Argentina

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Context of Argentina

Argentina (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾxenˈtina] (listen)), officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, ...Read more

Argentina (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾxenˈtina] (listen)), officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; over 60% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry, and Argentine culture has significant connections to Italian culture.

The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh-wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. In 1896, Argentina's GDP per capita surpassed that of the United States and was consistently in the top ten before at least 1920. Currently, it is ranked 62nd in the world. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow and vice president, Isabel Perón, ascended to the presidency, before being overthrown in 1976. The following military junta, which was supported by the United States, persecuted and murdered thousands of political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism and civil unrest that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as president in 1983.

Argentina is a regional power, and retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. A major non-NATO ally of the United States, Argentina is a developing country that ranks 47th in the Human Development Index, the second-highest in Latin America after Chile. It maintains the second-largest economy in South America, and is a member of G-15 and G20. Argentina is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States.

More about Argentina

Basic information
  • Currency Argentine peso (1983–1985)
  • Native name Argentina
  • Calling code +54
  • Internet domain .ar
  • Mains voltage 220V/50Hz
  • Democracy index 6.95
Population, Area & Driving side
  • Population 47327407
  • Area 2780400
  • Driving side right
History
  • Pre-Columbian era
     
    The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province

    The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic.[1] Until the period of European colonization, Argentina...Read more

    Pre-Columbian era
     
    The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province

    The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic.[1] Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations,[2] which can be divided into three main groups.[3]

    The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery, such as the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south. The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the centre-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading from Chile[4]—and the Kom and Wichi in the north. The last group are farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa, Minuane and Guaraní in the northeast, with slash and burn semisedentary existence;[2] the advanced Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire around 1480; the Toconoté and Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's centre, and the Huarpe in the centre-west, a culture that raised llama cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.[2]

    Colonial era
    Painting showing the surrender during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata. 
    The surrender of Beresford to Santiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata

    Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively.[5] In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the small settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541.[6]

    Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata—Peru and Chile.[7] Francisco de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres was founded in 1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in 1565.[8] Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba.[9] Garay went further south to re-found Buenos Aires in 1580.[10] San Luis was established in 1596.[8]

    The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.[11]

    Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807.[12] The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.[13]

    Independence and civil wars
    Painting of San Martín holding the Argentine flag 
    Portrait of General José de San Martin, Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru.

    Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty,[14] the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals.[13] In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba,[15] but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental, Upper Peru and Paraguay, which later became independent states.[16] The French-Argentine Hippolyte Bouchard then brought his fleet to wage war against Spain overseas and attacked Spanish California, Spanish Chile, Spanish Peru and Spanish Philippines. He secured the allegiance of escaped Filipinos in San Blas who defected from the Spanish to join the Argentine navy, due to common Argentine and Philippine grievances against Spanish colonization.[17][18] At a later date, the Argentine Sun of May was adopted as a symbol by the Filipinos in the Philippine Revolution against Spain. He also secured the diplomatic recognition of Argentina from King Kamehameha I of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Historian Pacho O'Donnell affirms that Hawaii was the first state that recognized Argentina's independence.[19]

    Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and the Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence.[20] The Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director.[20]

    On 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán formalized the Declaration of Independence,[21] which is now celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday.[22] One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.[23][A] In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists.[25]

    Some of the most important figures of Argentinean independence made a proposal known as the Inca plan of 1816, which proposed that United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Present Argentina) should be a monarchy, led by a descendant of the Inca. Juan Bautista Túpac Amaru (half-brother of Túpac Amaru II) was proposed as monarch.[26] Some examples of those who supported this proposal were Manuel Belgrano, José de San Martín and Martín Miguel de Güemes. The Congress of Tucumán finally decided to reject the Inca plan, creating instead a republican, centralist state.[27][28]

    The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution.[29] Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas.[30] During his regime he faced a French blockade (1838–1840), the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade (1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory.[31] His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, beat him out of power. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda.[32]

    Rise of the modern nation
     
    People gathered in front of the Buenos Aires Cabildo during the May Revolution

    Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies set up the basis of the modern Argentine State.[33]

    Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies. The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest[34] developed nation[35] in the world. Driven by this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold:[36] from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year,[37] placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters.[38] Its railway mileage rose from 503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi).[39] Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy quickly increased from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American nations would reach even fifty years later.[38] Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%:[39] In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. By 1908, it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and the Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil's.[34] Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization:[40] after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labour-intensive in the 1930s.[41]

     
    Conquest of the Desert, by Juan Manuel Blanes (fragment showing Julio Argentino Roca, at the front, a major figure of the Generation of '80)[42]

    Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert occurred, with the purpose of tripling the Argentine territory by means of the constant confrontations between natives and Criollos in the border,[43] and the appropriation of the indigenous territories. The first conquest consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampa and Patagonian territories dominated by the indigenous peoples,[44] distributing them among the members of the Sociedad Rural Argentina, financiers of the expeditions.[45] The conquest of Chaco lasted up to the end of the century,[46] since its full ownership of the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin was replaced by the production of cotton.[47] The Argentine government considered indigenous people as inferior beings, without the same rights as Criollos and Europeans.[48]

    In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by the Great Depression.[49]

     
    Crowds outside the Argentine National Congress during the 1930 Argentine coup d'état which marked the start of the Infamous Decade

    In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by José Félix Uriburu. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,[34] this coup d'état marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment.[50]

    Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo was elected in a fraudulent election, and signed a controversial treaty with the United Kingdom. Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1943 a military coup d'état led by General Arturo Rawson toppled the democratically elected government of Ramón Castillo. Under pressure from the United States, later Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers (on 27 March 1945, roughly a month before the end of World War II in Europe).

    During the Rawson dictatorship a relatively unknown military colonel named Juan Perón was named head of the Labour Department. Perón quickly managed to climb the political ladder, being named Minister of Defence by 1944. Being perceived as a political threat by rivals in the military and the conservative camp, he was forced to resign in 1945, and was arrested days later. He was finally released under mounting pressure from both his base and several allied unions.[51] He would later become president after a landslide victory over the UCR in the 1946 general election as the Laborioust candidate.[52]

    Peronist years
    Juan Domingo Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1947. 
    Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1947

    The Labour Party (later renamed Justicialist Party), the most powerful and influential party in Argentine history, came into power with the rise of Juan Perón to the presidency in 1946. He nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and claimed he achieved nearly full employment. He pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage in 1947,[53] and developed a system of social assistance for the most vulnerable sectors of society.[54] The economy began to decline in 1950 due in part to government expenditures and the protectionist economic policies.[55]

    He also engaged in a campaign of political suppression. Anyone who was perceived to be a political dissident or potential rival was subject to threats, physical violence and harassment. The Argentine intelligentsia, the middle-class, university students, and professors were seen as particularly troublesome. Perón fired over 2,000 university professors and faculty members from all major public education institutions.[56]

    Perón tried to bring most trade and labour unions under his thumb, regularly resorting to violence when needed. For instance, the meat-packers union leader, Cipriano Reyes, organised strikes in protest against the government after elected labour movement officials were forcefully replaced by Peronist puppets from the Peronist Party. Reyes was soon arrested on charges of terrorism, though the allegations were never substantiated. Reyes,who was never formally charged, was tortured in prison for five years and only released after the regime's downfall in 1955.[57]

    Perón managed to get reelected in 1951. His wife Eva Perón, who played a critical role in the party, died of cancer in 1952. As the economy continued to tank, Perón started losing popular support, and came to be seen as a threat to the national process. The Navy took advantage of Perón's withering political power, and bombed the Plaza de Mayo in 1955. Perón survived the attack, but a few months later, during the Liberating Revolution coup, he was deposed and went into exile in Spain.[58]

    Revolución Libertadora
     
    Civilian casualties after the air attack and massacre on Plaza de Mayo, June 1955

    The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscribed Peronism and banned the party from any future elections. Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the 1958 general election.[59] He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and lifted the ban on Peronism; yet his efforts to stay on good terms with both the Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out.[60] Amidst the political turmoil, Senate leader José María Guido reacted swiftly and applied anti-power vacuum legislation, ascending to the presidency himself; elections were repealed and Peronism was prohibited once again. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led an increase in prosperity across the board; however he was overthrown in 1966 by another military coup d'état led by General Juan Carlos Onganía in the self-proclaimed Argentine Revolution, creating a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.[61]

    Perón's return and death
     
    Juan Perón and his wife Isabel Perón, 1973

    Following several years of military rule, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse was appointed president by the military junta in 1971. Under increasing political pressure for the return of democracy, Lanusse called for elections in 1973. Perón was banned from running but the Peronist party was allowed to participate. The presidential elections were won by Perón's surrogate candidate, Hector Cámpora, a left-wing Peronist, who took office on 25 May 1973. A month later, in June, Perón returned from Spain. One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was to grant amnesty to members of organizations that had carried out political assassinations and terrorist attacks, and to those who had been tried and sentenced to prison by judges. Cámpora's months-long tenure in government was beset by political and social unrest. Over 600 social conflicts, strikes, and factory occupations took place within a single month.[62] Even though far-left terrorist organisations had suspended their armed struggle, their joining with the participatory democracy process was interpreted as a direct threat by the Peronist right-wing faction.[63]

    Amid a state of political, social, and economic upheaval, Cámpora and Vice President Vicente Solano Lima resigned in July 1973, calling for new elections, but this time with Perón as the Justicialist Party nominee. Perón won the election with his wife Isabel Perón as vice president. Perón's third term was marked by escalating conflict between left and right-wing factions within the Peronist party, as well as the return of armed terror guerrilla groups like the Guevarist ERP, leftist Peronist Montoneros, and the state-backed far-right Triple A. After a series of heart attacks and with signs of pneumonia in 1974, Perón's health deteriorated quickly. He suffered a final heart attack on Monday, 1 July 1974, and died at 13:15. He was 78 years old. After his death, Isabel Perón, his wife and vice president, succeeded him in office. During her presidency, a military junta, along with the Peronists' far-right fascist faction, once again became the de facto head of state. Isabel Perón served as President of Argentina from 1974 until 1976, when she was ousted by the military. Her short presidency was marked by the collapse of Argentine political and social systems, leading to a constitutional crisis that paved the way for a decade of instability, left-wing terrorist guerrilla attacks, and state-sponsored terrorism.[55][64][65]

    National Reorganization Process
     
    The "first military junta" – Admiral Emilio Massera, Lieutenant General Jorge Videla and Brigadier General Orlando Agosti (from left to right) – observing the Independence Day military parade on Avenida del Libertador, 9 July 1978

    The "Dirty War" (Spanish: Guerra Sucia) was part of Operation Condor, which included the participation of other right-wing dictatorships in the Southern Cone. The Dirty War involved state terrorism in Argentina and elsewhere in the Southern Cone against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism or somehow contrary to the neoliberal economic policies of the regime.[66][67][68] Victims of the violence in Argentina alone included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist guerrillas,[69] and alleged sympathizers. Most of the victims were casualties of state terrorism. The opposing guerrillas' victims numbered nearly 500–540 military and police officials[70] and up to 230 civilians.[71] Argentina received technical support and military aid from the United States government during the Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan administrations.

    The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, yet the roots of the long political war may have started in 1969 when trade unionists were targeted for assassination by Peronist and Marxist paramilitaries. Individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back even further to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. The Trelew massacre of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance commencing in 1973, and Isabel Perón's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during Operativo Independencia (Operation Independence) in 1975, are also possible events signaling the beginning of the Dirty War.[B]

    Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties, and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo and the Rosariazo. The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu.[75] The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, allowed Héctor José Cámpora to become the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the March 1973 election, issued pardons for condemned guerrilla members, and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.[76]

     
    Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War

    On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from the Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre. Overwhelmed by political violence, Cámpora resigned and Perón won the following September 1973 election with his third wife Isabel as vice-president. He expelled Montoneros from the party[77] and they became once again a clandestine organization. José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP).[78][79]

    Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion,[80] stopping ERP's attempt to start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province.[81] Isabel Perón was ousted one year later by a junta of the combined armed forces, led by army general Jorge Rafael Videla. They initiated the National Reorganization Process, often shortened to Proceso.[82]

    The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges on the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to employing the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members including individuals suspected of being associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976, the Montoneros had lost nearly 2,000 members and by 1977, the ERP was completely subdued. Nevertheless, the severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly put down, effectively ending the guerrilla threat and securing the junta's position in power.[citation needed]

    In 1982, the head of state, General Leopoldo Galtieri, authorised the invasion of the British territories of South Georgia and, on 2 April, of the Falkland Islands. The occupation provoked a military response from the United Kingdom leading to the Falklands War. Argentine forces were defeated and surrendered to British troops on 14 June. Street riots in Buenos Aires followed the defeat[83] and the military leadership responsible for the humiliation withdrew.[84] Reynaldo Bignone replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic governance.[85]

    Return to democracy
     
    Carlos Menem with the new president, Fernando de la Rúa, on December 10, 1999.

    Raúl Alfonsín won the 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations during the Proceso: the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,[86][87] which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 election. Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation.[88]

    Menem embraced and enacted neoliberal policies:[89] a fixed exchange rate, business deregulation, privatizations, and the dismantling of protectionist barriers normalized the economy in the short term. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. With the economy beginning to decline in 1995, and with increasing unemployment and recession,[90] the UCR, led by Fernando de la Rúa, returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections.[91]

     
    Protests in the city of Buenos Aires during the December 2001 riots in Argentina

    De la Rúa left Menem's economic plan in effect despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent.[90] Massive capital flight from the country was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots forced him to resign.[92] Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who revoked the fixed exchange rate established by Menem,[93] causing many working- and middle-class Argentines to lose a significant portion of their savings. By late 2002, the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political unrest, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward.[94] Néstor Kirchner was elected as the new president. On 26 May 2003, he was sworn in.[95][96]

     
    Néstor Kirchner and his wife and political successor, Cristina Kirchner

    Boosting the neo-Keynesian economic policies[94] laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and rapid GDP growth.[97] Under his administration, Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund,[98] purged the military of officers with dubious human rights records,[99] nullified and voided the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,[100][C] ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Junta's crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007[102] and subsequently reelected in 2011. Fernández de Kirchner's administration established positive foreign relations with countries with questionable human rights records, including Venezuela, Iran, and Cuba, while at the same time relations with the United States and United Kingdom became increasingly strained. By 2015, the Argentine GDP grew by 2.7%[103] and real incomes had risen over 50% since the post-Menem era.[104] Despite these economic gains and increased renewable energy production and subsidies, the overall economy had been sluggish since 2011.[105]

    On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of presidential elections on 25 October, center-right coalition candidate Mauricio Macri won the first ballotage in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and becoming president-elect.[106] Macri was the first democratically elected non-peronist president since 1916 that managed to complete his term in office without being overthrown.[107] He took office on 10 December 2015 and inherited an economy with a high inflation rate and in a poor shape.[108] In April 2016, the Macri Government introduced neoliberal austerity measures intended to tackle inflation and overblown public deficits.[109] Under Macri's administration, economic recovery remained elusive with GDP shrinking 3.4%, inflation totaling 240%, billions of US dollars issued in sovereign debt, and mass poverty increasing by the end of his term.[110][111] He ran for re-election in 2019 but lost by nearly eight percentage points to Alberto Fernández, the Justicialist Party candidate.[112]

    President Alberto Fernández and Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner took office in December 2019,[113] just months before the COVID-19 pandemic hit Argentina and among accusations of corruption, bribery and misuse of public funds during Nestor and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's presidencies.[114][115] On 14 November 2021, the center-left coalition of Argentina's ruling Peronist party, Frente de Todos (Front for Everyone), lost its majority in Congress, for the first time in almost 40 years, in midterm legislative elections. The election victory of the center-right coalition, Juntos por el Cambio (Together for Change), meant a tough final two years in office for President Alberto Fernandez. Losing control of the Senate made it difficult for him to make key appointments, including to the judiciary. It also forced him to negotiate with the opposition every initiative he sends to the legislature.[116][117]

    ^ Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17. ^ a b c Edwards 2008, p. 12. ^ Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 18–19. ^ Edwards 2008, p. 13. ^ Crow 1992, p. 128. ^ Crow 1992, pp. 129–32. ^ Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 96–140. ^ a b Crow 1992, p. 353. ^ Crow 1992, p. 134. ^ Crow 1992, p. 135. ^ Crow 1992, p. 347. ^ Crow 1992, p. 421. ^ a b Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 194ff. ^ Levene 1948, p. 11: "[After the Viceroyalty became] a new period that commenced with the revolution of 1810, whose plan consisted in declaring the independence of a nation, thus turning the legal bond of vassalage into one of citizenship as a component of sovereignty and, in addition, organizing the democratic republic."; Sánchez Viamonte 1948, pp. 196–97: "The Argentine nation was a unity in colonial times, during the Viceroyalty, and remained so after the revolution of May 1810. [...] The provinces never acted as independent sovereign states, but as entities created within the nation and as integral parts of it, incidentally affected by internal conflicts."; Vanossi 1964, p. 11: "[The Argentine nationality is a] unique national entity, successor to the Viceroyalty, which, after undergoing a long period of anarchy and disorganization, adopted a decentralized form in 1853–1860 under the Constitution." ^ Rock 1987, p. 81. ^ Rock 1987, pp. 82–83. ^ Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2006). Historia de México. México, D. F.: Pearson Educación. ^ Mercene, Manila men, p. 52. ^ O'Donnell 1998. ^ a b Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40. ^ Rock 1987, p. 92; Lewis 2003, p. 41. ^ "Feriados nacionales 2018" [National Holidays 2018] (in Spanish). Argentina Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 349–53, vol. I. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 185–252, vol. I. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 41. ^ "Juan Bautista Túpac Amaru: el rey que Argentina pudo tener". 13 July 2016. ^ "El 'plan del Inca' de Belgrano". 15 November 2013. ^ "Plan del Inca". 15 November 2013. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 43. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 45. ^ Lewis 2003, pp. 46–47. ^ Lewis 2003, pp. 48–50. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 363–541, vol. I. ^ a b c Bolt & Van Zanden 2013. ^ Díaz Alejandro 1970, p. 1. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 18–30. ^ Mosk 1990, pp. 88–89. ^ a b Cruz 1990, p. 10. ^ a b Díaz Alejandro 1970, pp. 2–3. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 567–625, vol. I. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 37–38. ^ Douglas A. Richmond, "Julio Argentino Roca" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 4 p. 583. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996. ^ Barros, Álvaro (1872). Fronteras y territorios federales de las pampas del Sud (in Spanish). tipos á vapor. pp. 155–57. ^ Ras, Norberto (2006). La guerra por las vacas (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Galerna. ISBN 978-987-05-0539-6. ^ Bayer, Osvaldo (4 December 2004). "Pulgas y garrapatas" (in Spanish). Página/12. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013. ^ Maeder, Ernesto J. A. (1997). "VIII". Historia del Chaco (in Spanish). Editorial Plus Ultra. p. 105. ISBN 978-950-21-1256-5. ^ Iñigo Carrera, Nicolás (1983). La colonización del Chaco (in Spanish). Centro Editor de América Latina. pp. 16–23. ISBN 978-950-25-0123-9. ^ "Breve historia de los pueblos aborígenes en Argentina" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Educación de Argentina. Archived from the original on 21 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 7–178, vol. II. ^ Cite error: The named reference developed was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 181–302, vol. II. ^ Alexander, Robert Jackson. A History of Organized Labor in Argentina. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003. ^ Barnes 1978, p. 3. ^ Barnes 1978, pp. 113ff. ^ a b c "Chronology: Argentina's turbulent history of economic crises". Reuters. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2022. ^ Rock, David (1993). Authoritarian Argentina. University of California Press. ^ "Clarín". Clarin.com. 2 August 2001. Retrieved 2 December 2020. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 303–51, vol. II. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 353–379, vol. II. ^ Robben 2011, p. 34. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 381–422, vol. II. ^ Moreno, Hugo (2005). Le désastre argentin. Péronisme, politique et violence sociale (1930–2001) (in French). Paris: Editions Syllepses. p. 109. ^ Manuel Justo Gaggero, "El general en su laberinto" Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Pagina/12, 19 February 2007 ^ de Onis, Juan (2 January 1977). "Argentina's Terror: Army Is Ahead". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2022. ^ Bernstein, Adam (17 May 2013). "Jorge Rafael Videla, Argentine junta leader, dies at 87". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 December 2022. ^ Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina, Antonius C. G. M. Robben, p. 145, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007 ^ Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo, Marguerite Guzmán Bouvard, p. 22, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994 ^ "Argentina's Guerrillas Still Intent On Socialism" Archived 26 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 7 March 1976 ^ "Argentina's Dirty War". Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2014. ^ "Militares Muertos Durante la Guerra Sucia". Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. ^ Gambini, Hugo (2008). Historia del peronismo. La violencia (1956–1983). Buenos Aires: Javier Vergara Editor. pp. 198/208. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (11 February 2022). "Florida businessman, 79, to face trial over notorious 1972 massacre in Argentina". The Independent. Retrieved 19 December 2022 – via Yahoo! Sports. ^ McDonnell, Patrick J. (13 January 2007). "Arrest of Isabel Peron signals willingness to reexamine era". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 December 2022. ^ Burke, Hilary (21 January 2007). "Argentina probes pre-Dirty War rights crimes". Reuters. Retrieved 19 December 2022. ^ Robben 2011, p. 127. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 423–65, vol. II. ^ Robben 2011, pp. 76–77. ^ Anderson & Sloan 2009, p. 40–41. ^ Wilson 2016, p. 167. ^ Robben 2011, p. 145. ^ Robben 2011, p. 148. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 467–504, vol. II. ^ Meislin, Richard J. (16 June 1982). "THOUSANDS IN BUENOS AIRES ASSAIL JUNTA FOR SURRENDERING TO BRITAIN". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2021. ^ "CBS News releases video of the Falklands War riots". Fox News. 24 February 2015. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 505–32, vol. II. ^ Ley No. 23492, 29 December 1986, B.O., (26058) (in Spanish) ^ Ley No. 23521, 9 June 1987, B.O., (26155) (in Spanish) ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 533–49, vol. II. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 6. ^ a b Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 9. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 551–573, vol. II. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 575–87, vol. II. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 12. ^ a b Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 13. ^ "Kirchner Sworn in as President of Argentina - 2003-05-26". VOA. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 587–95, vol. II. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 16. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 15. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 14. ^ Ley No. 25779, 3 September 2003, B.O., (30226), 1 (in Spanish) ^ Ley No. 24952, 17 April 1998, B.O., (28879), 1 (in Spanish) ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 597–626, vol. II. ^ "GDP growth (annual %) – Argentina". The World Bank. Retrieved 7 April 2021. ^ "GDP per capita (constant 2010 US$) – Argentina". The World Bank. Retrieved 7 April 2021. ^ Bouchier, Dewitt (22 January 2019). "Ruin redux: Argentina's Economy under Mauricio Macri". The Political Military Club. Retrieved 7 April 2021. ^ "Argentina shifts to the right after Mauricio Macri wins presidential runoff". The Guardian. 23 November 2015. ^ "Mauricio Macri, el primer presidente desde 1916 que no es peronista ni radical" (in Spanish). Los Andes. 22 November 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015. ^ "Argentine President Mauricio Macri sworn in". France 24. 10 December 2015. ^ Carrelli Lynch, Guido. "Macri anunció medidas para amortiguar la inflación". Clarín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016. ^ Alcalá Kovalski, Manuel (5 September 2019). "Lessons learned from the Argentine economy under Macri". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 7 April 2021. ^ Rabouin, Dion (3 September 2019). "Argentine president leads economy to debt, inflation and mass poverty". Axios. Retrieved 7 April 2021. ^ "Argentina election: Centre-left Alberto Fernández wins presidency". BBC News. 28 October 2019. ^ Aires, Reuters in Buenos (10 December 2019). "'We're back': Alberto Fernández sworn in as Argentina shifts to the left". The Guardian. {{cite news}}: |first1= has generic name (help) ^ "Administracion Federal". AFIP. Retrieved 1 June 2014. ^ "Allegations of a network of corruption money involves former president Kirchner". Merco Press. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2020. ^ "Peronists may lose Argentina Congress for first time in 40 years". www.aljazeera.com. ^ Bronstein, Hugh; Misculin, Nicolás (15 November 2021). "Argentina's Peronists on the ropes after bruising midterm defeat". Reuters.


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Stay safe
  •  
    Stay safe

    Argentina has a relatively high traffic mortality rate, with about 20 road deaths per day, and with more than 120,000 injured people each year, including tourists. Pedestrians should exercise extreme caution. Do not jaywalk if you do not feel comfortable, and be careful crossing even when allowed.

    There is plenty of activity and foot traffic throughout the night. Nice areas have a very thorough police presence, perhaps one officer per 3 blocks, plus store security and auxiliary patrols. Public security in all major cities like Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Rosario is handled by the Federal Police and the National Gendarmerie or the Naval Prefecture, especially in the Puerto Madero area of Buenos Aires.

    As in any large city, certain particular neighbourhoods in Buenos Aires and other cities are very dangerous. Some shady neighbourhoods include Retiro, Villa Lugano, La Boca and Villa Riachuelo. Ask trusted locals, such as hotel desk staff or police officers, for advice. Pay attention to your environment and trust your instincts. If an area seems questionable, leave.

    Many people in the street and in the subway hand out small cards with horoscopes, lottery numbers, pictures of saints, or cute drawings on them. If you take the card, the person will ask for payment. You can simply return the card along with a no, gracias. or simply in silence if your Spanish is not good. Persistent beggars are usually not dangerous; a polite but firm no tengo nada ("I don't have anything") and/or hand gestures are usually enough.

    ...Read more
     
    Stay safe

    Argentina has a relatively high traffic mortality rate, with about 20 road deaths per day, and with more than 120,000 injured people each year, including tourists. Pedestrians should exercise extreme caution. Do not jaywalk if you do not feel comfortable, and be careful crossing even when allowed.

    There is plenty of activity and foot traffic throughout the night. Nice areas have a very thorough police presence, perhaps one officer per 3 blocks, plus store security and auxiliary patrols. Public security in all major cities like Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Rosario is handled by the Federal Police and the National Gendarmerie or the Naval Prefecture, especially in the Puerto Madero area of Buenos Aires.

    As in any large city, certain particular neighbourhoods in Buenos Aires and other cities are very dangerous. Some shady neighbourhoods include Retiro, Villa Lugano, La Boca and Villa Riachuelo. Ask trusted locals, such as hotel desk staff or police officers, for advice. Pay attention to your environment and trust your instincts. If an area seems questionable, leave.

    Many people in the street and in the subway hand out small cards with horoscopes, lottery numbers, pictures of saints, or cute drawings on them. If you take the card, the person will ask for payment. You can simply return the card along with a no, gracias. or simply in silence if your Spanish is not good. Persistent beggars are usually not dangerous; a polite but firm no tengo nada ("I don't have anything") and/or hand gestures are usually enough.

    Most crimes involve petty theft (pickpockets) in the subway and on crowded city streets, and especially inhabitant from Buenos Aires have a story to tell, which is also why many people carry their bags in front of them. In most cases, if your wallet is stolen, you won't even notice until hours later. However, paying attention to your stuff, will mostly prevent this from happening. Never hang your purse or bag from the back of your chair in a cafe or restaurant—stealthy theft from such bags is common. Keep your purse or backpack on the floor between your legs while you eat. Petty theft is common but seldom, like in a few other European cities like Paris or Naples. Violent robberies are uncommon, and mostly only happen where you would expect them, at night in a lone street in the wrong quarter. In the unlikely event that you are confronted by a mugger, simply hand over your valuables; they are replaceable and the muggers may be on drugs, drunk, have a knife or a gun.

    Popular demonstrations are very common in Buenos Aires, and are best avoided by tourists as these demonstrations sometimes grow into violent confrontations with the police or National Gendarmerie, particularly as they approach the government buildings in the city center.

    Since 2005 the government has cracked down on illegal taxis very successfully. Petty crime continues (like taking indirect routes or, less commonly, giving counterfeits in change). Taxis that loiter in front of popular tourist destinations like the National Museum are looking for tourists. Stay away from them. Your chance of falling prey to a scam increases in these situations. Stopping a taxi a block or two away on a typical city street where others locals would do the same is good choice. Also having small bills will help you avoid issues mentioned, as well you will often find taxis that don't have change for 100 peso notes.

    Carry some ID with you, but not your original passport; a copy (easily provided by your own hotel) should be enough.

    'Villas' or ghettos, usually composed of wooden or steel plate shacks, should also be avoided due to the high crime rate in these areas. Should you want to visit one of these, you should only do so as part of a guided tour with a reputable guide or tour company.

    Drug use, while legal in Argentina, is frowned upon by most inhabitants. Alcohol is generally the vice of choice here. Paco, a crack-like mix of by products from the cocaine manufacturing process, is a serious problem, and its users should be avoided at all costs.

    It is known that in 2007 security operators at airports were stealing valuable objects such as iPods, digital cameras, cellular phones, sun glasses, jewellery and laptops while scanning the checked luggage of passengers.

    Police officers will often try to get you to bribe them during a traffic stop, although can can just pay for the ticket they will give it to you without any problems.

    Natural disasters Tornadoes

    The central and northern Argentinian provinces (including La Pampa, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, Córdoba, Corrientes, Misiones, the north of Río Negro, south of San Luís, central and eastern regions of Formosa and southeast of Santiago del Estero and Chaco provinces) are part of the South America Tornado Corridor, the second most tornado-prone area in the world (behind the United States Tornado Alley). Monitor local media notices and if you see that the sky is dark, the light take on a greenish-yellow cast or a loud sound that sounds like a freight train, this could be an indication of a tornado. Find shelter immediately.

    Refer to the tornado safety article for analysis of the issues here.

    Emergency numbers Ambulance (Immediate Health Emergency Service, SAME in Buenos Aires): 107 Firemen (National Firemen Corps): 100 Police (Argentine Federal Police): 911 mostly, might be 101 in some smaller cities Tourist Police: +54 11 4346-5748 / 0800 999 5000
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