Arc de triomphe de l'Étoile

( Arc de Triomphe )

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, France, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the centre of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile—the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between three arrondissements, 16th (south and west), 17th (north), and 8th (east). The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.

The central cohesive element of the Axe historique (historic axis, a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a ro...Read more

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, France, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the centre of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile—the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between three arrondissements, 16th (south and west), 17th (north), and 8th (east). The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.

The central cohesive element of the Axe historique (historic axis, a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route running from the courtyard of the Louvre to the Grande Arche de la Défense), the Arc de Triomphe was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806; its iconographic programme pits heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail. It set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome, Italy, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of 50 m (164 ft), width of 45 m (148 ft) and depth of 22 m (72 ft), while its large vault is 29.19 m (95.8 ft) high and 14.62 m (48.0 ft) wide. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m (61.3 ft) high and 8.44 m (27.7 ft) wide.

Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, which is 67 m (220 ft) high. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modeled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m (197 ft). The Grande Arche in La Défense near Paris is 110 metres high, and, if considered to be a triumphal arch, is the world's tallest.

Construction and late 19th century  Avenues radiate from the Arc de Triomphe in Place Charles de Gaulle, the former Place de l'Étoile.

The Arc de Triomphe is located on the right bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned in 1806, after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes. Laying the foundations alone took two years and, in 1810, when Napoleon entered Paris from the west with his new bride, Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria, he had a wooden mock-up of the completed arch constructed. The architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot.

During the Bourbon Restoration, construction was halted, and it would not be completed until the reign of King Louis-Philippe, between 1833 and 1836, by the architects Goust, then Huyot, under the direction of Héricart de Thury. The final cost was reported at about 10,000,000 francs (equivalent to an estimated €65 million or $75 million in 2020).[1][2]

On 15 December 1840, brought back to France from Saint Helena, Napoleon's remains passed under it on their way to the Emperor's final resting place at Les Invalides.[3] Before burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc on the night of 22 May 1885.

20th century  Arc de Triomphe, postcard, c. 1920

The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired ominous interpretations.[4]

On 7 August 1919 three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919 (marking the end of hostilities in World War I), Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel.[5][6][7] Jean Navarre was the pilot who was tasked to make the flight, but he died on 10 July 1919 when he crashed near Villacoublay while training for the flight

Following its construction, the Arc de Triomphe became the rallying point of French troops parading after successful military campaigns and for the annual Bastille Day military parade. Famous victory marches around or under the Arc have included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1919, the Germans in 1940, and the French and Allies in 1944[8] and 1945. A United States postage stamp of 1945 shows the Arc de Triomphe in the background as victorious American troops march down the Champs-Élysées and U.S. airplanes fly overhead on 29 August 1944. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades (including the aforementioned post-1919) have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism. Both Hitler in 1940 and de Gaulle in 1944 observed this custom.

 The Arc de Triomphe is located on Paris's Axe historique, a long perspective that runs from the Louvre to the Grande Arche de la Défense.

By the early 1960s, the monument had grown very blackened from coal soot and automobile exhaust, and during 1965–1966 it was cleaned through bleaching. In the prolongation of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, a new arch, the Grande Arche de la Défense, was built in 1982, completing the line of monuments that forms Paris's Axe historique. After the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, the Grande Arche is the third arch built on the same perspective.

In 1995, the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria placed a bomb near the Arc de Triomphe which wounded 17 people as part of a campaign of bombings.[9]

On 12 July 1998, when France won the FIFA World Cup for the first time after defeating Brazil 3–0 at the Stade de France, images of the players including double goal scorer Zinedine Zidane and their names along with celebratory messages were projected onto the arch.[10]

21st century

In late 2018, the Arc de Triomphe suffered acts of vandalism as part of the Yellow vests protests.[11] The vandals sprayed the monument with graffiti and ransacked its small museum.[12] In September 2021, the arc was wrapped in a silvery blue fabric and red rope,[13] as part of L'Arc de Triomphe, Wrapped, a posthumous project planned by artists Christo and Jeanne-Claude since the early 1960s.[14]

The wooden Arc de Triomphe built on the occasion of the entry into Paris of Napoleon and Marie Louise in 1810. 
The wooden Arc de Triomphe built on the occasion of the entry into Paris of Napoleon and Marie Louise in 1810.
State funeral of Victor Hugo, 31 May 1885. 
State funeral of Victor Hugo, 31 May 1885.
Charles Godefroy flying through the Arc de Triomphe in 1919. 
Charles Godefroy flying through the Arc de Triomphe in 1919.
A colourized aerial photograph of the southern side, published in 1921. 
A colourized aerial photograph of the southern side, published in 1921.
Arc de Triomphe in 1939. 
Arc de Triomphe in 1939.
Free French forces on parade after the liberation of Paris on 26 August 1944. 
Free French forces on parade after the liberation of Paris on 26 August 1944.
Night view of the Arc de Triomphe, 2007. 
Night view of the Arc de Triomphe, 2007.
The Arc de Triomphe seen from the Eiffel Tower, 2008. 
The Arc de Triomphe seen from the Eiffel Tower, 2008.
Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs, with John Kerry, U.S. Secretary of State, under the Arc de Triomphe in 2015. 
Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs, with John Kerry, U.S. Secretary of State, under the Arc de Triomphe in 2015.
Bastille Day military parade, 2017. 
Bastille Day military parade, 2017.
^ L'Abeille (in French). Petit Séminaire de Québec. 1848. Archived from the original on 12 January 2023. Retrieved 25 November 2021. ^ "Historical Currency Converter". www.historicalstatistics.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2021. ^ Hôtel des Invalides website Archived 25 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "History of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris". Places in France. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2013. ^ "Les débuts de l'aviation : Charles Godefroy – L'Histoire par l'image". Histoire-image.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014. ^ Melville Wallace, La vie d'un pilote de chasse en 1914–1918, Flammarion, Paris, 1978. The film clip is included in The History Channel's Four Years of Thunder. ^ * « Un aviateur passe en avion sous l'Arc de Triomphe » Archived 30 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Le Matin from 1919/08/08, p.1, column 3–4. « Un avion passe sous l'Arc de Triomphe » Archived 21 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine, L'Écho de Paris from 1919/08/08, p.1, column 3. « L'Acte insensé d'un aviateur » Archived 23 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine, par Raoul Alexandre, L'Humanité from 1919/08/08, p.1, column 2. « Un avion, ce matin, est passé sous l'Arc de Triomphe » Archived 21 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine, par Paul Cartoux, L'Intransigeant from 1919/08/08, p.1, column 6. « Aéronautique : l'inutile exploit du sergent Godefroy » Archived 28 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Le Temps from 1919/08/09, morning edition, p.3, column 4–5. ^ Image of Liberation of Paris parade Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Simons, Marlise (18 August 1995). "Bomb Near Arc De Triomphe wounds 17". New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015. ^ France 2 (13 July 1998). "France 98 : Nuit de fête sur les Champs-Elysées après la victoire (Archive INA)" [France 98: Night of celebration on the Champs-Elysées after the victory]. YouTube (in French). Institut National de l'Audiovisuel. Retrieved 20 July 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) ^ Irish, John (2 December 2018). "Macron mulls state of emergency after worst unrest in decades". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2018. ^ Katz, Brigit. "Arc de Triomphe to Reopen After Being Vandalized During 'Yellow Vest' Protests". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2020. ^ Chappell, Bill (17 September 2021). "Here's Why The Arc De Triomphe Was Just Wrapped In Fabric". NPR. Archived from the original on 19 September 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021. ^ Katz, Brigit (13 June 2021). "L'Arc de Triomphe, Wrapped: Christo's dream being realised". TheGuardian.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
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