Ulpiana was an ancient Roman city located in what is today Kosovo. It was also named Justiniana Secunda (Latin: Iustiniana Secunda, Albanian: Justinianë Sekundë, Serbian: Јустинијана Секунда). Ulpiana is situated in the municipality of Lipjan. The Minicipium Ulpiana - Iustiniana Secunda was proclaimed archaeological park under permanent protection of Kosovo by the Kosova Council for Cultural Heritage in 2016. The protection zone of the Archaeological Park has 96.23 ha and includes also Justinopolis, constructed during the reign of Justinian. Ulpiana was among the largest settlements in the Balkans of the late antiquity.
Ulpiana played an important role in the development of the most important cities in the Roman province of Dardania. Ulpiana is mentioned in ancient sources from the second decade of the 2nd century AD. Since then it played an important role during the invasive expeditions when the emperor could stop during his travels. Ulpiana became an important center episcopal Episcopal joining Scupi city (modern Skopje, North Macedonia) until the establishment of Justiniana Prima.
Under "Notitia" (Not. Digna. Or. IX, 44) Ulpiana had a great garrison also in Pseudocomitatenses Ulpiansis. Evidence exists that Emperor Theodosius I during the transition to Thessaloniki stayed in Ulpiana (cod. THEOD I 33-34) for a period of time. In the 5th century, the city was under the rule of the Goths. In 479 King Theodemir sent his son Theoderic the Great with 3,000 soldiers to destroy the city.
According to the chronicle and writings of Marcellinus Comes, a devastating earthquake destroyed several towns in Dardania in the year 518. The city of Ulpiana suffered extensive damage. Emperor Justinian rebuilt the city and its fortifications. The ancient city's fortifications had been strong, with semi-circular shaped towers that reached up to 35.5 ha in area. Together with its surroundings, Ulpiana covered an area of approximately 120 hectares, when including Castrum and other supporting facilities.
Ulpiana was among the largest settlements in the Balkans of the late antiquity.