Denali (; also known as Mount McKinley, its former official name) is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190 m) above sea level. It is the tallest mountain in the world from base-to-peak on land, measuring 18,000 ft (5,500 m), and Earth's highest mountain north of 43°N. With a topographic prominence of 20,194 feet (6,155 m) and a topographic isolation of 4,621.1 miles (7,436.9 km), Denali is the third most prominent and third-most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U.S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Denali National Park and Preserve.

The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley; that name was the offici...Read more

Denali (; also known as Mount McKinley, its former official name) is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190 m) above sea level. It is the tallest mountain in the world from base-to-peak on land, measuring 18,000 ft (5,500 m), and Earth's highest mountain north of 43°N. With a topographic prominence of 20,194 feet (6,155 m) and a topographic isolation of 4,621.1 miles (7,436.9 km), Denali is the third most prominent and third-most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U.S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Denali National Park and Preserve.

The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley; that name was the official name recognized by the federal government of the United States from 1917 until 2015. In August 2015, 40 years after Alaska had done so, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali.

In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, which was unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, but this ascent is unverified and its legitimacy questioned. The first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit. In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, and therefore the most popular currently in use.

On September 2, 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet (6,190 m) high, not 20,320 feet (6,194 m), as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry.

In a grayscale photograph, two men stand in front of a tent and snowy evergreen trees Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens, co-leaders of the first successful expedition of four to reach the summit of Denali in 1913, the other members of the expedition being Robert G. Tatum and Walter Harper

The Koyukon Athabaskans, living in the Yukon, Tanana and Kuskokwim basins, were the first Native Americans with access to the flanks of the mountain.[1] A British naval captain and explorer, George Vancouver, is the first European on record to have sighted Denali, when he noted "distant stupendous mountains" while surveying the Knik Arm of the Cook Inlet on May 6, 1794.[2] The Russian explorer Lavrenty Zagoskin explored the Tanana and Kuskokwim rivers in 1843 and 1844, and was likely the first European to sight the mountain from the other side.[3]

William Dickey, a New Hampshire-born resident of Seattle, Washington who had been digging for gold in the sands of the Susitna River, wrote, after his returning from Alaska, an account in the New York Sun that appeared on January 24, 1897.[4] His report drew attention with the sentence "We have no doubt that this peak is the highest in North America, and estimate that it is over 20,000 feet (6,100 m) high." Until then, Mount Logan in Canada's Yukon Territory was believed to be the continent's highest point. Though later praised for his estimate, Dickey admitted that other prospector parties had also guessed the mountain to be over 20,000 feet (6,100 m).[5] These estimates were confirmed in 1898 by the surveyor Robert Muldrow, who measured its elevation as 20,300 feet (6,200 m).[6]

On November 5, 2012, the United States Mint released a twenty-five cent piece depicting Denali National Park. It is the fifteenth of the America the Beautiful Quarters series. The reverse features a Dall sheep with the peak of Denali in the background.[7]

Climbing history

During the summer of 1902 scientist Alfred Brooks explored the flanks of the mountain as a part of an exploratory surveying party conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The party landed at Cook Inlet in late May, then traveled east, paralleling the Alaska Range, before reaching the slopes of Denali in early August. Camped on the flank of the mountain on August 3, Brooks noted later that while "the ascent of Mount McKinley had never been part of our plans", the party decided to delay one day so "that we might actually set foot on the slopes of the mountain". Setting off alone, with good weather, on August 4, Brooks aimed to reach a 10,000 feet (3,048 m) shoulder. At 7,500 feet (2,286 m), Brooks found his way blocked by sheer ice and, after leaving a small cairn as a marker, descended.[8] After the party's return, Brooks co-authored a "Plan For Climbing Mt McKinley", published in National Geographic magazine in January 1903, with fellow party-member and topographer D. L. Raeburn, in which they suggested that future attempts at the summit should approach from the north, not the south.[9] The report received substantial attention, and within a year, two climbing parties declared their intent to summit.[10]

During the early summer of 1903, Judge James Wickersham, then of Eagle, Alaska, made the first recorded attempt to climb Denali, along with a party of four others. The group attempted to get as close to the mountain as possible via the Kantishna river by steamer, before offloading and following Chitsia Creek with a poling boat, mules and backpacks, a route suggested to them by Tanana Athabaskan people they met along the way. The party received further navigational assistance at Anotoktilon, an Athabaskan hunting camp, where residents gave the group detailed directions to reach the glaciers at the foot of Denali. On reaching the mountain, the mountaineers set up base camp on the lower portion of Peters Glacier. Aiming for the northwest buttress of Denali's north peak, they attempted to ascend directly; however, crevasses, ice fall and the lack of a clear passage caused them to turn and attempt to follow a spur via Jeffery Glacier where they believed they could see a way to the summit. After a dangerous ascent, at around 10,000 feet (3,048 m), Wickersham found that the route did not connect as it had appeared from below, instead discovering "a tremendous precipice beyond which we cannot go. Our only line of further ascent would be to climb the vertical wall of the mountain at our left, and that is impossible." This wall, now known as the Wickersham Wall, juts 15,000 feet (4,572 m) upwards from the glacier to the north peak of Denali.[11] Because of the route's history of avalanche danger, it was not successfully climbed until 1963.[12]

Later in the summer of 1903, Dr. Frederick Cook directed a team of five men on another attempt at the summit. Cook was already an experienced explorer and had been a party-member on successful arctic expeditions commanded both by Robert Peary and Roald Amundsen.[11][13] Yet he struggled to obtain funding for his own expedition, eventually organizing it "on a shoestring budget"[14] without any other experienced climbers.[13] The party navigated up the Cook inlet and followed the path of the 1902 Brooks party towards Denali. Cook approached the mountain via the Peters Glacier, as Wickersham had done; however, he was able to overcome the ice fall that had caused the previous group to turn up the spur towards the Wickersham Wall. Despite avoiding this obstacle, on August 31, having reached an elevation of about 10,900 feet (3,322 m) on the northwest buttress of the north peak, the party found they had reached a dead end and could make no further progress. On the descent, the group completely circumnavigated the mountain, the first climbing party to do so.[15] Although Cook's 1903 expedition did not reach the summit, he received acclaim for the accomplishment, a 1,000 miles (1,609 km) trek in which he not only circled the entire mountain but also found, on the descent, an accessible pass northeast of the Muldrow Glacier following the headwaters of the Toklat and Chulitna rivers.[11]

In 1906, Cook initiated another expedition to Denali with co-leader Herschel Parker, a Columbia University professor of electrical engineering with extensive mountaineering experience. Belmore Browne, an experienced climber and five other men comprised the rest of the group. Cook and Parker's group spent most of the summer season exploring the southern and southeastern approaches to the mountain, eventually reaching a high point on Tokositna glacier, 25 miles (40 km) from the summit.[15] During their explorations the party mapped out many of the tributaries and glaciers of the Susitna river along the mountain's south flank.[11] As the summer ended, the team retreated to the coast and began to disperse. In September 1906, Cook and a single party-member, horseman Robert Barrill, journeyed towards the summit again, in what Cook later described as "a last desperate attempt" in a telegram to his financial backers.[11] Cook and Barrill spent 12 days in total on the attempt, and claimed to have reached the summit via the Ruth Glacier.[14]

Upon hearing Cook's claims, Parker and Browne were immediately suspicious. Browne later wrote that he knew Cook's claims were lies, just as "any New Yorker would know that no man could walk from the Brooklyn Bridge to Grant's Tomb [a distance of eight miles] in ten minutes."[14] In May 1907, Harper's Magazine published Cook's account of the climb along with a photograph of what appeared to be Barrill standing on the summit. By 1909, Barrill had recanted at least part of his story about the climb, and others publicly questioned the account; however, Cook continued to assert his claim[16] The controversy continued for decades. In 1956, mountaineers Bradford Washburn and Walter Gonnason tried to settle the matter, with Gonnason attempting to follow Cook's purported route to the summit. Washburn noted inconsistencies between Cook's account of locations of glaciers and found a spot, at 5,400 feet (1,646 m) and 19 miles (31 km) southeast of the summit that appeared identical to the supposed summit image. Gonnason was not able to complete the climb, but because he was turned back by poor weather, felt that this did not definitely disprove Cook's story.[17] In 1998, historian Robert Bryce discovered an original and un-cropped version of the "fake peak" photograph of Barrill standing on the promontory. It showed a wider view of surrounding features, appearing to definitively discount Cook's claim.[18]

Several tents are pitched near the edge of a snow-covered cliff High camp (17,200 ft or 5,200 m) of the West Buttress Route pioneered by Bradford Washburn, photographed in 2001

Given the skepticism concerning Cook's story, interest in claiming the first ascent remained. Miners and other Alaskans living in Kantishna and Fairbanks wanted the honors to go to local men. In 1909, four Alaska residents – Tom Lloyd, Peter Anderson, Billy Taylor, and Charles McGonagall – set out from Fairbanks, Alaska during late December with supplies and dogs that were in part paid for by bettors in a Fairbanks tavern. By March 1910, the men had established a base camp near one of the sites where the Brooks party had been and pressed on from the north via the Muldrow glacier. Unlike some previous expeditions, they discovered a pass, since named McGonagall Pass, which allowed them to bypass the Wickersham Wall and access the higher reaches of the mountain. At roughly 11,000 feet (3,353 m), Tom Lloyd, old and less physically fit than the others, stayed behind. According to their account, the remaining three men pioneered a route following Karstens Ridge around the Harper Icefall, then reached the upper basin before ascending to Pioneer Ridge. The three men carried a 14-foot-long (4.3 m) spruce pole. Around 19,000 feet (5,791 m), Charles McGonagall, older and having exhausted himself carrying the spruce pole, remained behind. On April 3, 1910, Billy Taylor and Peter Anderson scrambled the final few hundred feet to reach the north peak of Denali, at 19,470 feet (5,934 m) high, the shorter of the two peaks. The pair erected the pole near the top, with the hope that it would be visible from lower reaches to prove they had made it.[19]

After the expedition, Tom Lloyd returned to Fairbanks, while the three others remained in Kantishna to mine. In Lloyd's recounting, all four men made it to the top of not only the north peak, but the higher south peak as well. When the remaining three men returned to town with conflicting accounts, the entire expedition's legitimacy was questioned.[20] Several years later, another climbing group would claim to have seen the spruce pole in the distance, supporting their north peak claim.[19] However, some continue to doubt they reached the summit. Outside of the single later climbing group, who were friendly with some of the Sourdough expedition men, no other group would ever see it. Jon Waterman, author of the book Chasing Denali, which explored the controversy, outlined several reasons to doubt the claim: There was never any photographic evidence. The four men climbed during the winter season, known for much more difficult conditions, along a route that has never been fully replicated. They were inexperienced climbers, ascending without any of the usual safety gear or any care for altitude sickness. They claimed to have ascended from 11,000 feet (3,353 m) to the top in less than 18 hours, unheard of at a time when siege-style alpinism was the norm.[21] Yet Waterman says "these guys were men of the trail. They didn't care what anybody thought. They were just tough SOBs."[22] He noted that the men were largely unlettered and that some of the ensuing doubt was related to their lack of sophistication in dealing with the press and the contemporary climbing establishment.[21]

In 1912, the Parker-Browne expedition nearly reached the summit, turning back within just a few hundred yards/meters of it due to harsh weather. On July 7, the day after their descent, a 7.4-magnitude earthquake shattered the glacier they had ascended.[23][24][25]

The first ascent of the main summit of Denali came on June 7, 1913, by a party directed by Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens, along with Walter Harper and Robert Tatum. Karstens relocated to Alaska in the gold rush of 1897, and in subsequent years became involved in a variety of endeavors beyond mining, including helping establish dog mushing routes to deliver mail across vast swathes of territory and supporting expeditions led by naturalist Charles Sheldon near the base of Denali.[26] Stuck was an English-born Episcopal priest who came to Alaska by chance. He became acclimated to the often harsh Alaskan environment because of his many travels between far-flung outposts within his district, climbing mountains as a hobby.[27] At 21 years old, Harper was already known as a skilled and strong outdoorsman, the Alaska-born son of a Koyukon-Athabascan mother and Irish gold prospector father.[28][29] Tatum, also 21 years old, was a theology student working at a Tanana mission, and the least experienced of the team. His primary responsibility on the trip was as a cook.[30]

The team approached the peak from the north via the Muldrow glacier and McGonagall pass. While ferrying loads up to a camp at around 10,800 feet (3,292 m), they suffered a setback when a stray match accidentally set fire to some supplies, including several tents. The prior year's earthquake had left what had previously been described by the Parker-Browne expedition as a gentle slope ascended in no more than three days as a dangerous, ice-strewn morass on a knife-edged ridge (later named Karstens ridge). It would take the team three weeks to cover the same ground, as Karstens and Harper laboriously cut steps into the ice. On May 30, the team, with the help of some good weather, ascended to a new high camp, situated at 17,500 feet (5,334 m) in the Grand Basin between the north and south peaks. On June 7, the team made the summit attempt. Temperatures were below −20 °F (−29 °C) at times. Every man, and particularly Stuck, suffered from altitude sickness. By midday, Harper became the first climber to reach the summit, followed seconds later by Tatum and Karstens. Stuck arrived last, falling unconscious on the summit.[31]

Using the mountain's contemporary name, Tatum later commented, "The view from the top of Mount McKinley is like looking out the windows of Heaven!"[32] During the climb, Stuck spotted, via binoculars, the presence of a large pole near the North Summit; this report confirmed the Sourdough ascent, and it is widely believed presently that the Sourdoughs did succeed on the North Summit. However, the pole was never seen before or since, so there is still some doubt. Stuck also discovered that the Parker-Browne party were only about 200 feet (61 m) of elevation short of the true summit when they turned back. Stuck and Karstens' team achieved the uncontroversial first ascent of Denali's south peak; however, the news was met with muted interest by the wider climbing community. Appalachia Journal, then the official journal of the American Alpine Club, published a small notice of the accomplishment a year later.[27]

The mountain is climbed regularly nowadays. In 2003, around 58% of climbers reached the top. But by that time, the mountain had claimed the lives of nearly 100 mountaineers.[33] The vast majority of climbers use the West Buttress Route, pioneered in 1951 by Bradford Washburn,[34] after an extensive aerial photographic analysis of the mountain. Climbers typically take two to four weeks to ascend Denali. It is one of the Seven Summits; summiting all of them is a challenge for mountaineers.

On August 4, 2018, five people died in the K2 Aviation de Havilland Beaver (DHC-2) crash near Denali.

Accidents

From 1947 to 2018 in the United States "2,799 people were reported to be involved in mountaineering accidents"[35] and 11% of these accidents occurred on Denali.[35] Of these 2,799 accidents, 43% resulted in death and 8% of these deaths occurred on Denali.[35]

Timeline An aerial view of Denali; an airplane wing is visible in the lower-left corner Denali's West Buttress (lower left to upper right), August 2010A rotating 3-D computer image of the mountain A three-dimensional representation of the mountain created with topographic data1896–1902: Surveys by Robert Muldrow, George Eldridge, Alfred Brooks.[36] 1913: First ascent, by Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum via the Muldrow Glacier route.[37] 1932: Second ascent, by Alfred Lindley, Harry Liek, Grant Pearson, Erling Strom. (Both peaks were climbed.)[38][39] 1947: Barbara Washburn becomes the first woman to reach the summit while her husband Bradford Washburn becomes the first person to summit twice.[40] 1951: First ascent of the West Buttress Route, led by Bradford Washburn.[34] 1954: First ascent of the very long South Buttress Route by George Argus, Elton Thayer (died on descent), Morton Wood, and Les Viereck. Deteriorating conditions behind the team pushed them to make the first traverse of Denali. The Great Traleika Cirque, where they camped just below the summit, was renamed Thayer Basin, in honor of the fallen climber.[41][42] 1954 (May 27) First ascent via Northwest Buttress to North Peak by Fred Beckey, Donald McLean, Charles Wilson, Henry Meybohm, and Bill Hackett [43] 1959: First ascent of the West Rib, now a popular, mildly technical route to the summit.[41] 1961: First ascent of the Cassin Ridge, named for Riccardo Cassin and the best-known technical route on the mountain.[44] The first ascent team members are: Riccardo Cassin, Luigi Airoldi, Luigi Alippi, Giancarlo Canali, Romano Perego, and Annibale Zucchi.[45][46]In an aerial image, a mountain is surrounded by many smaller mountains and a glacier South view from 27,000 feet (8,200 m)1962: First ascent of the southeast spur, team of six climbers (C. Hollister, H. Abrons, B. Everett, Jr., S. Silverstein, S. Cochrane, and C. Wren)[47] 1963: A team of six climbers (W. Blesser, P. Lev, R. Newcomb, A. Read, J. Williamson, F. Wright) made the first ascent of the East Buttress. The summit was attained via Thayer Basin and Karstens Ridge. See AAJ 1964. 1963: Two teams make first ascents of two different routes on the Wickersham Wall.[48][49] 1967: First winter ascent, via the West Buttress, by Gregg Blomberg, Dave Johnston, Art Davidson and Ray Genet.[50] 1967: The 1967 Mount McKinley disaster; Seven members of Joe Wilcox's twelve-man expedition perish, while stranded for ten days near the summit, in what has been described as the worst storm on record. Up to that time, this was the third worst disaster in mountaineering history in terms of lives lost.[51] Before July 1967 only four men had ever perished on Denali.[52] 1970: First solo ascent by Naomi Uemura.[53] 1970: First ascent by an all-female team (the "Denali Damsels"), led by Grace Hoeman and the later famous American high altitude mountaineer Arlene Blum together with Margaret Clark, Margaret Young, Faye Kerr and Dana Smith Isherwood.[54][41] 1972: First descent on skis down the sheer southwest face, by Sylvain Saudan, "Skier of the Impossible". 1976: First solo ascent of the Cassin Ridge by Charlie Porter, a climb "ahead of its time".[45] 1979: First ascent by dog team achieved by Susan Butcher, Ray Genet, Brian Okonek, Joe Redington, Sr., and Robert Stapleton.[41] 1984: Uemura returns to make the first winter solo ascent, but dies after summitting.[55] Tono Križo, František Korl and Blažej Adam from the Slovak Mountaineering Association climb a very direct route to the summit, now known as the Slovak Route, on the south face of the mountain, to the right of the Cassin Ridge.[56] 1988: First successful winter solo ascent. Vern Tejas climbed the West Buttress alone in February and March, summitted successfully, and descended.[57] 1990: Anatoli Boukreev climbed the West Rib in 10 hours and 30 mins from the base to the summit, at the time a record for the fastest ascent.[58] 1997: First successful ascent up the West Fork of Traleika Glacier up to Karstens Ridge beneath Browne Tower. This path was named the "Butte Direct" by the two climbers Jim Wilson and Jim Blow.[59][60] 2015: On June 24, a survey team led by Blaine Horner placed two global positioning receivers on the summit to determine the precise position and elevation of the summit. The summit snow depth was measured at 15 ft (4.6 m). The United States National Geodetic Survey later determined the summit elevation to be 20,310 ft (6,190 metres).[61] 2019: On June 20, Karl Egloff (Swiss-Ecuadorian) set new speed records for the ascent (7h 40m) and round-trip (11h 44m), starting and returning to a base camp at 7,200 ft (2,200 m) on the Kahiltna Glacier.[62][63]
^ "Denali". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved January 20, 2010. ^ Beckey 1993, p. 42. ^ Beckey 1993, p. 44. ^ Beckey 1993, p. 47. ^ Sherwonit, Bill (October 1, 2000). Denali: A Literary Anthology. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-89886-710-X. See, particularly, chapter 4 (pp. 52–61): "Discoveries in Alaska", 1897, by William A. Dickey. ^ Stuck, Hudson (1918). The Ascent of Denali (Mount McKinley). Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 159. ^ "Denali National Park Quarter". National Park Quarters. January 20, 2011. Retrieved March 17, 2013. ^ Person, Grant (1953). A History of Mount McKinley National Park (PDF). United States Department of the Interior. pp. 9–12. ^ Sherwonit, Bill (2012). To The Top of Denali: Climbing Adventures on North America's Highest Peak. Alaska Northwest Books. ISBN 978-0-88240-894-1. ^ Sfraga, Michael (1997). Distant Vistas: Bradford Washburn, Expeditionary Science and Landscape 1930–1960. p. 256. ^ a b c d e "Denali NP: Historic Resource Study (Chapter 3)". National Park Service. Retrieved August 20, 2019. ^ Beckey 1993, p. 139. ^ a b Isserman, Maurice (2016). Continental Divide: A History of American Mountaineering. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-29252-7. ^ a b c "A Long and Brutal Assault". Outside Online. May 2, 2004. Retrieved October 30, 2019. ^ a b Beckey 1993, p. 295. ^ "Controversy - Frederick A. Cook Digital Exhibition". Ohio State University. Retrieved October 31, 2019. ^ Berman, Eliza. "The Other Mount McKinley Controversy: Who Climbed Denali First". Time. Archived from the original on September 2, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2019. ^ Tierney, John (November 26, 1998). "Author Says Photo Confirms Mt. McKinley Hoax in 1908". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 31, 2019. ^ a b "Denali NP: Historic Resource Study (Chapter 3)". National Park Service. Retrieved July 5, 2020. ^ "Did they make it or fake it? Book tries to uncover truth about legendary Sourdough ascent of Denali". Anchorage Daily News. June 8, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2020. ^ a b "Chasing Denali – A Story of the Most Unbelievable Feat in Mountaineering". Rock and Ice. November 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2020. ^ Condon, Scott (December 18, 2018). "Carbondale author explores if his heroes committed fraud or feat on Denali". Aspen Times. Retrieved July 5, 2020. ^ "North peak of Mount McKinley: A Timely Escape". The American Alpine Club. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015. ^ Heacox, Kim (2015). Rhythm of the Wild: A Life Inspired by Alaska's Denali National Park. Connecticut: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-1-4930-0389-1. ^ Stover, Carl W.; Coffman, Jerry L. (1993). Seismicity of the United States, 1568–1989 (revised ed.). United States Government Printing Office. p. 52. This earthquake was violent at Fairbanks and strong at Kennicott. The earth 'heaved and rolled' at the north base of Mt. McKinley and the country was scarred with landslides. ^ "Superintendent Harry Karstens". National Park Service. Retrieved July 7, 2020. ^ a b Woodside, Christine (June 6, 2012). "Who Led the First Ascent of Denali?". Retrieved July 7, 2020. ^ "The Ultimate Triumph and Tragedy: Remembering Walter Harper 100 Years Later". National Park Service. Retrieved July 7, 2020. ^ Harper-Haines, Jan. "Denali, A Universe". Alpinist. Retrieved July 7, 2020. ^ Ehrlander, Mary (2017). Walter Harper, Alaska Native Son. University of Nebraska Press. p. 55. ^ "A Brief Account of the 1913 Climb of Denali". National Park Service. Retrieved July 7, 2020. ^ Coombs & Washburn 1997, p. 26. ^ Glickman, Joe (August 24, 2003). "Man Against the Great One". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2010. ^ a b Roberts, David (April 2007). "The Geography of Brad Washburn (1910–2007)". National Geographic Adventure. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013. ^ a b c DeLoughery, Emma P.; DeLoughery, Thomas G. (June 14, 2022). "Review and Analysis of Mountaineering Accidents in the United States from 1947–2018". High Altitude Medicine & Biology. 23 (2): 114–118. doi:10.1089/ham.2021.0085. PMID 35263173. S2CID 247361980. Archived from the original on July 11, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022. ^ Borneman 2003, p. 221. ^ Stuck, Hudson. The Ascent of Denali. ^ Borneman 2003, p. 320. ^ Verschoth, Anita (March 28, 1977). "Mount Mckinley On Cross-country Skis And Other High Old Tales". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved March 18, 2013. ^ Waterman 1998, p. 31. ^ a b c d "Historical Timeline". Denali National Park and Preserve. National Park Service. Retrieved September 25, 2010. ^ MacDonald, Dougald (June 15, 2012). "Remembering Denali's Greatest Rescue". www.climbing.com. ^ Selters, Andy (2004) Ways to the Sky. Golden, CO: the American Alpine Club Press. ISBN 0-930410-83-1 ^ "Denali (Mount McKinley)". SummitPost.org. Retrieved March 21, 2013. ^ a b "Cassin Ridge" (PDF). supertopo.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2011. Retrieved February 16, 2013. ^ "Cassin Ridge" (PDF). Cascadeimages.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2017. ^ "We Climbed our Highest Mountain: First ascent McKinley's SE Spur and South Face". Look. Vol. 26, no. 21. October 9, 1962. pp. 60–69. ISSN 0024-6336. ^ Geiger, John (2009). The Third Man Factor. Weinstein Books. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-60286-116-9. Retrieved March 21, 2013. ^ "Climb Mount McKinley, Alaska". National Geographic. August 2, 2010. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013. ^ Blomberg, Gregg (1968). "The Winter 1967 Mount McKinley Expedition". American Alpine Club. Retrieved January 11, 2016. ^ Tabor, James M. (2007). Forever on the Mountain: The Truth Behind One of Mountaineering's Most Controversial and Mysterious Disasters. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06174-1. ^ Babcock, Jeffrey T. (2012). Should I Not Return: The Most Controversial Tragedy in the History of North American Mountaineering!. Publication Consultants. ISBN 978-1-59433-270-8. ^ Beckey 1993, p. 214. ^ Beckey 1993, p. 298. ^ Cite error: The named reference aaj_1985_1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference aaj_1985_2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Denali First Ascents and Interesting Statistics" (PDF). National Park Service. ^ Franz, Derek (June 23, 2017). "Katie Bono sets probable women's speed record on Denali". Alpinist Magazine. Retrieved March 13, 2019. ^ "North America, United States, Alaska, Denali National Park, Denali, Butte Direct". American Alpine Journal. Golden, Colorado: American Alpine Club. 40 (72): 217. 1998. ISSN 0065-6925. ^ Secor 1998, p. 35. ^ Cite error: The named reference ADN was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Karl Egloff - Denali (AK) - 2019-06-20 | Fastest Known Time". fastestknowntime.com. June 20, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2021. ^ "Karl Egloff Smashes Denali Speed Record". Rock and Ice Magazine. June 21, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
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