Chicago

Chicago ( shih-KAH-goh, locally also shih-KAW-goh; Miami-Illinois: Shikaakwa; Ojibwe: Zhigaagong) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most populous in the United States after New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, it is also the most populous city in the Midwest. As the seat of Cook County, the second-most populous county in the U.S., Chicago is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area.

Located on the shore of Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed. It grew rapidly in the mid-19th century. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed several square miles and le...Read more

Chicago ( shih-KAH-goh, locally also shih-KAW-goh; Miami-Illinois: Shikaakwa; Ojibwe: Zhigaagong) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most populous in the United States after New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, it is also the most populous city in the Midwest. As the seat of Cook County, the second-most populous county in the U.S., Chicago is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area.

Located on the shore of Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed. It grew rapidly in the mid-19th century. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, but Chicago's population continued to grow. Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and architecture, such as the Chicago School, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper.

Chicago is an international hub for finance, culture, commerce, industry, education, technology, telecommunications, and transportation. It has the largest and most diverse derivatives market in the world, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures alone. O'Hare International Airport is routinely ranked among the world's top six busiest airports by passenger traffic, and the region is also the nation's railroad hub. The Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products (GDP) in the world, generating $689 billion in 2018. Chicago's economy is diverse, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.

Chicago is a major tourist destination. Chicago's culture has contributed much to the visual arts, literature, film, theater, comedy (especially improvisational comedy), food, dance, and music (particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel, and electronic dance music, including house music). Chicago is home to the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Lyric Opera of Chicago, while the Art Institute of Chicago provides an influential visual arts museum and art school. The Chicago area also hosts the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois Chicago, among other institutions of learning. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams.

Beginnings  Traditional Potawatomi regalia on display at the Field Museum of Natural History

In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by the Potawatomi, an indigenous tribe who had succeeded the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples in this region.[1]

 An artist's rendering of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 Home Insurance Building (1885) Court of Honor at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893

The first known permanent settler in Chicago was trader Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African descent, perhaps born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), and established the settlement in the 1780s. He is commonly known as the "Founder of Chicago".[2][3][4]

In 1795, following the victory of the new United States in the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over to the U.S. for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the U.S. Army constructed Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed during the War of 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn by the Potawatomi before being later rebuilt.[5]

After the War of 1812, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the 1833 Treaty of Chicago and sent west of the Mississippi River as part of the federal policy of Indian removal.[6][7][8]

19th century
 
The location and course of the Illinois and Michigan Canal (completed 1848)
State and Madison Streets, once known as the busiest intersection in the world (1897)

On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200.[8] Within seven years it grew to more than 6,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as Receiver of Public Monies. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837,[9] and for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city.[10]

As the site of the Chicago Portage,[11] the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago's first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River.[12][13][14][15]

A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad. Manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy.[16] The Chicago Board of Trade (established 1848) listed the first-ever standardized "exchange-traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts.[17]

In the 1850s, Chicago gained national political prominence as the home of Senator Stephen Douglas, the champion of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the "popular sovereignty" approach to the issue of the spread of slavery.[18] These issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage. Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for U.S. president at the 1860 Republican National Convention, which was held in a purpose-built auditorium called the Wigwam. He defeated Douglas in the general election, and this set the stage for the American Civil War.

To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure. In February 1856, Chicago's Common Council approved Chesbrough's plan to build the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system.[19] The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade with the use of jackscrews for raising buildings.[20] While elevating Chicago, and at first improving the city's health, the untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, and subsequently into Lake Michigan, polluting the city's primary freshwater source.

The city responded by tunneling two miles (3.2 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city completed a major engineering feat. It reversed the flow of the Chicago River so that the water flowed away from Lake Michigan rather than into it. This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River.[21][22][23]

In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed an area about 4 miles (6.4 km) long and 1-mile (1.6 km) wide, a large section of the city at the time.[24][25][26] Much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived intact,[27] and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of steel and stone. These set a precedent for worldwide construction.[28][29] During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world's first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction.[30][31]

The city grew significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 1851 and 1920, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which now comprises most of the South Side of Chicago and the far southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which now makes up most of Chicago's Northwest Side.[32] The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents.

Chicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe and migrants from the Eastern United States. Of the total population in 1900, more than 77% were either foreign-born or born in the United States of foreign parentage. Germans, Irish, Poles, Swedes, and Czechs made up nearly two-thirds of the foreign-born population (by 1900, whites were 98.1% of the city's population).[33][34]

Labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the labor pool, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886, and in 1894 the Pullman Strike. Anarchist and socialist groups played prominent roles in creating very large and highly organized labor actions. Concern for social problems among Chicago's immigrant poor led Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to found Hull House in 1889.[35] Programs that were developed there became a model for the new field of social work.[36]

During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the leader in the movement to improve public health. City laws and later, state laws that upgraded standards for the medical profession and fought urban epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever were both passed and enforced. These laws became templates for public health reform in other cities and states.[37]

The city established many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities. The chief advocate for improving public health in Chicago was John H. Rauch, M.D. Rauch established a plan for Chicago's park system in 1866. He created Lincoln Park by closing a cemetery filled with shallow graves, and in 1867, in response to an outbreak of cholera he helped establish a new Chicago Board of Health. Ten years later, he became the secretary and then the president of the first Illinois State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago.[38]

In the 1800s, Chicago became the nation's railroad hub, and by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals.[39][40] In 1883, Chicago's railway managers needed a general time convention, so they developed the standardized system of North American time zones.[41] This system for telling time spread throughout the continent.

In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fair in history.[42][43] The University of Chicago, formerly at another location, moved to the same South Side location in 1892. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects the Washington and Jackson Parks.[44][45]

20th and 21st centuries  Men outside a soup kitchen during the Great Depression (1931)1900 to 1939 Aerial motion film photography of Chicago in 1914 as filmed by A. Roy Knabenshue

During World War I and the 1920s there was a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the Southern United States. Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population of Chicago increased dramatically, from 44,103 to 233,903.[46] This Great Migration had an immense cultural impact, called the Chicago Black Renaissance, part of the New Negro Movement, in art, literature, and music.[47] Continuing racial tensions and violence, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919, also occurred.[48]

The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale (including exportation) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States. This ushered in the beginning of what is known as the gangster era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when Prohibition was repealed. The 1920s saw gangsters, including Al Capone, Dion O'Banion, Bugs Moran and Tony Accardo battle law enforcement and each other on the streets of Chicago during the Prohibition era.[49] Chicago was the location of the infamous St. Valentine's Day Massacre in 1929, when Al Capone sent men to gun down members of a rival gang, North Side, led by Bugs Moran.[50]

Chicago was the first American city to have a homosexual-rights organization. The organization, formed in 1924, was called the Society for Human Rights. It produced the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Police and political pressure caused the organization to disband.[51]

The Great Depression brought unprecedented suffering to Chicago, in no small part due to the city's heavy reliance on heavy industry. Notably, industrial areas on the south side and neighborhoods lining both branches of the Chicago River were devastated; by 1933 over 50% of industrial jobs in the city had been lost, and unemployment rates amongst blacks and Mexicans in the city were over 40%. The Republican political machine in Chicago was utterly destroyed by the economic crisis, and every mayor since 1931 has been a Democrat.[52]

From 1928 to 1933, the city witnessed a tax revolt, and the city was unable to meet payroll or provide relief efforts. The fiscal crisis was resolved by 1933, and at the same time, federal relief funding began to flow into Chicago.[52] Chicago was also a hotbed of labor activism, with Unemployed Councils contributing heavily in the early depression to create solidarity for the poor and demand relief, these organizations were created by socialist and communist groups. By 1935 the Workers Alliance of America begun organizing the poor, workers, the unemployed. In the spring of 1937 Republic Steel Works witnessed the Memorial Day massacre of 1937 in the neighborhood of East Side.

In 1933, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was fatally wounded in Miami, Florida, during a failed assassination attempt on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933 and 1934, the city celebrated its centennial by hosting the Century of Progress International Exposition World's Fair.[53] The theme of the fair was technological innovation over the century since Chicago's founding.[54]

1940 to 1979  The Chicago Picasso (1967) inspired a new era in urban public art.

During World War II, the city of Chicago alone produced more steel than the United Kingdom every year from 1939 – 1945, and more than Nazi Germany from 1943 – 1945.[55]

 Protesters in Grant Park outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention

The Great Migration, which had been on pause due to the Depression, resumed at an even faster pace in the second wave, as hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South arrived in the city to work in the steel mills, railroads, and shipping yards.[56]

On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world's first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. This led to the creation of the atomic bomb by the United States, which it used in World War II in 1945.[57]

Mayor Richard J. Daley, a Democrat, was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. In 1956, the city conducted its last major expansion when it annexed the land under O'Hare airport, including a small portion of DuPage County.[58]

By the 1960s, white residents in several neighborhoods left the city for the suburban areas – in many American cities, a process known as white flight – as Blacks continued to move beyond the Black Belt.[59] While home loan discriminatory redlining against blacks continued, the real estate industry practiced what became known as blockbusting, completely changing the racial composition of whole neighborhoods.[60] Structural changes in industry, such as globalization and job outsourcing, caused heavy job losses for lower-skilled workers. At its peak during the 1960s, some 250,000 workers were employed in the steel industry in Chicago, but the steel crisis of the 1970s and 1980s reduced this number to just 28,000 in 2015. In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr. and Albert Raby led the Chicago Freedom Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders.[61]

Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, with anti-war protesters, journalists and bystanders being beaten by police.[62] Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (now known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world's tallest building), University of Illinois at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O'Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure.[63] In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city's first female mayor, was elected. She was notable for temporarily moving into the crime-ridden Cabrini-Green housing project and for leading Chicago's school system out of a financial crisis.[64]

1980 to present

In 1983, Harold Washington became the first black mayor of Chicago. Washington's first term in office directed attention to poor and previously neglected minority neighborhoods. He was re‑elected in 1987 but died of a heart attack soon after.[65] Washington was succeeded by 6th ward alderperson Eugene Sawyer, who was elected by the Chicago City Council and served until a special election.

Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. His accomplishments included improvements to parks and creating incentives for sustainable development, as well as closing Meigs Field in the middle of the night and destroying the runways. After successfully running for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago's longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley declined to run for a seventh term.[66][67]

In 1992, a construction accident near the Kinzie Street Bridge produced a breach connecting the Chicago River to a tunnel below, which was part of an abandoned freight tunnel system extending throughout the downtown Loop district. The tunnels filled with 250 million US gallons (1,000,000 m3) of water, affecting buildings throughout the district and forcing a shutdown of electrical power.[68] The area was shut down for three days and some buildings did not reopen for weeks; losses were estimated at $1.95 billion.[68]

On February 23, 2011, Rahm Emanuel, a former White House Chief of Staff and member of the House of Representatives, won the mayoral election.[69] Emanuel was sworn in as mayor on May 16, 2011, and won re-election in 2015.[70] Lori Lightfoot, the city's first African American woman mayor and its first openly LGBTQ mayor, was elected to succeed Emanuel as mayor in 2019.[71] All three city-wide elective offices were held by women (and women of color) for the first time in Chicago history: in addition to Lightfoot, the city clerk was Anna Valencia and the city treasurer was Melissa Conyears-Ervin.[72]

On May 15, 2023, Brandon Johnson assumed office as the 57th mayor of Chicago.

^ Keating, Ann Durkin (2005). Chicagoland: City and Suburbs in the Railroad Age. The University of Chicago Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-226-42882-6. LCCN 2005002198. ^ Genzen (2007), pp. 10–11, 14–15. ^ Keating (2005), pp. 30–31, 221. ^ Swenson, John W (1999). "Jean Baptiste Point de Sable—The Founder of Modern Chicago". Early Chicago. Early Chicago, Inc. Archived from the original on January 16, 2005. Retrieved August 8, 2010. ^ Genzen (2007), pp. 16–17. ^ Buisseret (1990), pp. 22–23, 68, 80–81. ^ Keating (2005), pp. 30–32. ^ a b "Timeline: Early Chicago History". Chicago: City of the Century. WGBH Educational Foundation And Window to the World Communications, Inc. 2003. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2009. ^ "Act of Incorporation for the City of Chicago, 1837". State of Illinois. Archived from the original on March 7, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2011. ^ Walter Nugent. "Demography Archived October 12, 2022, at the Wayback Machine" in Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. ^ Keating (2005), p. 27. ^ Buisseret (1990), pp. 86–98. ^ Condit (1973), pp. 30–31. ^ Genzen (2007), pp. 24–25. ^ Keating (2005), pp. 26–29, 35–39. ^ Conzen, Michael P. "Global Chicago". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015. ^ "Timeline-of-achievements". CME Group. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2013. ^ "Stephen Douglas". University of Chicago. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2011. ^ "Chicago Daily Tribune, Thursday Morning, February 14". nike-of-samothrace.net. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2009. ^ Addis, Cameron. "5 Bull Moose From a Bully Pulpit". Austin Community College. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2021. ^ Condit (1973), pp. 15–18, 243–245. ^ Genzen (2007), pp. 27–29, 38–43. ^ Buisseret (1990), pp. 154–155, 172–173, 204–205. ^ Buisseret (1990), pp. 148–149. ^ Genzen (2007), pp. 32–37. ^ Lowe (2000), pp. 87–97. ^ Lowe (2000), p. 99. ^ Bruegmann, Robert (2005). "Built Environment of the Chicago Region". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved December 5, 2013. ^ Condit (1973), pp. 9–11. ^ Allen, Frederick E. (February 2003). "Where They Went to See the Future". American Heritage. 54 (1). Archived from the original on February 20, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2013. ^ Lowe (2000), pp. 121, 129. ^ Cain, Louis P. (2005). "Annexations". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved December 14, 2015. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chicago" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 118–125, see page 124, first para. Population.—Of the total population in 1900 not less than 34.6% were foreign-born; the number of persons either born abroad, or born in the United States of foreign parentage (i.e. father or both parents foreign), was 77.4% of the population, and in the total number of males of voting age the foreign-born predominated (53.4%). ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. ^ "Hull House Maps Its Neighborhood". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2013. ^ Johnson, Mary Ann. "Hull House". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ Sandvick, Clinton (2009). "Enforcing Medical Licensing in Illinois: 1877–1890". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 82 (2): 67–74. PMC 2701151. PMID 19562006. ^ Beatty, William K. (1991). "John H. Rauch – Public Health, Parks and Politics". Proceedings of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago. 44: 97–118. ^ Condit (1973), pp. 43–49, 58, 318–319. ^ Holland, Kevin J. (2001). Classic American Railroad Terminals. Osceola, WI: MBI. pp. 66–91. ISBN 9780760308325. OCLC 45908903. ^ United States. Office of the Commissioner of Railroads (1883). Report to the Secretary of the Interior. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 19. Archived from the original on July 9, 2023. Retrieved July 8, 2020. ^ "Chicago's Rich History". Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2011. ^ Lowe (2000), pp. 148–154, 158–169. ^ "Exhibits on the Midway Plaisance, 1893". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ Harper, Douglas. "midway". Chicago Manual Style (CMS). Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ Martin, Elizabeth Anne (1993). "Detroit and the Great Migration, 1916–1929". Bentley Historical Library Bulletin. University of Michigan. 40. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2013. ^ Darlene Clark Hine (2005). "Chicago Black Renaissance". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 17, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2013. ^ Essig, Steven (2005). "Race Riots". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 23, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2013. ^ "Gang (crime) – History". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2009. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2009. ^ O'Brien, John. "The St. Valentine's Day Massacre". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ "Timeline: Milestones in the American Gay Rights Movement". PBS. WGBH Educational Foundation. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ a b "Great Depression". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago History Museum. Archived from the original on April 11, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018. ^ "Century of Progress World's Fair, 1933–1934 (University of Illinois at Chicago) : Home". Collections.carli.illinois.edu. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011. ^ Robert W. Rydell. "Century of Progress Exposition". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011. ^ "Chicago's Long and Extraordinary Labor History". ibew.org. Retrieved October 24, 2023. ^ "World War II". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago History Museum. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018. ^ "CP-1 (Chicago Pile 1 Reactor)". Argonne National Laboratory. U.S. Department of Energy. Archived from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ Szymczak, Patricia (June 18, 1989). "O'Hare suburbs under fire". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 20, 2022. Retrieved July 20, 2022. ^ Steffes, Tracey L (2015). "Managing School Integration and White Flight: The Debate over Chicago's Future in the 1960's". Journal of Urban History. 42 (4). doi:10.1177/0096144214566970. S2CID 147531740. Archived from the original on July 9, 2023. Retrieved June 24, 2022. ^ Mehlhorn, Dmitri (December 1998). "A Requiem for Blockbusting: Law, Economics, and Race-Based Real Estate Speculation". Fordham Law Review. 67: 1145–1161. ^ Lentz, Richard (1990). Symbols, the News Magazines, and Martin Luther King. LSU Press. p. 230. ISBN 0-8071-2524-5. ^ Mailer, Norman. "Brief History Of Chicago's 1968 Democratic Convention". Facts on File, CQ's Guide to U.S. Elections. CNN. Archived from the original on March 18, 2022. Retrieved May 5, 2013. ^ Cillizza, Chris (September 23, 2009). "The Fix – Hall of Fame – The Case for Richard J. Daley". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013. ^ Dold, R. Bruce (February 27, 1979). "Jane Byrne elected mayor of Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2020. ^ Rivlin, Gary; Larry Bennett (November 25, 2012). "The legend of Harold Washington". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ "Chicago and the Legacy of the Daley Dynasty". Time. September 9, 2010. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ "National Building Museum to honor Daley for greening of Chicago". Chicago Tribune. April 8, 2009. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013. ^ a b "1992 Loop Flood Brings Chaos, Billions In Losses". CBS2 Chicago. April 14, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2008. ^ "News: Rahm Emanuel wins Chicago mayoral race". NBC News. February 23, 2011. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2011. ^ Tareen, Sophia; Burnett, Sarah (April 7, 2015). "Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel wins 2nd term in runoff victory". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019. ^ Bosman, Julie; Smith, Mitch; Davey, Monica (April 2, 2019). "Lori Lightfoot Is Elected Chicago Mayor, Becoming First Black Woman to Lead City". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved April 3, 2019. ^ Perez, Juan Jr. "With Mayor Lori Lightfoot's inauguration, 3 women of color now hold top citywide offices: 'Chicago was ready for this'". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2019 – via MSN.
Photographies by:
Statistics: Position
1498
Statistics: Rank
80659

Add new comment

Esta pregunta es para comprobar si usted es un visitante humano y prevenir envíos de spam automatizado.

Security
348729165Click/tap this sequence: 5684

Google street view

Where can you sleep near Chicago ?

Booking.com
480.479 visits in total, 9.173 Points of interest, 404 Destinations, 92 visits today.