Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir in the disputed Kashmir region. It is an urban lake, the second largest lake in Jammu and Kashmir, and the most visited place in Srinagar by tourists and locals. It is integral to tourism and recreation in the Kashmir valley and is variously known as the "Lake of Flowers", "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar's Jewel". The lake is also an important source for commercial operations in fishing and water plant harvesting.

The shore line of the lake, about 15.5 kilometres (9.6 mi), is encompassed by a boulevard lined with Mughal era gardens, parks, houseboats and hotels. Scenic views of the lake can be witnessed from the shore line Mughal gardens, such as Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir, and from houseboats cruising along the lake in the colourful shikaras. During the winter season, the temperature ...Read more

Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir in the disputed Kashmir region. It is an urban lake, the second largest lake in Jammu and Kashmir, and the most visited place in Srinagar by tourists and locals. It is integral to tourism and recreation in the Kashmir valley and is variously known as the "Lake of Flowers", "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar's Jewel". The lake is also an important source for commercial operations in fishing and water plant harvesting.

The shore line of the lake, about 15.5 kilometres (9.6 mi), is encompassed by a boulevard lined with Mughal era gardens, parks, houseboats and hotels. Scenic views of the lake can be witnessed from the shore line Mughal gardens, such as Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir, and from houseboats cruising along the lake in the colourful shikaras. During the winter season, the temperature can sometimes reach as low as −11 °C (12 °F), freezing the lake.

The lake covers an area of 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi) and is part of a natural wetland which covers 21.1 square kilometres (8.1 sq mi), including its floating gardens. The floating gardens, known as "Rad" in Kashmiri, blossom with lotus flowers during July and August. The wetland is divided by causeways into four basins; Gagribal, Lokut Dal, Bod Dal and Nigeen (although Nigeen is also considered as an independent lake). Lokut Dal and Bod Dal each have an island in the centre, known as Rupa Lank (or Char Chinari) and Sona Lank respectively.

At present, the Dal and the Mughal gardens on its periphery are undergoing intensive restoration measures to fully address the serious eutrophication problems experienced by the lake. Massive investments of approximately US$275 million ( 11 billion) are being made by the Government of India to restore the lake to its original splendour.

Dal is mentioned as Mahasarit (Sanskrit: महासरित्) in ancient Sanskrit texts. Ancient history records mention that a village named Isabar to the east of Dal was the residence of goddess Durga.[citation needed] This place was known as Sureshwari on the bank of the lake, which was sourced by a spring called the Satadhara.[citation needed]

During the Mughal period, the Mughal rulers of India designated Kashmir, Srinagar in particular, as their summer resort.[1][2] They developed the precincts of the Dal in Srinagar with sprawling Mughal-type gardens and pavilions as pleasure resorts to enjoy the salubrious cool climate.[1] After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, which led to the disintegration of the Mughal Empire,[3] Pashtun tribes in the area around the lake and city increased, and the Afghan Durrani Empire ruled the city for several decades.[4] In 1814 a significant part of the Kashmir valley, including Srinagar, was annexed from the Afghans by Maharaja Ranjit Singh to his kingdom, and the Sikhs grew in influence in the region for 27 years.[5][6]

 Nishat Bagh Mughal Gardens

During the Dogra Raj, Srinagar became the capital of Dogra territory, attracted by the cool climate of the Kashmir valley, amidst the back drop of the majestic snow covered Himalayan ranges. The lake precincts experience temperatures in the range of 1–11 °C (34–52 °F) during winter and 12–30 °C (54–86 °F) during the summer season. The lake freezes when temperatures drop to about −11 °C (12 °F) during severe winter.[7] Although the Dogra Maharaja of Kashmir restricted the building of houses in the valley, the British circumvented this rule by commissioning lavish houseboats to be built on the Dal. The houseboats have been referred to as, "each one a little piece of England afloat on Dal."[8]

After the independence of India, the Kashmiri Hanji people have built, owned and maintained these houseboats, cultivating floating gardens and producing commodities for the market, making them the centre of their livelihoods. The houseboats, closely associated with Dal also provide accommodation in Srinagar. Following the Mughal, Afghan, Sikh and Dogra rule, the place has earned the epithet, "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir".[9][10][11]

^ a b Singh, Sarina (2005). Lonely Planet India. Lonely Planet. p. 342. ISBN 978-1-74059-694-7. Pashtun srinagar. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie; Waghmar, Burzine K. (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. Reaktion Books. p. 77. ISBN 1-86189-185-7. Retrieved 6 April 2010. Mughal summer resort,. ^ Hunter, William Wilson, The Imperial Gazetteer of India Volume 6 (1886), p.312 ^ Muhyi'd Dīn Sūfī, Ghulām (1974). Kashīr, Being a History of Kashmir from the Earliest Times to Our Own. Vol. 1. Light & Life Publishers. p. 297. ^ Singh, Gulcharan (1976). Ranjit Singh and his generals. Sujlana Publishers. p. 62. ^ Thirdworld (1995), Volume 19, S.J. Iqbal ^ Cite error: The named reference Jain was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Singh, Sarina (2005). India, Lonely Planet India. Lonely Planet. p. 342. ISBN 978-1-74059-694-7. Retrieved 28 December 2009. House boats in Kashmir built during British Raj. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help) ^ Singh p.342 ^ "House Boats on Dal Lake". House Boats in Kashmir. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2009. ^ "The Vale of Kashmir". California House Boats. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012.
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