مدرسة ابن يوسف (مراكش)

( Madrassa Ben Youssef )

La madrassa Ben Youssef (àrab: مدرسة ابن يوسف, madrasat Ibn Yūsuf) fou una escola islàmica a Marràqueix, al Marroc. Se li posà el nom del soldà almoràvit Ali ibn Yússuf, que va regnar entre 1106-1142, expandint considerablement la ciutat i la seva influència. L'escola es va fundar durant el període benimerí (segle xiv) pel soldà Abu-l-Hàssan al costat de la mesquita homònima.

L'edifici de la madrassa, tal com és ara, fou reconstruït pel soldà sadita Abd-Al·lah al-Ghàlib (1557-1574). En aquesta època, Marràqueix es transformà en la ciutat més opulenta del món àrab. És la madrassa més gran de tot el nord d'Àfrica. El 1565 s'acabaren les obres, com ho confirma la inscripció de la sala de l'oració. Les seves 130 cel·les de dormitoris d'estudiants s'agrupen al voltant d'un pati obert ricament decorat amb cedre, marbre i estuc.

History
A simple student's room in the Ben Youssef Madrasa.

The madrasa is named after the adjacent Ben Youssef Mosque, which was originally the main mosque of the city, founded by the Almoravid Sultan Ali ibn Yusuf (reigned 1106-1142 ad.)[1][2] The first madrasa on this site was founded during the Marinid Islamic dynasty by Sultan Abu al-Hasan (ruled 1331-1348).[3][2] This dynasty, known for its perpetuation of the arts and literature, ruled from 1196 to 1465 AD and was responsible for constructing many madrasas across Morocco.[4][2] The current building, however, was constructed by the Saadian Sultan Abdallah al-Ghalib (reign 1557-1574 AD), a major builder of his period, and completed in 1564-65 AD (972 AH).[5][6]

Historically, madrasas have served as a center for learning, worship and community interaction.[7] In addition to teaching Quranic Tasfeer and Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic schools often taught a wide variety of subjects, including literature, science and history.[8] The Ben Youssef Madrasa, in fulfilling these functions, was also one of the largest theological colleges in North Africa, reportedly able to accommodate upwards of 800 students.[5] Closed down in 1960, the building was refurbished and reopened to the public as a historical site in 1982.[9] The Ben Youssef Madrasa currently attracts thousands of tourists every year and remains one of the most important historical buildings in Marrakesh.[10]

^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b c Marçais, Georges (1954). L'architecture musulmane d'Occident. Paris: Arts et métiers graphiques. p. 392. ^ Bloom, Johnathan (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. p. 160. ^ Bloom, Jonathan (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–165. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Salmon, Xavier (2016). Marrakech: Splendeurs saadiennes: 1550-1650. Paris: LienArt. pp. 118–169. ISBN 9782359061826. ^ Bloom, Johnathan (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. Vol. 2 464–465. ^ "IBN YUSUF MADRASA in Marrakesh, Morocco". www.ne.jp. Retrieved 2018-12-12. ^ Razer, David (2015). Morocco Revealed: Fez, Marrakech, Meknes and Rabat. Approach Guides. pp. 1931–2000. ISBN 1936614472. ^ Cite error: The named reference :4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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Michal Osmenda from Brussels, Belgium - CC BY-SA 2.0
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