Alte Nationalgalerie

The Alte Nationalgalerie (lit. Old National Gallery) is a listed building on the Museum Island in the historic centre of Berlin, Germany. The gallery was built from 1862 to 1876 by the order of King Frederick William IV of Prussia according to plans by Friedrich August Stüler and Johann Heinrich Strack in Neoclassical and Renaissance Revival styles. The building's outside stair features a memorial to Frederick William IV. Currently, the Alte Nationalgalerie is home to paintings and sculptures of the 19th century and hosts a variety of tourist buses daily. As part of the Museum Island complex, the gallery was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999 for its outstanding architecture and its testimony to the development of museums and galleries as a cultural phenomenon in the late 19th century.

Founding

The first impetus to founding a national gallery came in 1815. The idea gained momentum during the 1830s, but without an actual building. In 1841 the first real plans were created. These plans never made it out of the planning stages, but finally in 1861 the National Gallery was founded, after banker Johann Heinrich Wagener donated 262 paintings by both German and foreign artists. This donation formed the basis of the current collection. The collection was first known as Wagenersche und Nationalgalerie (Wagener and National Gallery) and was housed in the buildings of the Akademie der Künste. The current building, shaped like a Roman temple with an appended apse, was designed by Friedrich August Stüler and after his death, realised in detail under Carl Busse.

Building and related developments  Picture of the Alte Nationalgalerie from Heinrich August Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, 1891

Friedrich August Stüler began working on a design for the building in 1863, based on a sketch by King Frederick William IV of Prussia.[1] Two years and two failed plans later, his third proposal was finally accepted. Stüler died before planning was completed and Carl Busse handled the remaining details in 1865. In 1866, by order of the king and his cabinet, the Kommission für den Bau der Nationalgalerie (Commission for the construction of the national gallery) was created. Ground was broken in 1867 under the supervision of Heinrich Strack. In 1872 the structure was completed and interior work began. The opening took place on 22 March 1876, in the presence of the Kaiser.

Because of the building's modern construction using brick and iron, it was widely believed to be fireproof. The exterior and outer staircase were constructed of Triassic sandstone from Nebra. At the opening the collection was still relatively small. Next to Wagener's collection, originally, was a display of cartoons by Peter von Cornelius that had been bequeathed to the Prussian government. The initial objective of the gallery was to collect contemporary, primarily Prussian art, as Berlin did not then have any repository of modern art.

In 1874 Max Jordan became the first director of the National Gallery. In 1896 he was succeeded by Hugo von Tschudi, who acquired Impressionist works, risking conflict with the Kaiser because this ended the collection's focus on German art. The German National Gallery thus became the most important museum for modern French Art at the turn of the century.[2]

20th century

In 1909, Ludwig Justi assumed the post of director, and added Expressionist works to the collection. Following the German Revolution of 1918–19 that ended Imperial rule, he moved the modern art to the Kronprinzenpalais at the end of Unter den Linden, which became known as National Gallery II.

In 1933, the new Nazi authorities dismissed Justi, who was followed by Eberhard Hanfstaengl. He remained until 1937, when he too was dismissed. His successor, Paul Ortwin Rave, remained until 1950, although because of World War II the building was closed during much of that time. It was heavily damaged in Allied air raids. It was partly reopened in 1949, but reconstruction continued until 1969. Between 1998 and 2001, the museum was renovated thoroughly by German architect HG Merz. Some extra halls were added on the uppermost floor and now contain the Romantic works. The three-year, $62 million renovation of the Alte Nationalgalerie was part of a refurbishment of Museum Island and the energetic effort by government and private institutions to re-establish Berlin as Germany's political and cultural heart.[3]

^ Keisch, Claude (2005). The Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. C.H.Beck. p. 7. ISBN 978-3-406-52675-6. ^ Philipp Demandt: "Schule des Sehens". Die Nationalgalerie und die Moderne, in: Angelika Wesenberg (Hg.), Impressionismus – Expressionismus. Kunstwende, Berlin 2015, pp 13–19. ^ Butler, Desmond (2 December 2001). "Berlin Museum's Revival Bolsters German Identity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
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