大三巴牌坊

( Ruins of Saint Paul's )

The Ruins of Saint Paul's (Chinese: 大三巴牌坊; Portuguese: Ruínas de São Paulo) are the ruins of a 17th-century Catholic religious complex in Santo António, Macau, China. They include what was originally St. Paul's College and the Church of St. Paul (Igreja de São Paulo) also known as "Mater Dei", a 17th-century Portuguese church dedicated to Saint Paul the Apostle. Today, the ruins are one of Macau's best known landmarks and one of the Seven Wonders of Portuguese Origin in the World. In 2005, they were officially listed as part of the Historic Centre of Macau, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Built from 1602 to 1640[1] by the Jesuits, during the time in which Portugal and Spain were under the same crown, the church was one of the largest Catholic churches in Asia at the time. It was destroyed by a fire during a typhoon on 26 January 1835.[1] The Fortaleza do Monte overlooks the ruin.

 Virgin Mary stepping on a seven-headed hydra.

The ruins now consist of the stone frontispiece.[2]: 121 The façade sits on a small hill, with 68 stone steps leading up to it.

The façade is shaped like a retable and themed around the Assumption of Mary.[2]: 122  Likely influenced by Japanese Christian craftsmen who worked on it, the ruins of St. Paul's include carvings with heterodox images that draw from Asian traditions, including Mary stepping on a seven-headed hydra, described in accompanying Chinese characters as "Holy Mother tramples the heads of the dragon".[2]: 122  The base of the structure has six Chinese guardian lions carved from stone.[2]: 122 

The Japanese Christian craftsmen who worked on St. Paul's were converted by Jesuits and expelled from Japan in 1587 when Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned Christianity.[2]: 122 

The remains of around 250 Korean and Japanese slaves from the Portuguese slave trade are buried near the church.[3]

^ a b "China". The Morning Post. British Newspaper Archive. 8 July 1835. Retrieved 16 July 2014. ^ a b c d e Simpson, Tim (2023). Betting on Macau: Casino Capitalism and China's Consumer Revolution. Globalization and Community series. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-1-5179-0031-1. ^ KBS 역사추리 – 임진왜란은 노예전쟁이었다 2부 / KBS 19960913 방송, 1996-09-13, event occurs at 12:41, retrieved 2024-02-09
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