Tirana

Tirana ( tih-RAH-nə, Albanian pronunciation: [tiˈɾana]; Gheg Albanian: Tirona) is the capital and largest city of Albania. It is located in the centre of the country, enclosed by mountains and hills with Dajti rising to the east and a slight valley to the northwest overlooking the Adriatic Sea in the distance. It is among the wettest and sunniest cities in Europe, with 2,544 hours of sun per year.

Tirana was founded as a city in 1614 by the Ottoman Albanian general Sylejman Pasha Bargjini and flourished by then around the Old Mosque and the türbe. The area that today corresponds to the city's territory has been continuously inhabited since the Iron Age. It was inhabited by Illyrians, and was most likely the core of the Illyrian Kingdom of the Taulantii, which in Classical Antiquity ...Read more

Tirana ( tih-RAH-nə, Albanian pronunciation: [tiˈɾana]; Gheg Albanian: Tirona) is the capital and largest city of Albania. It is located in the centre of the country, enclosed by mountains and hills with Dajti rising to the east and a slight valley to the northwest overlooking the Adriatic Sea in the distance. It is among the wettest and sunniest cities in Europe, with 2,544 hours of sun per year.

Tirana was founded as a city in 1614 by the Ottoman Albanian general Sylejman Pasha Bargjini and flourished by then around the Old Mosque and the türbe. The area that today corresponds to the city's territory has been continuously inhabited since the Iron Age. It was inhabited by Illyrians, and was most likely the core of the Illyrian Kingdom of the Taulantii, which in Classical Antiquity was centred in the hinterland of Epidamnus. Following the Illyrian Wars it was annexed by Rome and became an integral part of the Roman Empire. The heritage of that period is still evident and represented by the Mosaics of Tirana. Later, in the 5th and 6th centuries, an Early Christian basilica was built around this site.

After the Roman Empire split into East and West in the 4th century, its successor the Byzantine Empire took control over most of Albania, and built the Petrelë Castle in the reign of Justinian I. The city was fairly unimportant until the 20th century, when the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed it as Albania's capital, after the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

Classified as a gamma-world-city, Tirana is the most important economic, financial, political and trade centre in Albania due to its significant location in the centre of the country and its modern air, maritime, rail and road transportation. It is the seat of power of the Government of Albania, with the official residences of the President and Prime Minister of Albania, and the Parliament of Albania. The city was announced as the European Youth Capital for 2022.

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2020)
Early development  The mosaics of an Ancient Roman house from the 3rd century AD

The area of Tirana has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times with the earliest recognised reference found at the Cave of Pëllumbas belonging to the Palaeolithic period. Illyrians were the first population of the area and formed most likely the core of the Illyrian kingdom of the Taulantii, which in classical antiquity was centered in the hinterland of Epidamnus.[1] When the Romans arrived in Illyria after their victory of the Illyrian Wars, they populated and integrated the area into their empire under the political control of the city of Rome. The oldest surviving discovery from this period is a Roman house dating to the 3rd century, which was transformed into an aisleless church with a mosaic floor. A castle, possibly known as Tirkan, was built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I between the 4th and 6th century and later restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century.[2]

 Castle of Petrelë was founded in the 6th century by Justinian I.

Tirana is mentioned in Venetian documents in 1418, one year after the Ottoman conquest of the area: "...the resident Pjeter, son of late Domenik from the village of Tirana...".[3] Records of the first land registrations under the Ottomans in 1431–32 show that Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants.[citation needed] In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis (The story of life and deeds of Skanderbeg, the prince of Epirotes), referred to this area as a small village, distinguishing between "Little Tirana" and "Great Tirana".[3] It is later mentioned in 1572 as Borgo di Tirana.[4]

According to Hahn, the settlement had already started to develop as a bazaar and included several watermills,[5] even before 1614, when Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Old Mosque, a small commercial centre, and a hammam (Turkish bath). This is confirmed by oral sources, which state that there were two earlier mosques 300–400 m from the Old Mosque, towards today's Ali Demi Street. The Mosque of Reç and the Mosque of Mujo were positioned on the left side of the Lana river and were older than the Old Mosque.[5] Later, the Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was constructed. It employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem, who was also Sulejman Bargjini's great-nephew.

In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the settlement[clarification needed], the so-called ortodoksit. They were Aromanians from villages near Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Tirana Park on the Artificial Lake.[6] They started to be known as the llacifac and were the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town.[7] In 1807, Tirana became the centre of the Subprefecture of Krujë-Tirana.[citation needed] After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the Toptani family of Krujë.[citation needed] Later, Tirana became a sub-prefecture of the newly created Vilayet of Shkodër and the Sanjak of Durrës. In 1889, the Albanian language started to be taught in Tirana's schools,[citation needed] and the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908.

 The Old Bazaar at the turn of the 20th century. The Sulejman Pasha Mosque is visible in the background. It was destroyed in World War II.Modern development

On 28 November 1912, the national flag was raised in Vlorë by President Ismail Qemali, marking the symbolic birth of Albania as a sovereign country. The next years, however, were marked by turmoil. During the Balkan Wars, Tirana was temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In August 1916, the first city map was compiled by the specialists of the Austro-Hungarian army.[8] Following the capture of the town of Debar by Serbia, many of its Albanian inhabitants fled to Turkey, the rest went to Tirana.[9] Of those that ended up in Istanbul, some of their number migrated to Albania, mainly to Tirana where the Dibran community formed an important segment of the city's population from 1920 onward and for some years thereafter.[9] On 8 February 1920, the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed Tirana as the temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in 1912.[10] The city acquired that status permanently on 31 December 1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian architects.[11] The centre of Tirana was the project of Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well-known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre. The plan underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and Kohler.[citation needed] The modern Albanian parliament building served as an officers' club. It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of Albania was crowned King Zog I, King of the Albanians.

 Old villa architecture in Tirana

Tirana was the venue for the signing of the Pact of Tirana between Fascist Italy and Albania. During the rule of King Zog, many Muhaxhirs emigrated towards Tirana, which led to a growing population in the capital city in the early 20th century.[12]

In 1939, Tirana was captured by Fascist forces, who appointed a puppet government. In the meantime, Italian architect Gherardo Bosio was asked to elaborate on previous plans and introduce a new project in the area of present-day Mother Teresa Square.[13] A failed assassination attempt was made on Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by a local resistance activist during a visit to Tirana. In November 1941, two emissaries of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), Miladin Popović and Dušan Mugoša, called a meeting of three Albanian communist groups[citation needed] and founded the Communist Party of Albania, and Enver Hoxha soon emerged as its leader.

The town soon became the centre of the Albanian communists, who mobilised locals against Italian fascists and later Nazi Germans, while spreading ideological propaganda. On 4 February 1944, the Gestapo, supported by the forces of Xhafer Deva, executed 86 anti-fascists in Tirana.[14] On 17 November 1944, the town was liberated after a fierce battle between the Communists and German forces.[citation needed] The Nazis eventually withdrew and the communists seized power.

 The Skanderbeg Square in 1988, two years prior to the Fall of communism in Albania

From 1944 to 1991, massive socialist-style apartment complexes and factories were built, while Skanderbeg Square was redesigned, with a number of buildings demolished. For instance, Tirana's former Old Bazaar and the Orthodox Cathedral were razed to the ground in order to build the Soviet-styled Palace of Culture. The northern portion of the main boulevard was renamed Stalin Boulevard and his statue was erected in the city square. Because private car ownership was banned, mass transportation consisted mainly of bicycles, trucks and buses. After Hoxha's death, a pyramidal museum was constructed in his memory by the government.[citation needed]

Before and after the proclamation of Albania's policy of self-imposed isolationism, a number of high-profile figures paid visits to the city, such as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and East German Foreign Minister Oskar Fischer. In 1985, Enver Hoxha's funeral was held in Tirana.[15] A few years later, Mother Teresa became the first religious figure[16] to visit the country after the end of Albania's long anti-religious atheist stance. She paid respects to her mother and sister resting at a local cemetery.

 Tirana's main boulevard in 1991

Starting at the campus and ending at Skanderbeg Square with the toppling of Enver Hoxha's statue, the city saw significant demonstrations by University of Tirana students demanding political freedoms in the early 1990s. On the political aspect, the city witnessed a number of events. Personalities visited the capital, such as former U.S. Secretary of State James Baker and Pope John Paul II. The former visit came amidst the historical setting after the fall of communism, as hundreds of thousands were chanting in Skanderbeg Square Baker's famous saying of "Freedom works!".[17] Pope John Paul II became the first major religious leader to visit Tirana, though Mother Teresa had visited few years prior.

During the Balkans turmoil in the mid-1990s, the city experienced dramatic events such as the unfolding of the 1997 unrest in Albania and a failed coup d'état on 14 September 1998.

In 1999, following the Kosovo War, Tirana Airport became a NATO airbase, serving its mission in the former Yugoslavia.

Contemporary  The Mustafa Matohiti Street near the Pyramid of Tirana. Consequently, after the fall of communism in Albania, a dramatic growth of new developments has taken place, with many new exclusive flats and apartments and other structures.

During his term from 2000 to 2011, the former mayor of Tirana, Edi Rama, undertook a campaign to demolish illegal constructed buildings across Tirana as well as along the river banks of Lanë to bring the area to its pre-1990 state. In an attempt to widen roads, Rama authorized the bulldozing of private properties so that they could be paved over, thus widening streets. Most main roads underwent reconstruction, including the Unaza, Rruga e Kavajës and the main boulevard. Rama also led the initiative to paint the façades of Tirana's buildings in bright colours, although much of their interiors continued to degrade. Rama's critics claimed that he focused too much attention on cosmetic changes without fixing any of the major problems such as shortages of drinking water and electricity.[18][19]

In June 2007, George W. Bush traveled to Tirana on an official state visit, becoming the first U.S. President to visit the former communist country.[20][21] In 2008, the Gërdec explosions were felt in the capital as windows were shattered and citizens shaken. In January 2011, the Albanian opposition demonstrations were triggered in front of the governmental buildings in Tirana protesting against political corruption and state capture, particularly associated with the former prime minister Sali Berisha's government.[22] In September 2014, Pope Francis made an official state visit to Tirana simultaneously becoming the second pontiff to visit Albania, after Pope John Paul II in 1992.[23][24]

Following the municipal elections of 2015, power was transferred from the Democratic Party representative Lulzim Basha to the Socialist Party candidate Erion Veliaj.[25] Albania then underwent a territorial reform, in which defunct communes were merged with municipalities.[26] Thirteen of Tirana's former communes were integrated as administrative units joining the existing eleven.[27] Since then, Tirana is undergoing significant changes in infrastructure, law enforcement and new projects, as well as continuing the ones started by Veliaj's predecessor. In their first few council meetings, 242 social houses got allocated to families in need.[28] Construction permits were suspended until the capital's development plan is revised and synthesized.[27]

Between December 2018 and February 2019, a series of demonstrations erupted in the central areas of Tirana and other cities of the country in response to a controversial law on higher education, poor quality of teaching, high tuition rates and corruption.[29][30][31] In September 2019, Tirana was ravaged by a 5.6 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter located near Durrës.[32][33][34] Two months after, in November 2019, another strong earthquake with the magnitude of 6.4 hit the region again resulting comparatively few damages in Tirana.[35] The same month, Tirana was announced as the European Youth Capital for 2022 with a planned program including events of cultural and social importance.[36]

^ Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1966). "The Kingdoms in Illyria circa 400-167 B.C.". The Annual of the British School at Athens. British School at Athens. 61: 247. doi:10.1017/S0068245400019043. JSTOR 30103175. S2CID 164155370. ^ Heppner, Harald (1994). Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft. Wien u.a. Böhlau. pp. 133, 135. ISBN 978-3-205-98255-5. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 3 October 2020. ^ a b Heppner, Harald (1994). Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft. Wien u.a. Böhlau. p. 137. ISBN 978-3-205-98255-5. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 3 October 2020. ^ E. J. Van Donzel (1994), Islamic Desk Reference, E.J. Brill, p. 451, ISBN 9780585305561, OCLC 45731063, archived from the original on 21 January 2024, retrieved 5 January 2016, "il borgo di Tirana" is already mentioned as early as 1572 ^ a b Koco Miho (1987). J.Tocka (ed.). Trajta të profilit urbanistik të qytetit të Tiranës : prej fillimeve deri më 1944. Tirana: 8 Nëntori. p. 57. OCLC 20994870. ^ ""Tiranasit" e ardhur rishtaz" (in Albanian). Gazeta Shqiptare. Archived from the original on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2008. ^ Delvina, Sherif (2006). Low Albania (Epirus) and Cham issue. Tiranë: Eurorilindja. p. 196. ISBN 99943-861-0-7. OCLC 124184965. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 18 October 2022. ^ "Klan magazine". Klan (527–534): 265. 2007. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 10 October 2018. ^ a b Clayer, Nathalie (2005). "The Albanian students of the Mekteb-i Mülkiye: Social networks and trends of thought". In Özdalga, Elisabeth (ed.). Late Ottoman Society: The Intellectual Legacy. Routledge. pp. 306–307. ISBN 9780415341646. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 3 October 2020. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania and King Zog: independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. IB Taurus. p. 140. ISBN 1-84511-013-7. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 3 October 2020. It was decided that the Congress of Lushnje was not to be dissolved until elections had been held and the new government had taken power into its hands and begun to exercise its functions in Tirana, in opposition to the Provisional Government in Italian occupied Durrës ^ Kera, Gentiana. Aspects of the urban development of Tirana: 1820–1939 Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Seventh International Conference of Urban History. Athens, 2004. ^ Stefanović, Djordje (2005). "Seeing the Albanians through Serbian eyes: The Inventors of the Tradition of Intolerance and their Critics, 1804–1939." European History Quarterly. 35. (3): 470. ^ Bleta, Indrit. Influences of political regime shifts on the urban scene of a capital city, Case Study: Tirana. Archived 15 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Turkey, 2010. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism 1940-1945. I.B.Tauris. p. 326. ISBN 978-1-84511-104-5. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 21 January 2021. ^ "ENVER HOXHA DIES; ALBANIAN LEADER". The New York Times. Reuters. 12 April 1985. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022. ^ "Mother Teresa". Biography. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020. ^ Kempster, Norman (23 June 1991). "Albanians Mob Baker, Cheer U.S. : Europe: 'Freedom works,' he exhorts a rally of 200,000. The country hopes for aid to rebuild an economy shattered by lengthy Stalinist isolation". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2018. ^ "A bright and colourful new style of urban design emerges in Albania". Resource for Urban Design Information. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2008. ^ Pusca, Anca (2008). "The aesthetics of change: Exploring post-Communist spaces" (PDF). Global Society. 22 (3): 369–386. doi:10.1080/13600820802090512. S2CID 7735000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020. ^ "Bush makes landmark visit to Albania". The Daily Telegraph. 10 June 2007. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (11 June 2007). "Thousands Hails Bush in Visit to Albania". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020. ^ "Albania: 20,000 Protesters March Against Government; 3 Killed". The New York Times. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020. ^ "Pope Francis arrives in Albania on a flying visit". Deutsche Welle (DW). 21 September 2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020. ^ "Pope Francis praises human rights and religious freedom during Albania visit". The Guardian. 21 September 2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020. ^ "Erion Veliaj takes office as Mayor of Tirana". Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015. ^ "Reforma Territoriale – Harta – 61 bashki". reformaterritoriale.al. Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015. ^ a b "Veliaj suspends construction permits". Archived from the original on 16 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015. ^ "Tirana City Council approves the allocation of social housing for 242 families". Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015. ^ "University students protest tariff hikes, low education standards in Albania". Tirana Times. 5 December 2018. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. ^ Pomeroy, Robin (11 December 2018). "Albanian students block Tirana highway in protest at higher fees". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. ^ Ehl, David (18 December 2018). "France, Hungary, Serbia: Is half of Europe protesting?". Deutsche Welle (DW). Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. ^ "Albania jolted by strong earthquake, dozens reported injured". Deutsche Welle (DW). 21 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. ^ Andone, Dakin; Gashi, Aldona (21 September 2019). "Albania struck by 5.6-magnitude earthquake, injuring at least 37". Cable News Network (CNN). Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. ^ "Albania earthquake: Magnitude 5.6 tremor felt in capital Tirana". Euronews. 21 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. ^ Peltier, Elian; Magra, Iliana; Victor, Daniel (25 November 2019). "Albania Earthquake Kills at Least 23". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. ^ "Congratulations, Tirana! Winner of the European Youth Capital for 2022". European Youth Capital (EYC). 21 November 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
Photographies by:
Statistics: Position
2912
Statistics: Rank
40840

Add new comment

CAPTCHA
Security
813659427Click/tap this sequence: 9414
Esta pregunta es para comprobar si usted es un visitante humano y prevenir envíos de spam automatizado.

Google street view

Where can you sleep near Tirana ?

Booking.com
524.066 visits in total, 9.230 Points of interest, 405 Destinations, 156 visits today.