Crimean Bridge

Crimean Bridge

The Crimean Bridge (Russian: Крымский мост, tr. Krymskiy most, IPA: [ˈkrɨmskʲij most]), also called Kerch Strait Bridge or Kerch Bridge, is a pair of parallel bridges, one for a four-lane road and one for a double-track railway, spanning the Kerch Strait between the Taman Peninsula of Krasnodar Krai in Russia and the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea. Built by the Russian Federation after the annexation of Crimea at the start of 2014, the bridge cost ₽227.92 billion (US$3.7 billion) and has a length of 19 km (12 mi), making it the longest bridge in Europe and the longest bridge ever constructed by R...Read more

The Crimean Bridge (Russian: Крымский мост, tr. Krymskiy most, IPA: [ˈkrɨmskʲij most]), also called Kerch Strait Bridge or Kerch Bridge, is a pair of parallel bridges, one for a four-lane road and one for a double-track railway, spanning the Kerch Strait between the Taman Peninsula of Krasnodar Krai in Russia and the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea. Built by the Russian Federation after the annexation of Crimea at the start of 2014, the bridge cost ₽227.92 billion (US$3.7 billion) and has a length of 19 km (12 mi), making it the longest bridge in Europe and the longest bridge ever constructed by Russia.

In January 2015, the multibillion-dollar construction contract for the bridge was awarded to Arkady Rotenberg's Stroygazmontazh. Construction began in February 2016. The road bridge was inaugurated by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 15 May 2018. It opened for cars on 16 May and for trucks on 1 October. The rail bridge was inaugurated on 23 December 2019 and the first scheduled passenger train crossed the bridge two days later. The bridge was opened for freight trains on 30 June 2020. A record amount of traffic, totaling 36,393 cars, was recorded on 15 August 2020.

The bridge was named the "Crimean Bridge" after an online vote in December 2017, while "Kerch Bridge" and "Reunification Bridge" were the second and third most popular choices, respectively.

On 8 October 2022, an explosion occurred on the roadway leading from Russia to Crimea, starting a large fire and causing parts of the road bridge to collapse, with repairs ordered to be completed by end of July 2023.

Pre-annexation proposals and attempts Kerch railway bridge

Proposals to build a bridge across the Kerch Strait were considered from the early 20th century onward.

During World War II the German Organisation Todt built a ropeway over the strait. Finished in June 1943, it had daily capacity of 1,000 tonnes. Construction of a combined road and railway bridge started in April 1943, but before it was finished, retreating German troops blew up the completed parts of the bridge and destroyed the ropeway.

In 1944, the Soviet Union constructed a 4.5-kilometre (2+34 mi) railway bridge across the strait. This bridge, not designed as permanent, was marred by design and construction errors, and was destroyed by flowing ice in February 1945.[1] A proposal to repair it was quickly dismissed and the remnants of the bridge were dismantled, with permanent bridge designs envisaged instead.

Soviet proposals

In 1949 the Soviet government ordered the construction of a 5.969-kilometre (3 mi 1,248 yd) two-tier combined road-rail bridge (two road lanes on the upper tier and two rail tracks on the lower tier) with 40 m clearance below, connecting Yeni-Kale with Chushka Spit, but in 1950 the construction was halted and a ferry line was created instead.[2]

A different version of the fixed link, the Kerch waterworks project («Керченский гидроузел») was developed since the mid-1960s, proposing a system of dams and bridges across the strait. The project was not implemented due to a lack of funding[3] and the collapse of the USSR.[4][5]

Negotiations between Ukrainian and Russian governments

Although the idea of an international bridge linking Ukraine and Russia survived the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, the two countries failed to finalize the project.[6] Former Moscow mayor Yury Luzhkov was a vocal advocate for a highway bridge across the strait, expressing hope that it would bring the Crimeans closer to Russia, both economically and symbolically.[6] Similar hopes were expressed by pro-Russian authorities in Crimea, who hoped that the bridge would contribute to either a "revival of the Silk Road" or to a multinational road along the Black Sea coast.[3][a]

Construction of the bridge was reconsidered by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2006, and the then-Transport Minister of Ukraine Mykola Rudkovsky stated that he expected the bridge to be a "net positive for Crimea" as it would allow "every tourist visiting Russian Caucasus to visit Crimea as well".[8][9] The issue was discussed by prime ministers of both countries in 2008,[10] and a Transport Strategy of Russia, adopted in that year, envisaged the construction of the Kerch Strait bridge as a high priority issue for the development of the Southern Federal District's transport infrastructure in the period 2016–2030, with design to be created by 2015.[11]

In 2010, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed an agreement to build a bridge across the Kerch Strait,[13] and Russia and Ukraine signed a memorandum of mutual understanding on the construction of the bridge on 26 November 2010.[14] A 2011 study by the Ukrainian government announced preliminary preference for a route between Cape Fonar and Cape Maly Kut. Had that project been accomplished, it would have meant construction of a 10.92 km (6 mi 1,382 yd) bridge link, with 49 km (30+12 mi) of adjacent roads and 24 km (15 mi) of adjacent railroads.[15]

The shelving of the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement in November 2013 led to increased interest in the construction of a bridge between Crimea and the Taman Peninsula of Russia,[16] and an agreement on the construction of that bridge was signed as a part of the 17 December 2013 Ukrainian–Russian action plan. In late January 2014, the Ukrainian and Russian governments decided that a new joint Ukrainian–Russian company would be commissioned to handle the construction of the bridge, while the Russian state enterprise Russian Highways (Avtodor) would become responsible for the bridge in the long term.[16]

It was decided a special working group would determine the location and set the technical parameters.[16] The Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine estimated that construction would take five years and cost between $1.5 and $3 billion.[16] In early February 2014, Russian Highways (Avtodor) was instructed by the First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia to work on a feasibility study to be published in 2015.[16]

In the following months, as relations deteriorated, bilateral negotiations over the bridge collapsed,[17] yet Russia claimed that it expected the December 2013 deals to be honored, and on 3 March prime minister Dmitry Medvedev signed a governmental decree to create a subsidiary of Avtodor to oversee the project.[18] A contest for the engineering survey of the bridge project was announced by that subsidiary on 18 March,[19] but by that time the premise of the contest, which still referred to 2013 agreements,[20] was already outdated. In April 2014, following Russian annexation of Crimea the Ukrainian government gave Russia six months' notice of its withdrawal from the now-defunct bilateral Kerch Bridge agreement.[21]

After 2014 annexation and start of construction
 
The logo of the Crimean bridge

Following the Russian invasion and annexation of Crimea in March 2014 amid a sharp deterioration in Ukrainian-Russian relations, Russia declared it would unilaterally build the Kerch Strait bridge to connect the Russian mainland with the annexed Ukrainian peninsula. The project was strategic, an instrumental part of Russian plans to integrate the newly annexed territory into Russia.[22] The project aims to shift Crimean dependence on Ukraine and reduce Kyiv's leverage,[23] remove Moscow's reliance upon inadequate sea and air links for supplying the peninsula,[24][25] and allow Russia to independently supply Crimea, whose economy has become dependent upon significant subsidies from Moscow. The bridge has a symbolic purpose: it is meant to show Russia's resolve to hold Crimea,[22] and as a "physical" attachment of Crimea to Russian territory.[26]

The announcement that Russia would build a road-rail bridge over the strait was made by the Russian President Vladimir Putin on 19 March 2014,[27][28] just one day after Russia officially claimed Crimea. In January 2015, the contract for construction of the bridge was awarded to the SGM Group, whose owner Arkady Rotenberg (reportedly a close personal friend of Putin) was internationally sanctioned in response to the Russian military's involvement in Ukraine. SGM typically constructed pipelines and had no experience building bridges, according to BBC News.[29]

The construction of the Kerch Bridge took place without Ukraine's consent.[21] The Ukrainian government has actively condemned Russian construction of the bridge[30] as illegal[31] because Ukraine, "as a coastal state with regard to the Crimean Peninsula", did not give its consent to such construction,[32] and called on Russia to demolish "those parts of that structure located within temporarily occupied Ukrainian territory".[33] Sanctions were introduced by the United States and the European Union against companies involved in the construction.[34][35]

Since December 2018 the United Nations General Assembly has repeatedly condemned the construction and opening of the bridge as "facilitating the further militarization of Crimea"[36][37] and "restricting the size of ships that can reach the Ukrainian ports on the Azov coast".[38] Russia, on the other hand, asserted that it "shall not ask for anybody's permission to build transport infrastructure for the sake of the population of Russian regions".[39]

Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Ukrainian plans and calls for the "destruction" of the bridge have risen,[40][41] bringing criticism and talks of guaranteed protection of the bridge from Dmitry Peskov, the Kremlin Press Secretary.[42]

2022 explosion

On 8 October 2022 a major explosion occurred on the bridge, forcing portions of the Crimea-bound road segment to collapse and causing several oil tanker wagons on the rail section to catch fire. Vladimir Konstantinov, Chairman of the State Council of Crimea, attributed the explosion to a Ukrainian attack. Limited traffic resumed on the remaining lines shortly afterwards.[43][44][45] Russian authorities ordered repairs to be complete by July 2023.[46]

^ Bologov, Petr (27 February 2017). "The bridge-long dream". intersectionproject.eu. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017. ^ "Предисловие | Мост через Керченский пролив". kerch.rusarchives.ru. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019. ^ a b "Макропроект в Крыму". kommersant.ru (in Russian). 22 October 1994. Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 7 December 2019. ^ Проект для моря. Vokrug sveta (in Russian). 1 December 1972. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2016. ^ На стыке двух морей (33–36 pages). Tekhnika Molodezhi (in Russian). January 1985. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2016. ^ a b Лужков присоединяет Крым к России. Kommersant (in Russian). 8 April 1999. Archived from the original on 8 October 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2009. ^ "Черноморское кольцо уперлось в Украину" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 10 December 2019. ^ "Кабмин рассматривает возможность соединения Украины с Россией". Украинская правда (in Russian). Archived from the original on 3 September 2022. Retrieved 7 December 2019. ^ "Между Керчью и Россией построят мост". podrobnosti. 17 November 2006. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019. ^ "Россия и Украина договорились строить мост через Керченский пролив". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2019. ^ "2008 Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation". rzd.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019. ^ "Мост через Керченский пролив". pantikapei. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2012. ^ Azarov creates group for bridging the Kerch Strait Archived 23 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (9 August 2010) ^ Russia, Ukraine to construct bridge across Kerch Strait Archived 6 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (26 November 2010) ^ "Украина выбрала северный вариант моста через Керченский пролив". Kavkaz Uzel. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019. ^ a b c d e «Автодор» приступает к подготовке проекта моста через Керченский пролив Читайте далее Archived 19 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Vedomosti (14 February 2014) ^ Глава Минтранса: Россия приостановила переговоры с Украиной по проекту Керченского моста [Head of the [Russian] Ministry of Transport: Russia ceased negotiations with Ukraine regarding the Kerch Strait Bridge project]. TASS. 28 February 2014. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ Medvedev Signs Decree Creating Contractor for Kerch Strait Bridge Project Archived 18 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine The Moscow Times (3 March 2014) ^ "Объявлен конкурс на инженерные изыскания по строительству Керченского моста". ТАСС. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019. ^ "Request on proposals on the engineering design of the Kerch Strait Bridge, Contest Documentation, page 20". zakupki.gov.ru. Retrieved 7 December 2019.[permanent dead link] ^ a b "Ukraine withdraws from Kerch Strait bridge project with Russia". ITAR–TASS. 1 October 2014. Archived from the original on 30 November 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference walker was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ David M. Herszenhorn (19 March 2014). "Dependence on Russia Is Likely to Leave Region's Economy in a Precarious State". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2018. The process is also fraught with risks, including the possibility that the Ukrainian government could move to further isolate the geographically remote peninsula by shutting vital transportation lines. There is no overland transportation link between Russia and Crimea, and building a bridge across the shortest waterway, near the Crimean city of Kerch, would take years and cost an estimated $3 billion to $5 billion ^ Roth, Andrew (15 May 2018). "Putin opens 12-mile bridge between Crimea and Russian mainland". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 26 July 2018. The 12-mile (19km), $3.7bn (£2.7bn) bridge is Moscow's only direct road link to Crimea. Russia expects it will carry millions of cars and rail travellers and millions of tons of cargo each year. Previously, all car traffic passed over the Kerch strait by ferry or by passing through Ukraine ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Russia Makes Bold Move to Try to Solidify Control Over Crimea". The Daily Signal. 18 May 2018. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "Russia to Build Bridge to Crimea". RIA Novosti. 19 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014. ^ "Kerch Strait bridge to be built ahead of schedule – deputy minister". ITAR–TASS. 19 March 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Putin ally to build bridge to Crimea". BBC News. 30 January 2015. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2015. ^ "Crimea: Who controls its territorial waters?". BBC. 27 November 2018. Archived from the original on 19 December 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine on the unlawful launch of the Kerch Strait bridge by the Russian Federation". undocs.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2022. ^ Киев считает противоправным введение РФ запрета на судоходство через Керченский пролив [Kyiv deems Russian restrictions on shipping in the Kerch Strait illegal] (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "Statement by the delegation of Ukraine at the 28th meeting of States Parties to the UNCLOS". Permanent Mission of Ukraine to the United Nations. 12 June 2018. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "U.S. imposes sanctions on 'Putin's bridge' to Crimea". Reuters. 2 September 2016. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "Ukraine: EU adds six entities involved in the construction of the Kerch Bridge connecting the illegally annexed Crimea to Russia to sanctions list". Archived from the original on 1 September 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 73/194 "Problem of the militarization of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, Ukraine, as well as parts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov"". United Nations Documents. 23 January 2019. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Urging Russian Federation to Withdraw Its Armed Forces from Crimea, Expressing Grave Concern about Rising Military Presence". United Nations. Meetings Coverage and Press Releases. 17 December 2018. Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 74/17 "Problem of the militarization of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, Ukraine, as well as parts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov"". United Nations Documents. 13 December 2019. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2019. ^ "Russia Defends Opening of Crimea Bridge Against U.S. Criticism". Moscow Times. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2019. ^ Hambling, David (6 May 2022). "Ukraine Threatens Russia's Vital Bridge To Crimea". Forbes. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022. ^ "Ukrainians threaten to destroy Russian bridge to Crimea 'target number one'". South China Morning Post. 17 June 2022. Archived from the original on 21 July 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022. ^ "Ukrainian intelligence says it obtained detailed specs of Crimean Bridge linking peninsula with Russia". The Kyiv Independent. 16 June 2022. Archived from the original on 8 October 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022. ^ Cite error: The named reference bbc-20221010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Lister, Tim; Pennington, Josh (8 October 2022). "Massive blast cripples parts of Crimea-Russia bridge, in blow to Putin's war effort". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 October 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2022. ^ Adams, Paul (8 October 2022). "Crimean bridge: Excitement and fear in Ukraine after bridge blast". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 October 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2022. ^ "Crimea bridge: Russia 'to repair blast damage by July 2023'". BBC News. 14 October 2022. Retrieved 14 October 2022.


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

Photographies by:
Росавтодор - CC BY 4.0
Position
3009
Rank
336

Add new comment

Esta pregunta es para comprobar si usted es un visitante humano y prevenir envíos de spam automatizado.

Security
729316485Click/tap this sequence: 6983

Google street view