Frederiksborg Slot

( Frederiksborg Castle )

Frederiksborg Castle (Danish: Frederiksborg Slot) is a palatial complex in Hillerød, Denmark. It was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV of Denmark-Norway in the early 17th century, replacing an older castle acquired by Frederick II and becoming the largest Renaissance residence in Scandinavia. On three islets in the Slotssøen (castle lake), it is adjoined by a large formal garden in the Baroque style.

After a serious fire in 1859, the castle was rebuilt on the basis of old plans and paintings. Thanks to public support and the brewer J. C. Jacobsen, its apartments were fully restored and reopened to the public as the Danish Museum of National History in 1882. Open throughout the year, the museum contains the largest collection of portrait paintings in Denmark. It also provides visitors with an opportunity to visit several of the castle's state rooms including the restored Valdemar Room and Great Hall as well as the Chapel and the Au...Read more

Frederiksborg Castle (Danish: Frederiksborg Slot) is a palatial complex in Hillerød, Denmark. It was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV of Denmark-Norway in the early 17th century, replacing an older castle acquired by Frederick II and becoming the largest Renaissance residence in Scandinavia. On three islets in the Slotssøen (castle lake), it is adjoined by a large formal garden in the Baroque style.

After a serious fire in 1859, the castle was rebuilt on the basis of old plans and paintings. Thanks to public support and the brewer J. C. Jacobsen, its apartments were fully restored and reopened to the public as the Danish Museum of National History in 1882. Open throughout the year, the museum contains the largest collection of portrait paintings in Denmark. It also provides visitors with an opportunity to visit several of the castle's state rooms including the restored Valdemar Room and Great Hall as well as the Chapel and the Audience Chamber which were both largely spared by the fire and contain sumptuous decorations. While there was renovation, a fire truck was permanently parked in the castle.

Origins  The castle under Frederick II, c.1585

The estate originally known as Hillerødsholm near Hillerød had traditionally belonged to the Gøyes, one of the noble families of Denmark. In the 1520s and 1530s, Mogens Gøye (c.1470–1544), Steward of the Realm, had been instrumental in introducing the Danish Reformation. He lived in a half-timbered building on the most northerly of three adjoining islets on the estate's lake. The property was known as Hillerødsholm (literally islet of Hillerød). After his daughter, Birgitte, married the courtier and naval hero Herluf Trolle in 1544, the couple became its proprietors. In the 1540s, Trolle replaced the old building with a larger manor house.[1]

 Bath House hunting lodge (1581)

In 1550, Frederick II who was king of Denmark and Norway from 1559 to 1588, concluded an exchange agreement with Herluf Trolle and his wife whereby Trolle received the manor of Skovkloster in the south of Zealand, while the king acquired the Hillerødsholm Estate.[2] As the old building with twin towers was too small for the king, in 1560 he arranged for extensions and additions under Trolle's supervision. At the king's request, Trolle remained on the premises until the work was completed.[3] The king then renamed the estate Frederiksborg (literally Frederik's castle). Interested in deer hunting, he used the castle with the neighbouring Bath House as a royal hunting lodge, centred as it was in the fields and forests he owned in the north of Zealand.[4] The additions included a gated wall to the south, separating the estate from the town. Still standing today is the quadrangular red-brick, tip-roofed house on Staldgade known as Herluf Trolle's Tower (c.1560).[3] Adjoining this are two long, narrow red-brick stable buildings: the King's Stables to the west and the Hussars' Stables to the east. These in turn lead to a wall along the lake with two round towers completed in 1562 bearing the arms of Frederick II and his motto Mein Hoffnung zu Gott allein (My hope to God alone). On the central islet, the long pantry house with stepped gables (1575) can also be seen today. The most important building from Frederick II's times is the Bath House in the park northwest of the islets. Completed in 1581 in the Renaissance style with three protruding step-gabled wings, it served the king as a hunting lodge during the summer months.[5]

Frederiksborg Castle was the first Danish castle to be built inland. All previous castles had been on the coast or close to ports as the sea had traditionally been the principal means of travel. It was also the first to be built for purely recreational purposes rather than for defence. Its location in Hillerød led to the development of vastly improved roads, initially reserved for the king. Kongevej (King's Way), linking Frederiksborg with Copenhagen, was completed in 1588.[6] James VI of Scotland visited on 13 March 1590 after his marriage to Anne of Denmark. He gave money to the poor, to the keeper of the park who lent the couple horses, to a woman who kept pheasants and "spruce fowls", and 100 Danish dalers to the Captain of Frederiksborg for his officers and servants.[7]

Renaissance castle  Portrait of Christian IV of Denmark by Pieter Isaacsz

Frederik's son Christian, who was born there became very attached to the castle as a child. Nevertheless, when reigning as Christian IV (1588–1648) he decided to have it completely rebuilt in the Flemish and Dutch Renaissance style (Northern Mannerism). The old building was demolished in 1599 and the Flemish architect Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder was charged with planning the new building. After his death in 1601, his sons Hans and Lorenz completed the assignment. The main four-storey building with its three wings was completed around 1610 but work continued on the Chapel until 1618. The entire complex was finished around 1620,[4][8] becoming the largest Renaissance building in Scandinavia.[9] The main Renaissance building built by Christian IV was thus completed in under ten years, an astonishing accomplishment at the time, although there were additions until the early 1620s.[10]

In 1659 during the Second Northern War, the castle was captured by the Swedes who took most of its artworks as war reparations.[8] During the Swedish occupation, the queen of Sweden, Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, used the palace and hunted in the woods with the English envoy to Sweden.[11]

After Christian IV's death in 1648, the castle was used mainly for ceremonial events. The Chapel was the scene of the coronations and anointments of all the Danish monarchs from 1671 to 1840 except for that of Christian VII.[4]

1671: Christian V and Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel 1700: Frederick IV and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow 1721: Anna Sophia, consort of Frederick IV 1731: Christian VI and Sophia Magdalena of Brandenburg-Kulmbach 1747: Frederick V and Louise of Great Britain 1752: Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, consort of Frederick V 1815: Frederick VI and Marie of Hesse-Kassel 1840: Christian VIII and Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein

In July 1720, the Treaty of Frederiksborg was signed in the castle, ending the Great Northern War between Sweden and Denmark-Norway which had started in 1700.[12]

Fire and reconstruction  The Castle Fire of 1859, painting by Ferdinand Richardt (1819-1895)

In the 1850s, the castle was again used as a residence by King Frederick VII. While he was staying there on the night of 16 December 1859, he retired to a room on the third floor to examine his historic artefacts. But as it was a cold night, he asked for a fire to be lit in the room. Unfortunately, the chimney was under repair, causing a fire to break out. As the lake was frozen, the only water available came from the pantry and the kitchen.[13][9] The fire spread quickly, ruining most of the building within a few hours although the Chapel, the Audience Chamber and the Privy Passage were not seriously damaged. The intricate internal decorations were also destroyed, but over 300 paintings were saved and are now displayed in the castle's history museum. Reconstruction was funded by public subscription, with substantial contributions from the king and state, as well as from the prominent philanthropist J. C. Jacobsen of the Carlsberg Brewery. Jacobsen's funding provided for the establishment of the Museum of National History in the castle. It was formally established on 5 April 1878 and opened to the public in 1882.[14] The restoration and reconstruction work began in 1860 on the basis of old plans from the archives as well as detailed paintings and drawings by Heinrich Hansen. When work was completed under the leadership of the historicist architect Ferdinand Meldahl in 1864, the castle once again took on its original appearance.[4][8] Jacobsen also donated a copy of the Neptune Fountain (the original by Adrian de Vries having been taken to Sweden) which was placed in the outer courtyard in 1888.[15]

^ Stilling 2003, p. 123. ^ "Frederiksborg Castle". Everycastle.com. Retrieved 9 August 2015. ^ a b "Frederik II's Castle". Slotte & Kultur-Ejendomme. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2015. ^ a b c d "Frederiksborg Castle and Museum of National History". Copenhagen Portal. Retrieved 28 July 2015. ^ Stilling 2003, p. 124. ^ Stilling 2003, p. 125. ^ Miles Kerr-Peterson & Michael Pearce, 'James VI's English Subsidy and Danish Dowry Accounts, 1588-1596', Scottish History Society Miscellany XVI (Woodbridge, 2020), pp. 38, 44. ^ a b c "Frederiksborg Slot". Den Store Danske (in Danish). Retrieved 28 July 2015. ^ a b "Frederiksborg Castle". Det Nationalhistoriske Museum. Retrieved 29 July 2015. ^ Stilling 2003, p. 129. ^ Lundh-Eriksson, Nanna (1947). Hedvig Eleonora (in Swedish). Wahlström & Widstrand. ^ "Frederiksborgfreden 1720". Den Store Danske (in Danish). 8 January 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2015. ^ Hartmann 1986, p. 109. ^ "Det nationalhistoriske museum - Frederiksborg slot" (in Danish). frederiksborgmuseet.dk. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010. ^ "The Castle after the Renaissance period". Slotte &Kultur-Ejendomme. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
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