Évora (US: EV-uurr-ə, Portuguese: [ˈɛvuɾɐ] ) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. It has 53,591 inhabitants (2021), in an area of 1,307.08 square kilometers (504.67 sq mi). It is the historic capital of the Alentejo and serves as the seat of the Évora District.

Due to its well-preserved old town centre, still partially enclosed by medieval walls, and many monuments dating from various historical periods, including a Roman Temple, Évora is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Due to its inland position, Évora is one of Portugal's hottest cities in the summer, frequently subject to heatwaves.

Évora is ranked number two in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso. It was ranked first in a study concerning competitiveness of th...Read more

Évora (US: EV-uurr-ə, Portuguese: [ˈɛvuɾɐ] ) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. It has 53,591 inhabitants (2021), in an area of 1,307.08 square kilometers (504.67 sq mi). It is the historic capital of the Alentejo and serves as the seat of the Évora District.

Due to its well-preserved old town centre, still partially enclosed by medieval walls, and many monuments dating from various historical periods, including a Roman Temple, Évora is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Due to its inland position, Évora is one of Portugal's hottest cities in the summer, frequently subject to heatwaves.

Évora is ranked number two in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso. It was ranked first in a study concerning competitiveness of the 18 Portuguese district capitals, according to a 2006 study made by University of Minho economics researchers.

Along with Liepāja, Latvia, Évora was chosen to be European Capital of Culture in 2027.

 The Foral of Évora of 1501, when the city was favoured by Manuel I of Portugal. A depiction of Évora in 1503, when the city was blooming with Manueline riches.Early history

Évora has a history dating back more than five millennia.

It was known as Ebora by the Celtici, a tribal confederacy, south of the Lusitanians (and of Tagus river), who made the town their regional capital.

The etymological origin of the name Ebora is from the ancient Celtic word ebora/ebura, the genitive plural form of the word eburos (yew), the name of a species of tree, so its name means "of the yew trees." The city of York, in northern England, at the time of the Roman Empire, was called Eboracum/Eburacum, after the ancient Celtic place name *Eborakon (Place of Yew Trees), so the old name of York is etymologically related to the city of Évora.[1] Alternative hypotheses are that the name is derived from oro, aurum, (gold) [2] as the Romans had extensive gold mining in Portugal; or it may have been named after ivory workers because ebur (genitive eboris) was Latin for ivory. It may have been capital of the kingdom of Astolpas.[3]

Roman rule

See Ebora Liberalitas Julia for more on Roman Évora.

The Romans conquered the town in 57 BC and expanded it into a walled town. Vestiges from this period (city walls and ruins of Roman baths) remain. Julius Caesar called it Liberalitas Julia (Julian generosity). The city grew in importance because it lay at the junction of several important routes. During his travels through Gaul and Lusitania, Pliny the Elder also visited this town and mentioned it in his book Naturalis Historia as Ebora Cerealis, because of its many surrounding wheat fields. In those days, Évora became a flourishing city. Its high rank among municipalities in Roman Hispania is clearly shown by many inscriptions and coins. The monumental Corinthian temple in the centre of the town dates from the first century and was probably erected in honour of emperor Augustus. In the fourth century, the town had already a bishop, named Quintianus.

During the barbarian invasions, Évora came under the rule of the Visigothic king Leovigild in 584. The town was later raised to the status of a cathedral city. Nevertheless, this was a time of decline and very few artifacts from this period remain.

Moorish rule

In 715, the city was conquered by the Moors under Tariq ibn-Ziyad. During the Moorish rule (715–1165), the town, part of the Taifa of Badajoz, slowly began to prosper again and developed into an agricultural center with a fortress and a mosque. The Moorish influence can still be observed in the character of the historical city. During that time, several notables hailed from Évora, including Abd al-Majid ibn Abdun Al-Yaburi عبد المجيد بن عبدون اليابري, a poet whose diwan still survives to this day.[4]

Reconquest

Évora was wrested from the Moors through a surprise attack by Gerald the Fearless (Geraldo Sem Pavor) in September 1165. The town came under the rule of the Portuguese king Afonso I in 1166. It then flourished as one of the most dynamic cities in the Kingdom of Portugal during the Middle Ages, especially in the 15th century. The court of the first and second dynasties resided here for long periods, constructing palaces, monuments, and religious buildings. Évora became the scene for many royal weddings and a site where many important decisions were made.[citation needed]

Manueline favour  In the 19th century, Évora declined in national power, as a result of the War of Two Brothers.

Particularly thriving during the Avis Dynasty (1385–1580), especially under the reign of Manuel I and John III, Évora became a major centre for the humanities (André de Resende - buried in the cathedral) and artists, such as the sculptor Nicolau Chanterene; the painters Cristóvão de Figueiredo and Gregório Lopes; the composers Manuel Cardoso and Duarte Lobo; the chronicler Duarte Galvão; and the father of Portuguese drama, Gil Vicente.

Remnants of the famed Moorish rule remained in Évora. Nicolas Cleynaerts, a Flemish tutor at the Portuguese court, exclaimed in 1535 that "In Évora, it was as if I had been carried off to a city in hell: everywhere I only meet blacks."

The city became the seat of an archbishopric in 1540. The university was founded by the Jesuits in 1559, and it was here that great European Masters such as the Flemish humanists Clenardus (1493–1542), Johannes Vasaeus (Jan Was) (1511–1561) and the theologian Luis de Molina passed on their knowledge. In the 18th century, the Jesuits, who had spread intellectual and religious enlightenment since the 16th century, were expelled from Portugal, the university was closed in 1759 by the Marquis of Pombal, and Évora went into decline. The university was only reopened in 1973.

Recent history  View of a street in Évora.

The Battle of Évora was fought on 29 July 1808 during the Peninsular War. An outnumbered Portuguese-Spanish force of 2,500, assisted by poorly armed peasant militiamen, tried to stop a French-Spanish division commanded by Louis Henri Loison but it was routed. Led by the hated Loison, known as Maneta or One-Hand, the French went on to storm the town which was defended by soldiers, militiamen, and armed townsmen. Breaking into the town, the attackers slaughtered combatants and non-combatants alike before thoroughly pillaging the place. The French invasion inflicted as many as 8,000 casualties while suffering only 290 of their own.[5]

In 1834, Évora was the site of the surrender of the forces of King Miguel I, which marked the end of the Liberal Wars. The many monuments erected by major artists of each period now testify to Évora's lively cultural and rich artistic and historical heritage. The variety of architectural styles (Romanesque, Gothic, Manueline, Renaissance, Baroque), the palaces and the picturesque labyrinth of squares and narrow streets of the city centre are all part of the rich heritage of this museum-city.

In 1909, the city was damaged by an earthquake.[6]

^ "York's ancient origins". Yorkshire-england.co.uk. Retrieved 12 March 2013. ^ "The Mineral Industry of Portugal in 2002" (PDF). Retrieved 8 July 2009. ^ "Évora". Fikeonline.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2009. ^ "ديوان عبد المجيد بن عبدون اليابري : الشعر والنثر | An-Najah Libraries". libraries.najah.edu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2022. ^ Jac Weller, Wellington in the Peninsula, Kaye & Ward, p34 ^ "110 ANOS DO SISMO DE BENAVENTE" [110 YEARS OF THE BENAVENTE EARTHQUAKE]. IPMA. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
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