century, Imperial Russia switched to a more aggressive geo-political stance towards its two neighbors and rivals to the south, namely Iran and the Ottoman Empire.[34] Russia now actively tried to gain possession of the Caucasus region which was, for the most part, in the hands of Iran.[35] In 1804, the Russians invaded and sacked the Iranian town of Ganja, sparking the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813.[36] The militarily superior Russians ended the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813 with a victory.[37]

     
    The siege of Ganja Fortress in 1804 during the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813

    Following Qajar Iran's loss in the 1804–1813 war, it was forced to concede suzerainty over most of the khanates, along with Georgia and Dagestan to the Russian Empire, per the Treaty of Gulistan.[38]

    The area to the north of the river Aras, amongst which territory lies the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan, was Iranian territory until Russia occupied it in the 19th century.[39][40][41][42][43][44] About a decade later, in violation of the Gulistan treaty, the Russians invaded Iran's Erivan Khanate.[45][46] This sparked the final bout of hostilities between the two, the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828. The resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay, forced Qajar Iran to cede sovereignty over the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate,[38] comprising the last parts of the soil of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that were still in Iranian hands. After the incorporation of all Caucasian territories from Iran into Russia, the new border between the two was set at the Aras River, which, upon the Soviet Union's disintegration, subsequently became part of the border between Iran and the Azerbaijan Republic.[47]

    Qajar Iran was forced to cede its Caucasian territories to Russia in the 19th century, which thus included the territory of the modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, while as a result of that cession, the Azerbaijani ethnic group is nowadays parted between two nations: Iran and Azerbaijan.[48]

    Despite the Russian conquest, throughout the entire 19th century, preoccupation with Iranian culture, literature, and language remained widespread amongst Shia and Sunni intellectuals in the Russian-held cities of Baku, Ganja and Tiflis (Tbilisi, now Georgia).[49] Within the same century, in post-Iranian Russian-held East Caucasia, an Azerbaijani national identity emerged at the end of the 19th century.[50]

    After the collapse of the Russian Empire during World War I, the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic was declared, constituting the present-day republics of Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia. It was followed by the March Days massacres[51][52] that took place between 30 March and 2 April 1918 in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire.[53] When the republic dissolved in May 1918, the leading Musavat party declared independence as the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR), adopting the name of "Azerbaijan" for the new republic; a name that prior to the proclamation of the ADR was solely used to refer to the adjacent northwestern region of contemporary Iran.[54][55][56] The ADR was the first modern parliamentary republic in the Muslim world.[39][57][58] Among the important accomplishments of the Parliament was the extension of suffrage to women, making Azerbaijan the first Muslim nation to grant women equal political rights with men.[57] Another important accomplishment of ADR was the establishment of Baku State University, which was the first modern-type university founded in the Muslim East.[57]

     
    Map presented by the delegation of Azerbaijan in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference

    By March 1920, it was obvious that Soviet Russia would attack Baku. Vladimir Lenin said that the invasion was justified as Soviet Russia could not survive without Baku's oil.[59][60] Independent Azerbaijan lasted only 23 months until the Bolshevik 11th Soviet Red Army invaded it, establishing the Azerbaijan SSR on 28 April 1920. Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh, Azerbaijanis did not surrender their brief independence of 1918–20 quickly or easily. As many as 20,000 Azerbaijani soldiers died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest.[61] Within the ensuing early Soviet period, the Azerbaijani national identity was finally forged.[50]

    On 13 October 1921, the Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia signed an agreement with Turkey known as the Treaty of Kars. The previously independent Republic of Aras would also become the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Azerbaijan SSR by the treaty of Kars. On the other hand, Armenia was awarded the region of Zangezur and Turkey agreed to return Gyumri (then known as Alexandropol).[62]

    During World War II, Azerbaijan played a crucial role in the strategic energy policy of the Soviet Union, with 80 percent of the Soviet Union's oil on the Eastern Front being supplied by Baku. By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in February 1942, the commitment of more than 500 workers and employees of the oil industry of Azerbaijan were awarded orders and medals. Operation Edelweiss carried out by the German Wehrmacht targeted Baku because of its importance as the energy (petroleum) dynamo of the USSR.[39] A fifth of all Azerbaijanis fought in the Second World War from 1941 to 1945. Approximately 681,000 people with over 100,000 of them women, went to the front, while the total population of Azerbaijan was 3.4 million at the time.[63] Some 250,000 people from Azerbaijan were killed on the front. More than 130 Azerbaijanis were named Heroes of the Soviet Union. Azerbaijani Major-General Azi Aslanov was twice awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union.[64]

    Independence
     
    Soviet Army paratroopers during the Black January tragedy in 1990

    Following the politics of glasnost, initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev, civil unrest and ethnic strife grew in various regions of the Soviet Union, including Nagorno-Karabakh,[65] an autonomous region of the Azerbaijan SSR. The disturbances in Azerbaijan, in response to Moscow's indifference to an already heated conflict, resulted in calls for independence and secession, which culminated in the Black January events in Baku.[66] Later in 1990, the Supreme Council of the Azerbaijan SSR dropped the words "Soviet Socialist" from the title, adopted the "Declaration of Sovereignty of the Azerbaijan Republic" and restored the flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic as the state flag.[67] As a consequence of the failed 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt in Moscow, the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopted a Declaration of Independence on 18 October 1991, which was affirmed by a nationwide referendum in December 1991, while the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist on 26 December 1991.[67] The country now celebrates its Independence Day on 18 October.[68]

    The early years of independence were overshadowed by the First Nagorno-Karabakh war with the ethnic Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by Armenia.[69] By the end of the hostilities in 1994, Armenians controlled up to 14–16 percent of Azerbaijani territory, including Nagorno-Karabakh itself.[70][71] During the war many atrocities and pogroms by both sides were committed including the massacres at Malibeyli and Gushchular, the Garadaghly massacre and the Khojaly massacres, along with the Baku pogrom, the Maraga massacre and the Kirovabad pogrom.[72][73] Furthermore, an estimated 30,000 people have been killed and more than a million people have been displaced, more than 800,000 Azerbaijanis and 300,000 Armenians.[74] Four United Nations Security Council Resolutions (822, 853, 874, and 884) demand for "the immediate withdrawal of all Armenian forces from all occupied territories of Azerbaijan."[75] Many Russians and Armenians left and fled Azerbaijan as refugees during the 1990s.[76] According to the 1970 census, there were 510,000 ethnic Russians and 484,000 Armenians in Azerbaijan.[77]

    Heydar Aliyev, 1993–today
     
    Military situation in the Nagorno-Karabakh region prior to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war

    In 1993, democratically elected president Abulfaz Elchibey was overthrown by a military insurrection led by Colonel Surat Huseynov, which resulted in the rise to power of the former leader of Soviet Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev.[78] In 1994, Surat Huseynov, by that time the prime minister, attempted another military coup against Heydar Aliyev, but he was arrested and charged with treason.[79] A year later, in 1995, another coup was attempted against Aliyev, this time by the commander of the OMON special unit, Rovshan Javadov. The coup was averted, resulting in the killing of the latter and disbanding of Azerbaijan's OMON units.[80][81] At the same time, the country was tainted by rampant corruption in the governing bureaucracy.[82] In October 1998, Aliyev was reelected for a second term. Despite the much improved economy, particularly with the exploitation of the Azeri–Chirag–Guneshli oil field and Shah Deniz gas field, Aliyev's presidency was criticized due to suspected election fraud, high levels of economic inequality and domestic corruption.[83][better source needed]

    Ilham Aliyev, Heydar Aliyev's son, became chairman of the New Azerbaijan Party as well as President of Azerbaijan when his father died in 2003. He was reelected to a third term as president in October 2013.[84] In April 2018, President Ilham Aliyev secured his fourth consecutive term in the election that was boycotted by the main opposition parties as fraudulent.[85] On 27 September 2020, new clashes in the unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict resumed along the Nagorno-Karabakh Line of Contact. Both the armed forces of Azerbaijan and Armenia reported military and civilian casualties.[86] The Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement and the end of the six-week war between Azerbaijan and Armenia was widely celebrated in Azerbaijan, as they made significant territorial gains.[87]

    ^ Azakov, Siyavush. "National report on institutional landscape and research policy Social Sciences and Humanities in Azerbaijan" (PDF). Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2007. ^ Cite error: The named reference Library of Congress was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference dictionary was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ H. Dizadji (2010). Journey from Tehran to Chicago: My Life in Iran and the United States, and a Brief History of Iran. USA: Trafford Publishing. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4269-2918-2. ^ Chaumont, M. L. (1984). "Albania". Encyclopædia Iranica. ^ Shaw, Ian (2017). Christianity: The Biography: 2000 Years of Global History. Zondervan Academic. ISBN 978-0-310-53628-4. ^ Ehsan Yarshater (1983). The Cambridge history of Iran, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-521-20092-9. ^ Barthold, V.V. Sochineniya; p. 558: "Whatever the former significance of the Oghuz people in Eastern Asia, after the events of the 8th and 9th centuries, it focuses more and more on the West, on the border of the Pre-Asian cultural world, which was destined to be invaded by the Oghuz people in the 11th century, or, as they were called only in the west, by the Turkmen." ^ Canby, Sheila R.; Beyazit, Deniz; Rugiadi, Martina; Peacock, A. C. S. (27 April 2016). Court and Cosmos: The Great Age of the Seljuqs. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-589-4. ^ Hewsen, Robert H.; Salvatico, Christoper C. (2001). Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-33228-4. ^ Samuelian, Thomas J. (1982). Hewsen, Robert H. (1982). Thomas J. Samuelian, ed. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians". Classical Armenian Culture: Influences and Creativity. (Philadelphia: Scholars Press. p. 45. Scholars Press. ISBN 978-0-89130-565-1. ^ Hewsen, Robert H. (2001). Armenia: a Historical Atlas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 32–33, map 19 (shows the territory of modern Nagorno–Karabakh as part of the Orontids' Kingdom of Armenia). ^ Моисей Хоренский. Армянская География VII в. Перевод Патканова К.П. СПб., 1877. стр. 40,17 ^ Hewsen, Robert H. "The Kingdom of Artsakh," in T. Samuelian & M. Stone, eds. Medieval Armenian Culture. Chico, CA, 1983 ^ Yarshater, E. (1987). "The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. III/2. ^ Ludwig, Paul (1998). Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies. Vol. 1 (Nicholas Sims-Williams (ed.) ed.). Cambridge: Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 978-3-89500-070-6. ^ Roy, Olivier (2007). The new Central Asia: geopolitics and the birth of nations (reprint ed.). I.B. Tauris. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84511-552-4. ^ "Neẓāmī". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2009. ^ "Khāqānī". Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ R. Ward, Steven (2009). Immortal: a military history of Iran and its armed forces. Georgetown University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-58901-258-5. ^ Malcolm Wagstaff, John (1985). The evolution of middle eastern landscapes: an outline to A.D. 1840, Part 1840. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-389-20577-7. ^ L. Altstadt, Audrey (1992). The Azerbaijani Turks: power and identity under Russian rule. Hoover Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8179-9182-1. ^ Akiner, Shirin (2004). The Caspian: Politics, Energy and Security. RoutledgeCurzon. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7007-0501-6. ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1995). Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press. pp. 69, 133. ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3. ^ L. Batalden, Sandra (1997). The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4. ^ Walker, Christopher J. (1980). Armenia, the survival of a nation. Croom Helm. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-7099-0210-2. Tsitsianov next moved against the semi-independent Iranian khanates. On the thinnest of pretexts, he captured the Muslim town of Gandja, the seat of Islamic learning in the Caucasus (...) ^ Saparov, Arsène (2014). From Conflict to Autonomy in the Caucasus: The Soviet Union and the Making of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno Karabakh. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-63783-7. Even though these principalities [the khanates] had not been under Iranian suzerainty since the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747, they were traditionally considered an inalienable part of Iranian domains. (...) To the semi-independent Caucasian principalities, the appearance of the new Great Power (...) ^ Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh (May 1997). "Fragile Frontiers: The Diminishing Domains of Qajar Iran". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 29 (2): 210. doi:10.1017/s0020743800064473. In 1795, Ibrahim Khalil Khan, the wali of Qarabagh, warned Sultan Selim III of Aqa Muhammad Khan's ambitions. Fearing for his independence, he informed the Sultan of Aqa Muhammad Khan's ability to subdue Azerbaijan and later Qarabagh, Erivan, and Georgia. ^ Barker, Adele Marie; Grant, Bruce (2010). The Russia Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-8223-4648-7. But they were relatively more accessible given the organization of small, centralized, semi-independent khanates that functioned through the decline of Iranian rule after the death of Nadir Shah in the mid-eighteenth century (...) ^ Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0. Agha Muhammad Khan could now turn to the restoration of the outlying provinces of the Safavid kingdom. Returning to Tehran in the spring of 1795, he assembled a force of some 60,000 cavalries and infantry and in Shawwal Dhul-Qa'da/May, set off for Azarbaijan, intending to conquer the country between the rivers Aras and Kura, formerly under Safavid control. This region comprised a number of khanates of which the most important was Qarabagh, with its capital at Shusha; Ganja, with its capital of the same name; Shirvan across the Kura, with its capital at Shamakhi; and to the north-west, on both banks of the Kura, Christian Georgia (Gurjistan), with its capital at Tiflis. ^ Encyclopedia of Soviet law By Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons, Page 457 ^ King, Charles (2008). The ghost of freedom: a history of the Caucasus. University of Michigan. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-517775-6. ^ Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmaijan, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S.; Ouzounian, Nourhan, eds. (2005). The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the eighteenth century to modern times. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8143-3221-4. ^ Gabor Agoston, Bruce Alan Masters. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing, 1 January 2009 ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7 p. 125 ^ Multiple Authors. "Caucasus and Iran". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 3 September 2012. ^ Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 1035. ISBN 978-1-85109-672-5. January 1804. (...) Russo-Persian War. Russian invasion of Persia. (...) In January 1804 Russian forces under General Paul Tsitsianov (Sisianoff) invade Persia and storm the citadel of Ganjeh, beginning the Russo-Persian War (1804–1813). ^ Goldstein, Erik (1992). Wars and Peace Treaties: 1816 to 1991. London: Routledge. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-415-07822-1. ^ a b Timothy C. Dowling (2014). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp. 728–729 ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6 ^ a b c Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1995). Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press. pp. 69, 133. ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3. ^ L. Batalden, Sandra (1997). The Newly Independent States of Eurasia: Handbook of Former Soviet Republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4. ^ E. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan (2000). Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7425-0063-1. ^ Andreeva, Elena (2010). Russia and Iran in the great game: travelogues and orientalism (reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-78153-4. ^ Çiçek, Kemal, Kuran, Ercüment (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. University of Michigan. ISBN 978-975-6782-18-7. ^ Ernest Meyer, Karl, Blair Brysac, Shareen (2006). Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia. Basic Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-465-04576-1.[permanent dead link] ^ Cronin, Stephanie, ed. (2013). Iranian-Russian Encounters: Empires and Revolutions since 1800. Routledge. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-415-62433-6. Perhaps the most important legacy of Yermolov was his intention from early on to prepare the ground for the conquest of the remaining khanates under Iranian rule and to make the River Aras the new border. (...) Another provocative action by Yermolov was the Russian occupation of the northern shore of Lake Gokcha (Sivan) in the Khanate of Iravan in 1825. A clear violation of Golestan, this action was the most significant provocation by the Russian side. The Lake Gokcha occupation clearly showed that it was Russia and not Iran which initiated hostilities and breached Golestan and that Iran was left with no choice but to come up with a proper response. ^ Dowling, Timothy C., ed. (2015). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 729. ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6. In May 1826, Russia, therefore, occupied Mirak, in the Erivan khanate, in violation of the Treaty of Gulistan. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 664. ISBN 978-1-4422-4146-6. ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz. Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia 2003 Taylor and Francis, 2003. ISBN 978-1-85743-137-7 p. 104 ^ Gasimov, Zaur (2022). "Observing Iran from Baku: Iranian Studies in Soviet and Post-Soviet Azerbaijan". Iranian Studies. 55 (1): 38. doi:10.1080/00210862.2020.1865136. S2CID 233889871. The preoccupation with Iranian culture, literature, and language was widespread among Baku-, Ganja-, and Tiflis-based Shia as well as Sunni intellectuals, and it never ceased throughout the nineteenth century. ^ a b Gasimov, Zaur (2022). "Observing Iran from Baku: Iranian Studies in Soviet and Post-Soviet Azerbaijan". Iranian Studies. 55 (1): 37. doi:10.1080/00210862.2020.1865136. S2CID 233889871. Azerbaijani national identity emerged in post-Persian Russian-ruled East Caucasia at the end of the nineteenth century, and was finally forged during the early Soviet period. ^ Smith, Michael (April 2001). "Anatomy of Rumor: Murder Scandal, the Musavat Party and Narrative of the Russian Revolution in Baku, 1917–1920". Journal of Contemporary History. 36 (2): 228. doi:10.1177/002200940103600202. S2CID 159744435. The results of the March events were immediate and total for the Musavat. Several hundreds of its members were killed in the fighting; up to 12,000 Muslim civilians perished; thousands of others fled Baku in a mass exodus ^ Minahan, James B. (1998). Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-313-30610-5. The tensions and fighting between the Azerbaijanis and the Armenians in the federation culminated in the massacre of some 12,000 Azerbaijanis in Baku by radical Armenians and Bolshevik troops in March 1918 ^ Michael Smith. "Pamiat' ob utratakh i Azerbaidzhanskoe obshchestvo/Traumatic Loss and Azerbaijani. National Memory". Azerbaidzhan i Rossiia: obshchestva i gosudarstva (Azerbaijan and Russia: Societies and States) (in Russian). Sakharov Center. Retrieved 21 August 2011. ^ Cite error: The named reference I.B.Tauris was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference I.B. Tauris was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Amsterdam University Press was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b c Kazemzadeh, Firuz (1951). The Struggle for Transcaucasia: 1917–1921. The New York Philosophical Library. pp. 124, 222, 229, 269–270. ISBN 978-0-8305-0076-5. ^ Schulze, Reinhard. A Modern History of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris, 2000. ISBN 978-1-86064-822-9. ^ Горянин, Александр (28 August 2003). Очень черное золото (in Russian). GlobalRus. Archived from the original on 6 September 2003. Retrieved 28 August 2003. ^ Горянин, Александр. История города Баку. Часть 3. (in Russian). Window2Baku. ^ Pope, Hugh (2006). Sons of the conquerors: the rise of the Turkic world. New York: The Overlook Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-58567-804-4. ^ Raymond Duncan, Walter; Holman (Jr.), G. Paul (1994). Ethnic nationalism and regional conflict: the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. USA: Westview Press. pp. 109–112. ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3. ^ "Azerbaijan celebrates day of victory over fascism". "Contact.az". 9 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. ^ "Victory over Nazis 'was impossible without Baku oil'". "AzerNEWS". 8 May 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2010. ^ Michael P., Croissant (1998). The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: causes and implications. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 36, 37. ISBN 978-0-275-96241-8. ^ "Human Rights Watch. "Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights"". Human Rights Watch. ^ a b "Milli Məclisin tarixi. Azərbaycan SSR Ali Soveti (1920–1991-ci illər)" [The history of Milli Majlis. Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR (1920–1991)]. Retrieved 1 December 2010. ^ David C. King (2006). Azerbaijan. Marshall Cavendish. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-7614-2011-8. ^ "Bishkek Protocol | UN Peacemaker". United Nations. Retrieved 23 August 2019. ^ "Azerbaijan". The World Factbook (2023 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 8 May 2022. ^ De Waal, Thomas (2013). Black Garden: Armenia And Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, p. 286. ISBN 978-0-8147-1945-9, 0814719457. ^ "Massacre by Armenians Being Reported". The New York Times. 3 March 1992. Retrieved 9 September 2013. ^ Smolowe, Jill (16 March 1992). "Tragedy Massacre in Khojaly". Time. Archived from the original on 28 February 2005. Retrieved 9 September 2013. ^ A Conflict That Can Be Resolved in Time: Nagorno-Karabakh Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. International Herald Tribune. 29 November 2003. ^ "General Assembly adopts resolution reaffirming territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, demanding withdrawal of all Armenian forces". United Nations General Assembly. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2008. ^ Southern Caucasus: Facing Integration Problems, Ethnic Russians Long For Better Life. EurasiaNet.org. 30 August 2003. ^ "Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic". The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). ^ "Azerbaijan: Rise to power". Encyclopedia of the Nations. 3 October 1993. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011. ^ "Timeline: Azerbaijan A chronology of key events". BBC News. 31 March 2011. ^ "Azeri rights activist says 35 imprisoned special police unit members very sick". BBC Archive. 2 June 2000. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2009. ^ Efron, Sonni (18 March 1995). "Azerbaijan Coup Attempt Crushed Caucasus: Loyal forces storm a building and overcome mutinous police units, president reports". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2009. ^ Mulvey, Stephen (14 October 2003). "Aliyev and son keep it in the family". BBC News. Retrieved 14 October 2003. ^ "Azerbaijan's Geidar Aliev dies at 80". China Daily. 16 December 2003. Archived from the original on 17 December 2003. Retrieved 13 December 2003. ^ "Nov 2013 – Action against opposition". Keesing's Record of World Events. November 2013. p. 53026. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche (11 April 2018). "Azerbaijan's strongman Ilham Aliyev re-elected for fourth consecutive term | DW | 11.04.2018". Deutsche Welle. ^ "Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh goes on despite US mediation". Associated Press. 24 October 2020. ^ "Fury and celebrations as Russia brokers peace deal to end Nagorno-Karabakh war". The Independent. 11 November 2020.
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