Popocatépetl (UK: POP-ə-KAT-ə-pet-əl, -⁠kat-ə-PET-əl, US: POHP-, Spanish: [popokaˈtepetl] ; Nahuatl languages: Popōcatepētl [popoːkaˈtepeːt͡ɬ] ) is an active stratovolcano located in the states of Puebla, Morelos, and Mexico in central Mexico. It lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,393 m (17,694 ft) it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba) at 5,636 m (18,491 ft).

It is linked to the twin volcano of Iztaccihuatl to the north by the high saddle known as the "Paso de Cortés". Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park, wherein the two volcanoes are located, is named after them.

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Popocatépetl (UK: POP-ə-KAT-ə-pet-əl, -⁠kat-ə-PET-əl, US: POHP-, Spanish: [popokaˈtepetl] ; Nahuatl languages: Popōcatepētl [popoːkaˈtepeːt͡ɬ] ) is an active stratovolcano located in the states of Puebla, Morelos, and Mexico in central Mexico. It lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,393 m (17,694 ft) it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba) at 5,636 m (18,491 ft).

It is linked to the twin volcano of Iztaccihuatl to the north by the high saddle known as the "Paso de Cortés". Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park, wherein the two volcanoes are located, is named after them.

Popocatépetl is 70 km (43 mi) southeast of Mexico City, from where it can be seen regularly, depending on atmospheric conditions. Until recently, the volcano was one of three tall peaks in Mexico to contain glaciers, the others being Iztaccihuatl and Pico de Orizaba. In the 1990s, the glaciers such as Glaciar Norte (North Glacier) greatly decreased in size, partly due to warmer temperatures but largely due to increased volcanic activity. By early 2001, Popocatépetl's glaciers were gone; ice remained on the volcano, but no longer displayed the characteristic features of glaciers such as crevasses.

Lava erupting from Popocatépetl has historically been predominantly andesitic, but it has also erupted large volumes of dacite. Magma produced in the current cycle of activity tends to be a mixture of the two with the andesites being rich in magnesium.

The geological history of Popocatépetl began with the formation of the ancestral volcano Nexpayantla. About 200,000 years ago, Nexpayantla collapsed in an eruption, leaving a caldera, in which the next volcano, known as El Fraile, began to form. Another eruption about 50,000 years ago caused that to collapse, and Popocatépetl rose from that. Around 23,000 years ago, a lateral eruption (believed to be larger than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens) destroyed the volcano's ancient cone and created an avalanche that reached up to 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the summit. The debris field from that is one of four around the volcano, and it is also the youngest.[1]

Three Plinian eruptions are known to have taken place: 3,000 years ago (3195–2830 BC), 2,150 years ago (800–215 BC), and 1,100 years ago (likely 823 AD).[1] The latter two buried the nearby village of Tetimpa, preserving evidence of preclassical culture.[2]

The first recorded European ascent of the volcano was made by an expedition led by Diego de Ordaz in 1519.[3]: 182  The early-16th-century monasteries on the slopes of the mountain are a World Heritage Site.

Eruptions
 
International Space Station view of Popocatépetl sending plume of volcanic ash south January 23, 2001, Iztaccíhuatl at right
 
Popocatépetl viewed from Puebla, Puebla, January 2004 eruption

Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and the most famous,[4] having had more than 15 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519.

Timeline Mid-to late first century: A violent VEI-6 eruption may have caused the large migrations that settled Teotihuacan, according to DNA analysis of teeth and bones.[5] Eruptions were observed in 1363, 1509, 1512, 1519–1528, 1530, 1539, 1540, 1548, 1562–1570, 1571, 1592, 1642, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1697, 1720, 1802, 1919, 1923, 1925, and 1933.[6] January and February 1947: There were brief explosions, expelling steam and ash.[7] 21 December 1994: The volcano spewed gas and ash, which was carried as far as 25 km (16 mi) away by prevailing winds. The activity prompted the evacuation of nearby towns and scientists to begin monitoring for an eruption.[8] December 2000: Tens of thousands of people were evacuated by the government, based on the warnings of scientists. Then the volcano made its largest display in 1,200 years.[9][10][11][12] 25 December 2005: The volcano's crater produced an explosion which ejected a large column of smoke and ash about 3 km (9,800 ft) into the atmosphere and expulsion of lava.[citation needed] January and February 2012: Scientists observed increased volcanic activity at Popocatépetl. On January 25, 2012, an ash explosion occurred on the mountain, causing much dust and ash to contaminate the atmosphere around it.[8] 15 April 2012: There were reports of superheated rock fragments being hurled into the air by the volcano. Ash and water vapor plumes were reported 15 times over 24 hours.[13] Wednesday 8 May 2013, at 7:28 p.m. local time: Popocatépetl erupted again with a high amplitude tremor that lasted and was recorded for 3.5 hours. It began with plumes of ash that rose 3 km (9,800 ft) into the air and began drifting west at first, but later began to drift east-southeast, covering areas of the villages of San Juan Tianguismanalco, San Pedro Benito Juárez and the City of Puebla in smoke and ash. Explosions from the volcano subsequently ejected fragments of fiery volcanic rock to distances of 700 m (2,300 ft) from the crater.[14][15] July 4, 2013: Due to several eruptions of steam and ash for at least 24 hours, at least six U.S. airlines canceled more than 40 flights into and out of Mexico City International Airport and Toluca International Airport.[16] 27 August–September 2014: CENAPRED reported explosions, accompanied by steam-and-gas emissions with minor ash and ash plumes that rose 800–3,000 m (2,600–9,800 ft) above Popocatépetl's crater and drifted west, southwest, and west-southwest. On most nights incandescence was observed, increasing during times with larger emissions.[17] 1 September 2014: There was partial visibility due to cloud cover.[18] 29 and 31 August 2014: The Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported discrete ash emissions.[6] 7 January 2015: CENAPRED reported that ash from recent explosions coated the snow on the volcano's upper slopes.[19] 28 March 2016: An ash column 2,000 m (6,600 ft) high was released, prompting the establishment of a 12-kilometre (7.5 mi) "security ring" around the summit.[20] 3 April 2016: Popocatépetl erupted, spewing lava, ash and rock.[21] August 2016: Eruptions continued, with four discrete blasts on August 17.[22] 10 November 2017 at 7:25 local time, eruption continued.[6] 15 December 2018 at 18:57 local time, the volcano was spewing lava, ash and rock.[23] 22 January 2019 21:06 local time, the volcano was spewing ash up 3 km (9,800 ft) high and incandescent fragments 2 km (1.2 mi) away.[24] 19 March 2019 21:38 local time, fragments of the dome shot within 1.6–2.4-kilometre (1–1+12 mi) radius.[25] Due to continuing activity, on March 28 2019, based on the analysis of the available information, the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Popocatépetl volcano recommended changing the phase of the Yellow Volcanic Warning Light Phase 2 to Yellow Phase 3, which is a preventive measure against the observed changes.[26] June 3, 2019 Popocatépetl continued its explosive uptick by firing an ash column to approximately 11 km (37,000 ft) above sea level.[27] June 18, 2019 Popocatépetl continued to erupt, spewing ash clouds to 8.5 km (28,000 ft).[28] June 24, 2019 Popocatépetl erupted once more, sending an ash cloud some kilometres (thousands of feet) into the air.[29] July 18, 2019 Popocatépetl erupted three times, sending ashes 1.5 km (4,900 ft) into the air each time.[30] July 20, 2019, volcanic ash was reported in Xochimilco after the morning's eruption.[31] October 2019, the volcano erupted multiple times in one night.[32] November 2019, an eruption forced a KLM flight from Amsterdam to Mexico City to turn back.[33] January 9, 2020 Popocatépetl expelled lava and rock and sent ash clouds to 6.1 km (20,000 ft).[34] January 27. 2020 Popocatépetl erupted in a sensational nighttime display of rock and ash.[35][36] February 5, 2020 Popocatépetl had a moderate explosion producing an ash plume that went up 1.5 km (0.93 mi). Had more explosions on February 15, 18, and 22 having ash plumes rising that ranged from 400–1,200 m (1,300–3,900 ft).[37] December 19, 2022 Popocatépetl emitted materials up to one kilometer (0.62 mi) high[38] May 19, 2023 Popocatépetl emitted some ash causing the cancellation of school sessions in 11 nearby towns[39] and two days later on May 21, the alert level in Mexico City was raised to Yellow Phase 3 as incandescent fragments were observed and the airports in Mexico City and Puebla were temporarily shut down.[40]
^ a b Macías, José Luis (2007). "Geology and eruptive history of some active volcanoes of México". In Alaniz-Álvarez, S.A.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á.F. (eds.). Geology of México: Celebrating the Centenary of the Geological Society of México. Vol. 422. pp. 199–204. doi:10.1130/2007.2422(06). ISBN 978-0-8137-2422-5. S2CID 33648400. ^ Plunket, Patricia; Uruñuela, Gabriela (1998). "Preclassic Household Patterns Preserved Under Volcanic Ash at Tetimpa, Puebla, Mexico". Latin American Antiquity. 9 (4): 287–309. doi:10.2307/3537029. JSTOR 3537029. S2CID 131051324. ^ Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0140441239 ^ Zeballos, J.L.; Meli, R.; Vilchis, A.; Barrios, L. (1996). "The effects of volcanoes on health: preparedness in Mexico". World Health Statistics Quarterly. 49 (3–4): 204–208. PMID 9170236. ^ Robinson, Jennifer (23 May 2016). "Secrets of the Dead: Teotihuacán's Lost Kings". KPBS. Retrieved 23 October 2017. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Global Volcanism Program was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Image GVP-03796: Gas emissions from the summit crater of Popocatépetl volcano on 18 January 1947 are dispersed towards Tonantzintla 40 km away". Global Volcanism Program Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 25 May 2023. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference VolcanoDiscovery was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Huggel was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference JulioMiranda2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Residents on slopes of Popocatepetl Volcano heed evacuation notice". US Geological Survey. 2000. Archived from the original on 2011-10-22. Retrieved 2012-04-20. ^ Julio Miranda, P.; Delgado Granados, H. (2003). "Fast hazard evaluation, employing digital photogrammetry on Popocatépetl glaciers, Mexico". Geofísica Internacional. 42 (2): 275–283. doi:10.22201/igeof.00167169p.2003.42.2.271. ^ "Mexican volcano hurls hot rock into sky". CBC News. 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2012-04-20. ^ Greenwood, Faine (May 8, 2013). "Mexico's Popocatépetl volcano has erupted". Global Post. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013. ^ "Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): strong ash emissions and increase of activity". Volcano Discovery. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013. ^ "US Airlines Cancel Mexico Flights Due To Volcano". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ "Global Volcanism Program | Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico) — 27 August-2 September 2014". volcano.si.edu. doi:10.5479/si.GVP.WVAR20140827-341090 (inactive 31 January 2024). Retrieved 2022-01-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link) ^ "Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report". Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey. 2 September 2014. ^ "Global Volcanism Program | Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico) — 7–13 January 2015". volcano.si.edu. doi:10.5479/si.GVP.WVAR20150107-341090 (inactive 31 January 2024). Retrieved 2022-01-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link) ^ "Mexico's Popocatépetl volcano spews ash and gas into sky – video". Reuters via The Guardian. 29 March 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2017. ^ "Mexico's Popocatépetl volcano violently erupts, launching burning rocks". upi.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017. ^ Klemetti, Erik (18 August 2016). "Science: Here's What's Happening in This Volcanic Explosion at Guatemala's Santiaguito/Popocatépetl". Wired. Retrieved 19 August 2016. ^ "Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl hoy 15 de diciembre". 15 December 2018. ^ "Actualización de Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl hoy 22 de enero". January 22, 2019. ^ Malkin, Elisabeth (2019-03-19). "Mexican Volcano Lights Up the Night Sky, and Social Media". The New York Times. ^ "March 28, 11:00 h (March 28, 17:00 GMT)". Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres. March 28, 2019. Archived from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2019. ^ "Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl hoy 03 de junio". June 3, 2019. ^ "Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl hoy 18 de junio". June 18, 2019. ^ "Reporte del monitoreo de CENAPRED al volcán Popocatépetl hoy 24 de junio". June 24, 2019. ^ "Popocatépetl lanza tres emisiones de ceniza" [Popocatépetl has three ash eruptons]. UNO TV (in Spanish). July 18, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2019. ^ "Reportan caída de ceniza en Xochimilco" [Ashes from Popocateptl reported in Xochimilco]. Milenio (in Spanish). Mexico City. July 20, 2019. Retrieved July 21, 2019. ^ Elassar, Alaa (2019-10-05). "Mexico's Popocatépetl volcano erupted 14 times in one night". CNN. Retrieved 2019-12-06. ^ "Popocatépetl: Mexico volcano forces KLM flight back to Amsterdam". BBC. 2019-11-29. Retrieved 2019-12-06. ^ "Video: Mexico's Most Active Volcano Erupts, Spews Ash Cloud Nearly 20,000 Feet". NPR. 10 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020. ^ "Mexican volcano stages dramatic nighttime show". KYMA. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020. ^ Kinver, Mark (2020-04-24). "Volcanic time-bomb threatens nearby trees". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-04-24. ^ "Global Volcanism Program | Popocatépetl". ^ "Popocatepetl volcano emits exhalations with plumes of more than one kilometer after explosion". 21 December 2022. ^ "Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano threatens 22 million people as it rumbles awake". PBS. 19 May 2023. ^ "Mexico Raises Alert Level on Volcano Rumbling Near Capital". Bloomberg News. 21 May 2023.
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Comisión Mexicana de Filmaciones from México D. F., México - CC BY-SA 2.0
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