The Via Giulia is a street of historical and architectural importance in Rome, Italy, which runs along the left (east) bank of the Tiber from Piazza San Vincenzo Pallotti, near Ponte Sisto, to Piazza dell'Oro. It is about 1 kilometre long and connects the Regola and Ponte Rioni.

The road's design was commissioned in 1508 to Donato Bramante by Pope Julius II (r. 1503–1513), of the powerful della Rovere family, and was one of the first important urban planning projects in papal Rome during the Renaissance.

The road, named after its patron, had been also called Via Magistralis (lit.'master road') because of its importance, and Via Recta (Read more

The Via Giulia is a street of historical and architectural importance in Rome, Italy, which runs along the left (east) bank of the Tiber from Piazza San Vincenzo Pallotti, near Ponte Sisto, to Piazza dell'Oro. It is about 1 kilometre long and connects the Regola and Ponte Rioni.

The road's design was commissioned in 1508 to Donato Bramante by Pope Julius II (r. 1503–1513), of the powerful della Rovere family, and was one of the first important urban planning projects in papal Rome during the Renaissance.

The road, named after its patron, had been also called Via Magistralis (lit.'master road') because of its importance, and Via Recta (lit.'straight road') because of its layout.

The project had three aims: the creation of a major roadway inserted in a new system of streets superimposed on the maze of alleys of medieval Rome; the construction of a large avenue surrounded by sumptuous buildings to testify to the renewed grandeur of the Catholic Church; and finally, the foundation of a new administrative and banking centre near the Vatican, the seat of the popes, and far from the traditional city centre on the Capitoline Hill, dominated by the Roman baronial families opposed to the pontiffs.

Despite the interruption of the project due to the pax romana of 1511 and the death of the pope two years later, the new road immediately became one of the main centres of the Renaissance in Rome. Many palaces and churches were built by the most important architects of the time, such as Raffaello Sanzio and Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, who often chose to move into the street. Several noble families joined them, while European nations and Italian city-states chose to build their churches in the street or in the immediate vicinity.

In the Baroque period the building activity, directed by the most important architects of the time such as Francesco Borromini, Carlo Maderno and Giacomo della Porta, continued unabated, while the street, favorite location of the Roman nobles, became the theatre of tournaments, parties and carnival parades. During this period the popes and private patrons continued to take care of the road by founding charitable institutions and providing the area with drinking water.

From the middle of the 18th century, the shift of the city centre towards the Campo Marzio plain caused the cessation of building activity and the abandonment of the road by the nobles. An artisan population with its workshops replaced these, and Via Giulia took on the solitary and solemn aspect that would have characterized it for two centuries. During the Fascist period some construction projects broke the unity of the road in its central section, and the damage has not yet been repaired. Despite this, Via Giulia remains one of Rome's richest roads in art and history, and after a two-century decline, from the 1950s onwards the road's fame was renewed to be one of the city's most prestigious locations.

In Rome, since the early Middle Ages, while the political and representative heart of the city seemed to have remained on the Capitoline Hill, the area of the ancient Campus Martius developed into one of the most densely populated districts (abitato).[1] The maze of narrow alleys was criss-crossed by three narrow thoroughfares: the Via Papalis (lit. "papal road"), inhabited by curial employees;[2][a] the Via Peregrinorum (lit. "pilgrims' road") artisan and business road;[2][b] and the Via Recta (lit. "straight road", a name common to many roads in medieval Rome). This was used above all by pilgrims coming from the north and was home to small businesses.[3][4][5][c] The three roads converged to the north towards the Angels' Bridge,[3] which was therefore the bottleneck of the city's traffic. As Dante Alighieri described in the Divine Comedy,[d] in 1300 Pope Boniface VIII (r. 1294–1303) ordered a two-way traffic system to be set up to avoid traffic jams or panic as a response to the dense crowds on Angels' Bridge.[6]

After Pope Martin V (r. 1417–1431) returned to Rome in 1420 at the end of the Western Schism, the influx of pilgrims increased significantly again, especially in the Jubilee years. On 29 December 1450, the last day of the Holy Year, a stampede broke out on the bridge that killed more than 300 people.[6][7] As a result of the catastrophe, Pope Nicholas V (r. 1447–1455), the first Renaissance pope who systematically dealt with Roman town planning, ordered the Angels' Bridge to be cleared of stalls and shops; the first urban planning measures in the area were initiated, defining in his programme the abovementioned three streets as the city's main ones.[8] Starting with Nicholas, the policy of the popes was to leave the control of the Capitoline Hill area to the Roman nobility, concentrating urban development on the Tiber bend and the Vatican, made important by the pilgrimage to Saint Peter and the jubilees.[1]

In 1475, Pope Sixtus IV (r. 1471–1484) ordered the Ponte Sisto, named after him, to be built across the Tiber [e] in order to relieve the pilgrimage route across the Angels' Bridge and to connect the rioni of Regola and Trastevere.[9][10] At the same time he ordered the restoration of Via Pelegrinorum and the area around the Campo de' Fiori.[f] According to the chronicler Stefano Infessura, however, strategic reasons aside from reducing traffic were also important for these projects.[11] Until then it had been very difficult for the pope to carry out urban interventions within the Aurelian walls, mainly because of the power of the noble families of folk background,[12] but Sixtus could use the revenues of the jubilee to carry out the works in the city.[13] When the holy year was over, he changed the responsibilities of the Conservatori (the chief magistrates of Rome's commune), who until then had the power to curb papal initiatives in Rome, and reinforced the possibility of expropriating land and buildings for public utility.[13] Aim of the pope was the reduction of the property income of the local nobility, and the redevelopment of the three main streets of the city.[14]

The successors of Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII (r. 1484–1492); Alexander VI (r. 1492–1503); and Pius III (r. 1503), continued the Sistine urban planning policy, often completing the works begun by Pope della Rovere.[15] Among them, in 1497 Alexander VI ordered the widening of the Via Peregrinorum[g][16] and the opening of the Porta Settimiana through the Aurelian Walls.[17] The latter work was a precondition for the future construction of Via della Lungara on the right bank of the Tiber from Ponte Sisto to St. Peter's Basilica.[18][17]

The project of Pope Julius II  Inscription by Julius II, 1512

In addition to reconstructing St. Peter's Basilica, Julius II implemented multiple projects in the framework of Rome's urban renewal (Renovatio Romae) in the Ponte, Parione, Sant'Eustachio and Colonna rioni, a task which was started forty years before by his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV.[19] One of the most important projects was the creation of two new straight streets on the left and right banks of the Tiber: the Via Giulia on the left bank, a new grand avenue through the most densely populated quarter of Rome, from the Ponte Sisto to the Florentine merchant quarter on the Tiber bend,[20] and the Via della Lungara along the right bank, a straight road from the Porta Settimiana in Trastevere to the Hospital of Santo Spirito in the Borgo.[21] Both roads–designed by the pope's favourite architect Donato Bramante–[22] flanked the Tiber and were closely connected to it.[23] The Lungara had the dual aim to relieve the pilgrimage route to Saint Peter[21] and transport goods coming from the Via Aurelia and the Via Portuense roads towards the centre of the city. Moreover, the street, overlooking the river, was going to represent the place of the cultured and refined leisure time of the Roman upper class, who built there some of the most luxurious suburban residences in the city.[24] The two streets, surrounded by palaces, including that of the pope's banker, Agostino Chigi, would have formed "a kind of city within the city, a garden city along the Tiber".[25]

The main goal behind these plans was to superimpose to medieval Rome's disorderly building mesh a regular road network having the Tiber as focus; together with the new Via Alessandrina that Alexander VI opened in the Borgo and the Via dei Pettinari that connected the Trastevere on one bank and the Campidoglio on the other, the Lungara and Via Giulia created a quadrilateral network of modern roads in the city's chaotic web of narrow streets.[23] In the original project Via Giulia was supposed to reach the Hospital of Santo Spirito in Borgo through the rebuilt Nero's Bridge.[26][27]

This project had a secondary, celebrative goal to promote the Pontiff as the unifier of Italy and the renewer of Rome; in 1506, after the end of the plague, Julius overthrew the powerful Baglioni and Bentivoglio families, conquering their strongholds of Perugia and Bologna [23][28] as testified in an inscription along the Via dei Banchi Nuovi.[h]

 Drawing of the Palazzo dei Tribunali by Bramante, Uffizi, Florence

Aside from serving as a means of communication and representation for the Church, the road was supposed to host the city's new layman's administrative centre.[23] A drawing by Donato Bramante discovered by Luitpold Frommel in the Uffizi shows a new huge administrative complex, the Palazzo dei Tribunali.[23] All the notaries and courts operating in Rome had to be centralised in this building: among them, the tribunal of the Conservatori, for centuries located on the Capitoline Hill and traditionally controlled by the Roman nobility.[29] This decision would therefore put an end to the chaos caused by various jurisdictions subject to ecclesiastical and secular authority, putting the justice under the pope's control.[29]

Bramante's sketch shows also a representative square (the Foro Iulio) opened along the new street[23] and facing the Palazzo dei Tribunali[22] and the old Cancelleria (today's Palazzo Sforza-Cesarini).[30] The square was not far from the Apostolic Camera (the pope's treasury) in Palazzo Riario and the new Palazzo della Zecca (lit. "papal mint") erected by Bramante at the edge of Via dei Banchi Nuovi (also named Canale di Ponte).[30] By this road lay the merchants' and bankers' houses and offices, like the Altoviti, Ghinucci, Acciaiuoli, Chigi and Fugger.[19] Close economic ties with Tuscan bankers like Agostino Chigi were sought and promoted.[31]

As a resulting consequence of the project, the area around the Vatican and Trastevere would have been enhanced at the detriment of the Capitoline Hill, symbol of the Roman nobility's power.[32][23] The plan was thus intended to separate the papacy from the city's powerful noble families (the baroni), particularly the Orsini and Colonna families,[32] who until then had been the Pontiff's most trusted allies, replacing them with a new organisation formed by Papal legates.[28]

Around 1508 [29][22][26] the executive phase of the project started: the pope ordered Bramante to start expropriating and demolishing properties in the densely populated Campo Marzio to create the new street.[22]

Giorgio Vasari wrote:[33]

Si risolvé il Papa di mettere in strada Giulia, da Bramante indrizzata, tutti gli uffici e le ragioni di Roma in un luogo, per la commoditá ch'a i negoziatori averia recato nelle faccende, essendo continuamente fino allora state molto scomode.

The pope decided to consolidate all the offices and financial centres of Rome in one place in the Via Giulia designed by Bramante. This would have made it easier for businessmen to conduct their business, which until then had been a cumbersome process.

In August 1511 the life of Julius II was seriously threatened by an illness.[34] Due to that, the feuding Orsini and Colonna families and the other Barons reached an agreement (known as the Pax Romana), in order to ask at the upcoming conclave the restoration of the commune authority and the abolition of various taxes.[34] The pope's prompt recovery made the possibility of conclave fade away; Julius, under pressure from abroad, came to terms with the nobles, propagandizing the anti-papal pact as an agreement in his favour and revoking several decisions taken against the comune.[34] Among these, he granted the Capitoline court jurisdiction over all cases between Roman citizens, except those pending before the Sacra Rota.[35] This decision caused the interruption of the works for the new road and the Palazzo dei Tribunali, [32] whose project was definitively abandoned when the pope died, while the planned square in front of it was forgotten.[35] Apart from a few rusticated blocks between the Via del Gonfalone and the Vicolo del Cefalo, today nothing remains of the palazzo.[36]

Via Giulia in the 16th century  Fontanone di Ponte Sisto by the Ospizio dei Mendicanti in an etching by Giuseppe Vasi (1759)

After the death of Julius II in 1513, the demographic situation in Rome had changed: because of the wars in Italy, a large number of Lombards had emigrated to the city, settling in the northern area of the Campo Marzio, where their national church already existed.[37] This caused a shift in the centre of gravity of the city's development, which excluded Via Giulia.[37] Despite that, Julius' successor, Pope Leo X (r. 1513–1521) from the House of Medici, continued the work,[38] favoring the northern end of the road, that is the stretch between the unfinished Palazzo dei Tribunali and the banking district, where his Florentine countrymen lived and the Florentine merchant community worked. With the bull of 29 January 1519, the pope granted the Florentine Compagnia della Pietà the construction of the church of San Giovanni, located also at the northern edge of the road and destined to be the parish of all Florentines living in Rome.[39][38] The church was to become the symbol of Florentine economic and financial dominance in Rome, being at the centre of the area occupied by the banks, the fondachi and the residences of the Tuscan bourgeoisie and nobility living in the pope's capital.[39][40][38] Here, important artists, such as Raphael and Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, acquired plots of land or built palaces.[41][42]

In spite of these activities, the urban planning project that was at the base of the road was left unfinished.[43] The decision to relinquish the reconstruction of Nero's bridge, the lack of connection with the Angels' Bridge and the Borgo and the abandonment of the plan for the centralisation of the courts meant that the road became an unused fragment of an abandoned project.[43] The central and southern parts of the street suffered most for this situation. The area south of the church of San Biagio–the central part of the Via Giulia around the Monte dei Planca Incoronati, cut in half by the new road with an act of force of the pope against one of the most powerful families of the city nobility–[44] became a slum filled with inns, brothels, and infamous locations like Piazza Padella, a venue known for duels and stabbings up to the end of the 19th century and demolished in the 1930s.[45] This area, lying between Via del Gonfalone, Via delle Carceri, Via di Monserrato and the Tiber, was a major district of ill-repute since the Middle Ages; a manuscript from 1556 reports about the quarter around the eventually demolished church of San Niccolò degli Incoronati hosted "... 150 houses of very simple people, whores and dubious persons ...".[46] The degradation of this part of the road is to be attributed to a decision of the Planca themselves, who, in contrast to the popes' objective of creating a prestigious road, preferred to rent their properties to prostitutes and malefactors, subjects who paid higher rents than the artisans.[47]

South of the Planca's monte lay the Castrum Senense; this quarter (its name castrum–"fort"–came from the numerous towers that dotted the area at the time), stretching from the church of Santa Aurea, today Santo Spirito dei Napoletani towards south, got this name in the Middle Ages because it was mainly inhabited by people from Siena.[48] At this end of the Via Giulia, the Farnese family drew up a well-defined architectural development plan, started with the erection of their residence between 1517 and 1520.[49] The Farnese decided to turn their back against the street, orienting the main façade of their gigantic palace towards Campo de' Fiori and the centre of the city, and using the road only as a service route.[49] Under Pope Paul III (r. 1534–1549), Cardinal Girolamo Capodiferro decided to build his palace near the Farnese palace, but he too chose to turn his palazzo's gardens towards Via Giulia.[50] The decision to avoid the overlooking of the noble residences along the street was probably due to the degraded state of the area, which housed several brothels.[50]

Starting with the middle of the sixteenth century there was an attempt to rehabilitate this area by building welfare facilities.[50] The church and the hospitals of the brotherhood of the Trinity of the Pilgrims (Italian: Confraternita della Santissima Trinità dei Pellegrini) were erected in a place named Postribolo di Ponte Sisto ("Ponte Sisto's Brothel").[50] In 1586, architect Domenico Fontana built on the orders of Pope Sixtus V (r. 1585–1590) the Ospizio dei Mendicanti (lit. "Beggar's Hospice") thus marking the southern end of the Via Giulia.[51] The hospice was established to solve the begging problem in the city and was given a yearly endowment of 150,000 scudi, enough to employ 2,000 people.[52]

At the beginning of the 16th century it had become fashionable for the various nations and city-states to have their own churches built in Rome: these were known as the chiese nazionali.[53] The rioni of Regola and Ponte, along the processional and pilgrim roads, were the preferred locations, and Via Giulia, because of its proximity to Saint Peter and the commercial area, became a favourite place to erect the shrines with the annexed hospitals and inns for the pilgrims.[50] The Florentines, the Sienese, and the Neapolitans had their churches built along the road (the San Giovanni, the Santa Caterina, and Santo Spirito respectively),[54] while the Bolognese (San Giovanni e Petronio), Spanish (Santa Maria in Monserrato), English (San Tommaso di Canterbury) and Swedish (Santa Brigida) churches were built in the nearby zones of the Regola rione.[53]

Despite all these construction activities, the character of the street did not change: brotherhoods, nobility, thieves, upper middle class and prostitutes lived next to each other in the street, which remained an axis of service. The poet Annibal Caro in his comedy Gli Straccioni ("The Rags") describes the street as an ill-famed place.[55]

At the end of the 16th century, Via Giulia's path was defined for good; it ended by the Florentine quarter to the north and the Ospizio dei Mendicanti to the south. It became less of a major commercial street and more a busy promenade and a place for celebrations, processions (such as that of the ammantate, poor girls which were dowried by the goldsmiths of Sant'Eligio degli Orefici) and races.[56][57]

Via Giulia; Particular from Almae urbis Romae prospectus by Antonio Tempesta (1645) 
Via Giulia; Particular from Almae urbis Romae prospectus by Antonio Tempesta (1645)
Via Giulia in the 17th century  Etching representing a medal minted under Louis XIV to commemorate the disbanding of the Corsican Guard after the Via Giulia incident; the "pyramid of infamy" is in the background

In the baroque period three major works changed the face of the street: to the north, the completion (except for the façade) of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, a work by Carlo Maderno;[54] in the centre, the construction of the Carceri Nuove (lit. "New Prisons") based on a project by Antonio Del Grande;[58] to the south, the reconstruction of Palazzo Falconieri, by Francesco Borromini.[59][60] San Giovanni, thanks to its slender dome, gave the street a vanishing point; the prisons, erected near the never-built palace of the courts of the Bramante, revived Julius II's idea of bringing the Justitia Papalis into the street; Palazzo Falconieri, finally, added value to the street in an area characterised until then only by Palazzo Farnese, which turns its back on Via Giulia.[61] Beside these works are worth of mention the churches of Sant'Anna dei Bresciani and Santa Maria del Suffragio,[62] and various renovations and mergers, such as that of Palazzo Varese, by Maderno, and Palazzo Ricci.[63] In the same period two colleges were established in Via Giulia: the Collegio Ghislieri, another work by Carlo Maderno, and the Collegio Bandinelli, near San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, by Del Grande.[63]

In order to supply the quarter with sufficient drinking water, Pope Paul V (r. 1605–1621) had the Aqua Paola extend over the Tiber, reaching the Regola rione and the Ghetto.[64] In 1613, the Fontanone di Ponte Sisto (lit. "The Big Fountain of the Sistine Bridge") was built on the façade of the beggars' hospice on Via Giulia.[65]

Despite these interventions the meaning of the street in the city structure did not change.[60] The expansion of the city towards the Campo Marzio plain, begun by Leo X with the construction of Via di Ripetta, and the urban planning initiatives of Gregory XIII (r. 1572–1585) and Sixtus V had already irreparably relegated Via Giulia to a peripheral position with respect to the new city centre.[60][66]

At the end of the 17th century the road took on a triple face, which it would maintain for another 150 years: an area of building speculation in the north, a detention centre in the middle, and an elegant location in the south,[67] theater of feasts and games.

Among the latter, a tournament held in 1603 by Tiberio Ceuli at Palazzo Sacchetti,[68] and a Saracen tournament organised in 1617 by Cardinal Odoardo Farnese at the Oratorio della Compagnia della Morte, for which he invited eight cardinals.[69] During the summer months the street was sometimes flooded for the pleasure of the common people and the nobility.[57] One of the most glamorous celebrations was held by the Farnese in 1638 to celebrate the birth of the French dauphin, the future king Louis XIV.[57] Via Giulia hosted buffalo races, parades of carnival floats, and in 1663 the organisation of a horse race with naked hunchbacks during Carnival is handed down.[20] During the carnival, Via Giulia hosted several feasts promoted by the Florentines.[57]

On 20 August 1662, the road was the scene of an episode that had important consequences: a brawl near the Ponte Sisto bridge between soldiers of the Corsican Guard and French soldiers belonging to the retinue of Louis XIV's ambassador Charles III de Créquy resulted in the withdrawal of the ambassador from Rome and the French invasion of Avignon.[70] In order to avoid worse consequences, the pope was forced to humiliate himself, disbanding the Corsican Guard and erecting a "pyramid of infamy" at the Corsicans' barracks near the street.[70]

Development in the 18th and 19th centuries  Via Giulia (the straight road to the right of the Tiber) in the Map of Rome by Giambattista Nolli, first published in 1748

From an architectural point of view in the 18th century there were only minor interventions in the street: the development of the city was now defined in the Tridente and Quirinale areas, both far away from the Tiber bend, and Via Giulia remained cut off.[67] The only works of some importance were the façade of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, by Alessandro Galilei, the church of Santa Maria dell'Orazione e Morte, by Ferdinando Fuga,[71] and the two small churches of San Filippo Neri and San Biagio della Pagnotta, rebuilt respectively by Filippo Raguzzini and Giovanni Antonio Perfetti.[72]

In this period too the Via Giulia was famous as a venue for parties and entertainment for the common people: in 1720 the Sienese held a festival to celebrate the promotion of Marc'Antonio Zondadari to Grand Master of the Order of Malta;[20] Fireworks were set off near the Fontanone di Ponte Sisto;[57] two triumphal arches were raised above the street, one near Santo Spirito and the other near Palazzo Farnese;[20][57] and the Fountain of the Mascherone poured wine for the people instead of water.[57]

Under Pope Clement XI's (r. 1720–1721) rule, the beggars housed in the Ospizio dei Mendicanti were transferred to the San Michele a Ripa.[73] The building was afterwards occupied by both poor unmarried girls (zitelle in the Romanesco dialect) and a congregation made up of 100 priests and 20 clerics; the latter prayed for the souls of deceased priests.[73] As such, the building was nicknamed the Ospizio dei cento preti ("Hospice of the Hundred Priests").[73]

In the nineteenth century, in accordance with the process of degradation of the building heritage that affected the whole city, Via Giulia underwent a myriad of interventions of superfetation, superelevation, and occupation of the free spaces.[74] In this period only a few new buildings or restoration projects were realised: among them were the youth prison (Palazzo del Gonfalone) (1825–27), the renovation of the Armenian Hospice next to the church of San Biagio (1830), the new façade of the Santo Spirito dei Napoletani (1853), and the Collegio Spagnuolo (1853) by Pietro Camporese and Antonio Sarti, which is the only building of architectonic quality among them.[74] However, this did not stop the general decline of the street that started in the middle of the 18th century.[75] The nobility abandoned the palaces on the street to move to the new centre of urban life in the Campo Marzio plain, and in their place the road hosted artisans, assuming an aspect of abandonment and survival.[76]

Via Giulia since 1870

After Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy in 1870, the Tiber (known for flooding, particularly in Campus Martius plain) had its banks worked on in 1873 by constructing Lungoteveres, which since 1888 were erected along the road and required the church of Sant'Anna dei Bresciani to be torn down.[77] The Lungoteveres completely cut off Via Giulia from the Tiber [78] and prevented the loggias and gardens of the palaces facing the river, such as the Palazzi Medici-Clarelli, Sacchetti, Varese, and Falconieri from having a view of the river. Moreover, the Fontanone of Ponte Sisto was demolished together with the Beggars' Hospice in 1879 and rebuilt in 1898 on the opposite side of the Ponte Sisto in what is now Piazza Trilussa.[65]

During the fascist period, in 1938 Benito Mussolini[79] ordered the construction of a wide avenue between Ponte Mazzini and the Chiesa Nuova.[80] Because of that, significant building demolitions (including that of the palazzi Ruggia and Planca Incoronati and of Piazza Padella)[81] took place in the central section of Via Giulia between Via della Barchetta and Vicolo delle Prigioni.[82] The project was stopped because of the beginning of World War II,[83] and to this day the resulting empty plot has only been partially filled by the new building of the Liceo Classico Virgilio.[82]

Starting with the post-war years, the street regained gradually its status as one of the most prestigious streets in the city.[84][57] Numerous events took place in 2008 during its 500th anniversary; some churches and palaces were restored and opened to visitors.[84]

^ a b Visceglia 2003. ^ a b Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 353. ^ a b Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 353-354. ^ Temple 2011, p. 57. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 36. ^ a b Gigli 1990, p. 38. ^ Gigli 1990, p. 40. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 41. ^ Pietrangeli 1979, p. 82. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 38-38. ^ Infessura 1890, p. 79 f.: February 1475. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 39-40. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 40. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 40-41. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 44-45. ^ Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 364. ^ a b Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 363. ^ Delli 1988, p. 543. ^ a b Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 378. ^ a b c d Pietrangeli 1979, p. 8. ^ a b Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 380-381. ^ a b c d Bruschi 1971. ^ a b c d e f g Portoghesi 1970, p. 19. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 71. ^ Rowland 1998, p. 178. ^ a b Delli 1988, p. 472. ^ Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 380. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 46. ^ a b c Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 60. ^ a b Temple 2011, p. 67-68. ^ Dante 1980. ^ a b c Temple 2011, p. 124. ^ Giorgio Vasari: Vita di Donato Bramante – 1568 ^ a b c Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 61. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 62. ^ Pietrangeli 1981, p. 52. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 63. ^ a b c Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 382. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 78. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 63-64. ^ Pietrangeli 1981, p. 40. ^ Pietrangeli 1981, p. 36. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 76-77. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 72. ^ Delli 1988, p. 504. ^ Armellini 1891, p. 424. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 72-73. ^ Delli 1988, p. 473. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 102. ^ a b c d e Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 105. ^ Pietrangeli 1979, p. 76. ^ Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 415. ^ a b Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 392. ^ a b Pietrangeli 1981, p. 16. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 106. ^ Pietrangeli 1979, p. 9. ^ a b c d e f g h Pietrangeli 1979, p. 10. ^ Pietrangeli 1979, p. 13. ^ Pietrangeli 1979, p. 44. ^ a b c Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 118. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 119. ^ Pietrangeli 1981, p. 56. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 132. ^ Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 427. ^ a b Pietrangeli 1979, p. 78. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 134. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 133. ^ J. A. F. Orbaan, ed. (1920). Documenti del Barocco Romano (in Italian). Roma: Miscellanea della R. Società Romana di Storia Patria. p. 58 [c440] (1). Retrieved 5 March 2020. ^ Gigli 1958, p. 118. ^ a b Ceccarelli 1940, p. 25-26. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 135. ^ Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 145. ^ a b c Pietrangeli 1979, p. 80. ^ a b Salerno, Spezzaferro & Tafuri 1973, p. 147. ^ Delli 1988, p. 474. ^ Bertarelli 1925, p. 332. ^ Pietrangeli 1981, p. 10. ^ Castagnoli et al. 1958, p. 693-696. ^ Buchowiecki 1967, p. 705. ^ Mazzotta 2014, p. 185-187. ^ "Il Restauro di Via Giulia - Una ferita da rimarginare". (in Italian). 2 August 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2021. ^ a b Pietrangeli 1979, p. 18-22. ^ Pietrangeli 1979, p. 16. ^ a b Elisabeth Rosenthal (29 June 2008). "A Stroll in Rome With a Papal Pedigree-Via Giulia celebrates its 500th birthday this year". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 March 2020.

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