Yosemite National Park

Yosemite National Park

Yosemite National Park ( yoh-SEM-ih-tee) is an American national park in California, surrounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 759,620 acres (1,187 sq mi; 3,074 km2) in four counties – centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage Site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its cliffs, waterfalls, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, lakes, mountains, meadows, glaciers, and biological diversity. Almost 95 percent of the park is designated wilderness. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, and the park supports a diversity of plants and animals.

The geology of the Yosemite area is char...Read more

Yosemite National Park ( yoh-SEM-ih-tee) is an American national park in California, surrounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 759,620 acres (1,187 sq mi; 3,074 km2) in four counties – centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage Site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its cliffs, waterfalls, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, lakes, mountains, meadows, glaciers, and biological diversity. Almost 95 percent of the park is designated wilderness. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, and the park supports a diversity of plants and animals.

The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granite rocks and remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its unique slopes, which increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in the formation of deep, narrow canyons. About one million years ago glaciers formed at higher elevations which eventually melted and moved downslope, cutting and sculpting the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas.

European American settlers first entered Yosemite Valley itself in 1851. There are earlier instances of other travelers entering the Valley but James D. Savage is credited with discovering the area that became Yosemite National Park. Despite Savage and others claiming their discovery of Yosemite, the region and Valley itself have been inhabited for nearly 4,000 years, although humans may have visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago.

Yosemite was critical to the development of the national park idea. Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development, ultimately leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing of the Yosemite Grant of 1864 which declared Yosemite as federally preserved land. It was not until 1890 that John Muir led a successful movement which had Congress establish Yosemite Valley and its surrounding areas as a National Park. This helped pave the way for the National Park System. Yosemite draws about four million visitors each year, and most visitors spend the majority of their time in the seven square miles (18 km2) of Yosemite Valley. The park set a visitation record in 2016, surpassing five million visitors for the first time in its history. The park began requiring reservations to access the park during peak periods starting in 2020 as a response to the rise in visitors.

Ahwahneechee and the Mariposa Wars
Paiute ceremony (1872)
engraving of Dr Lafayette Bunnell, showing him as an older man with a craggy face, short bristly hair and a cropped grey beard. 
Lafayette Bunnell gave Yosemite Valley its name.

The indigenous natives of Yosemite called themselves the Ahwahneechee, meaning "dwellers" in Ahwahnee.[1] The Ahwahneechee People was the only tribe that lived in the boundaries of Yosemite National Park but other tribes lived in its surrounding areas, together they formed a larger Indigneous population in California, called the Southern Sierra Miwok.[2] They are related to the Northern Paiute and Mono tribes. Other tribes like the Central Sierra Miwoks and the Yokuts, who both lived in the San Joaquin Valley and central California, visited Yosemite to trade and intermarry with the Ahwahneechee.[3] This resulted in a blending of culture which helped preserve Indigenous people's presence in Yosemite after early American settlements and urban development threatened their survival.[2] Vegetation and game in the region were similar to modern time; acorns were a staple to their diet, as well as other seeds and plants, salmon and deer.[2]

A major event impacting the native population of Yosemite and all of California in the mid-19th century was the California Gold Rush, which drew more than 90,000 European Americans to the area in less than two years, causing competition for resources between gold miners and the local Natives.[4] Before large amounts of European settlers arrived in California, about 70 years before the Gold Rush, the Indigenous population was estimated to be 300,000, once the Gold Rush started it dropped down to 150,000, and just ten years later, only about 50,000 remained.[5] The reason for such a decline in the Native American population results from numerous reasons including disease, birth rate decreases, starvation, and the conflicts from the American Indian Wars. The conflict in Yosemite is known as the Mariposa War, it started in December 1850 when California funded a state militia to drive Native people from contested territory, also known as Indigenous traditional and sacred homelands; the goal was to suppress Native American resistance to American expansion.[6]

In retaliation to the extermination and domestication of their people, and loss of their lands and resources, Yosemite Indian tribes often stole from settlers and miners, sometimes killing them, both actions seen as tribute for the great losses they experienced.[5] The War and formation of the Mariposa Battalion was partially the result of a single incident involving James Savage, a trader in Fresno, California whose trading post was attacked in December, 1850. After the incident, Savage rallied other miners and gained the support of local officials to pursue revenge and a full out war against the Natives, that is how he was appointed United States Army Major and leader the Mariposa Battalion in the beginning of 1851.[5] He and Captain John Boling were responsible for pursuing the Ahwahneechee people that were being led by Chief Tenaya and driving them as far west as possible, out of Yosemite.[7][5] In March 1851 under the command of Savage, the Mariposa Battalion captured about 70 Ahwahneechee and planned to take them to a reservation in Fresno, but they all managed to escape. Later in May, under the command of Boling, the battalion captured 35 Ahwahneechee including Chief Tenaya and marched them to the reservation but most were allowed to eventually leave and the rest escaped.[5] Tenaya and others fled across the Sierra Nevada and settled with the Mono Lake Paiutes. Tenaya and some of his companions were ultimately killed in 1853 either over stealing horses or a gambling conflict and the survivors of Tenaya's group and other Ahwahneechee were absorbed into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe.[5][8][9]

Sculpture of Chief Tenaya made by Sal Maccarone for the Tenaya Lodge in Yosemite National Park

Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Doctor Lafayette Bunnell, who later wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya. Bunnell wrote that Chief Tenaya was the founder of the Ahwahnee colony.[10] Bunnell falsely believed that the word "Yosemite" meant "full-grown grizzly bear."[11] In fact, "Yosemite" was derived from the Miwok term for the Ahwaneechee people: yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers".[12][13][14]

Indigenous peoples' presence post war and since
Basket woven by Lucy Telles (1885-1955), a Mono Lake Paiute and Southern Sierra Miwok Native American artist from the Yosemite region

After the Mariposa War, a number of Native Americans continued to live in the Yosemite area, despite their overall population being severely decreased in the present-day park's boundary. The remaining Yosemite Ahwahneechee tribe members there were forced to relocate to an Indian village constructed in 1851 by the state government .[5] They learned to live within this camp and their limited rights, adapting to the changing environment by taking advantage of the growing tourism industry through employment opportunities and creating small businesses from selling goods and providing services.[2] Despite the integration of Indigenous people into the growing American settlement and tourism industry, their villages were destroyed and their people were forced to relocate four different times throughout the park's history. The U.S. Army was responsible for the village's destruction in 1851 and 1906, and the National Park Service was responsible for it in 1929 and 1969.[5] In 1969, the National Park Service evicted the remaining Native people from their residences and destroyed their village as part of a fire-fighting exercise.[6] A reconstructed "Indian Village of Ahwahnee" has been erected behind the Yosemite Museum, located next to the Yosemite Valley Visitor Center.[15][16][17]

By the late 19th century, the population of all native inhabitants in Yosemite was difficult to determine, estimates ranged from smaller numbers, such as thirty individuals, to several hundred. The Ahwahneechee people and their descendants were even harder to identify.[5] The last full-blooded Ahwahneechee died in 1931, her name was Totuya, or Maria Lebrado, she was the granddaughter of Chief Tenaya and one of many forced out of her ancestral homelands in Yosemite National Park.[5][6] Now the Ahwahneechee live through the memory of their descendants, their fellow Yosemite Natives, and through museums like the Yosemite, California museum exhibit in the Smithsonian and the Yosemite Museum.[5] As a method of self preservation and resilience, the Indigenous people of California proposed treaties in 1851 and 1852 which would have established land reservations for them but Congress refused to sign them.[5] The quest for justice and sovereignty by Yosemite Natives has been ongoing for well over a hundred years. The Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation is still seeking tribal sovereignty and federal recognition, which is critical for their wellbeing and cultural preservation.[6][18] Progress has been made in terms of the relationship between the U.S. government and tribal governments with the National Park Service creating policies to protect Indigenous sacred sites and allow Natives to return to their homelands and use National Park resources.[18][19]

Early tourists
The Dead Giant (c. 1870s)
Vernal Fall (c. 1870s)
The Wawona Hotel (1985)
Woman in a long dress in front of a sign across a road. Wooden letters read "Camp Curry". 
Jennie Curry in front of Camp Curry (c. 1900)
Advertisement of 1907 inviting tourists to the park

In 1855, entrepreneur James Mason Hutchings, artist Thomas Ayres and two others were the first to tour the area.[20] Hutchings and Ayres were responsible for much of the earliest publicity about Yosemite, writing articles and special magazine issues about the Valley.[21] Ayres' style in art was highly detailed with exaggerated angularity. His works and written accounts were distributed nationally, and an art exhibition of his drawings was held in New York City. Hutchings' publicity efforts between 1855 and 1860 led to an increase in tourism to Yosemite.[22] A number of Natives in Yosemite supported the growing tourism industry by working as laborers or maids. Later, they became part of the tourism industry itself by performing dances for tourists, being guides, and selling handcrafted good, most notably woven baskets.[2] The Indian village and its peoples were of immense interest to visitors, especially James Hutchings who was a large advocate for Yosemite tourism, he and many others considered the Indigenous presence as one of Yosemite's greatest attractions.

Eadweard Muybridge, Mariposa Grove, Yosemite, California, 1872, albumen print by Carleton E. Watkins


Wawona was an early Indian encampment for Nuchu and Ahwahneechee Natives that were captured and relocated to a reservation on the Fresno River by the Mariposa Battalion and James Savage in March 1851.[23] Settler Galen Clark discovered the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoia in Wawona in 1857. He had simple lodgings built, and roads to the area. In 1879, the Wawona Hotel was built to serve tourists visiting Mariposa Grove.[24] As tourism increased, so did the number of trails and hotels developed by people intending to build on the trade.[25]

The Wawona Tree, also known as the Tunnel Tree, was a famous giant sequoia that stood in the Mariposa Grove. It was 234 feet (71 m) tall, and was 90 ft (27 m) in circumference. When a carriage-wide tunnel was cut through the tree in 1881, it became even more popular as a tourist photo attraction. Everything from horse-drawn carriages in the late 19th century, to automobiles in the first part of the 20th century, traveled the road which passed through that tree. The tree was permanently weakened by the tunnel, and the Wawona Tree fell in 1969 under a heavy load of snow. It was estimated to have been 2,100 years old.[26]

Yosemite's first concession was established in 1884 when John Degnan and his wife established a bakery and store.[27] In 1916, the National Park Service granted a 20-year concession to the Desmond Park Service Company. It bought out or built hotels, stores, camps, a dairy, a garage, and other park services.[28] The Hotel Del Portal was completed in 1908 by a subsidiary corporation of the Yosemite Valley Railroad. It was located at El Portal, California just outside of Yosemite.[29] Desmond changed its name to the Yosemite National Park Company in December 1917 and was reorganized in 1920.[30]

The Curry Company had been started in 1899 by David and Jennie Curry to provide concessions in the park. They also founded Camp Curry, formerly known as Half Dome Village, now restored back to Curry Village.[31]

Administrators in the National Park Service felt that limiting the number of concessionaires in each national park would be more financially sound. The Curry Company and its rival, the Yosemite National Park Company, were forced to merge in 1925 to form the Yosemite Park & Curry Company (YP&CC).[32] The company built the Ahwahnee Hotel in 1926–27.[33]

Yosemite Grant
Map of rail and stage routes to Yosemite in 1885
A view of the park and Vernal Fall, photographed by photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1872.

Concerned by the effects of commercial interests, prominent citizens including Galen Clark and Senator John Conness advocated for protection of the area. A park bill was prepared with the assistance of the General Land Office in the Interior Department.[34] The bill passed both houses of the 38th United States Congress, and was signed by President Abraham Lincoln on June 30, 1864, creating the Yosemite Grant.[35][36] This is the first instance of park land being set aside specifically for preservation and public use by action of the U.S. federal government, and set a precedent for the 1872 creation of Yellowstone as the first national park.[37] Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove were ceded to California as a state park, and a board of commissioners was proclaimed two years later.[38]

Galen Clark was appointed by the commission as the Grant's first guardian, but neither Clark nor the commissioners had the authority to evict homesteaders (which included Hutchings).[35] The issue was not settled until 1872 when the homesteader land holdings were invalidated by the U.S. Supreme Court.[39] Clark and the reigning commissioners were ousted in 1880, this dispute also reaching the Supreme Court in 1880.[40] The two Supreme Court decisions affecting management of the Yosemite Grant are considered important precedents in land management law.[41] Hutchings became the new park guardian.[42]

Access to the park by tourists improved in the early years of the park, and conditions in the Valley were made more hospitable. Tourism significantly increased after the First transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, but the long horseback ride to reach the area was a deterrent.[35] Three stagecoach roads were built in the mid-1870s to provide better access for the growing number of visitors to Yosemite Valley.[43]

John Muir was a Scottish-born American naturalist and explorer. It was because of Muir that many National Parks were left untouched, such as Yosemite Valley National Park. One of the most significant camping trips Muir took was in 1903 with then president Theodore Roosevelt. This trip persuaded Roosevelt to return "Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to federal protection as part of Yosemite National Park".[44]

Muir wrote articles popularizing the area and increasing scientific interest in it. Muir was one of the first to theorize that the major landforms in Yosemite Valley were created by large alpine glaciers, bucking established scientists such as Josiah Whitney, who regarded Muir as an amateur.[42] Muir wrote scientific papers on the area's biology. Landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted emphasized the importance of conservation of Yosemite Valley.[45]

Increased protection efforts
Early settler, Galen Clark
Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir on Glacier Point

Overgrazing of meadows (especially by sheep), logging of giant sequoia, and other damage caused Muir to become an advocate for further protection. Muir convinced prominent guests of the importance of putting the area under federal protection; one such guest was Robert Underwood Johnson, editor of Century Magazine. Muir and Johnson lobbied Congress for the Act that created Yosemite National Park on October 1, 1890.[46] The State of California, however, retained control of Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove. Muir's writings raised awareness about the damage caused by sheep grazing, and he actively campaigned to virtually eliminate grazing from the Yosemite's high-country ecosystem.[47]

The newly created national park came under the jurisdiction of the United States Army's Troop I of the 4th Cavalry on May 19, 1891, which set up camp in Wawona with Captain Abram Epperson Wood as acting superintendent.[46] By the late 1890s, sheep grazing was no longer a problem, and the Army made other improvements. The cavalry could not intervene to ease the worsening condition of Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove. From 1899 to 1913, cavalry regiments of the Western Department, including the all Black 9th Cavalry (known as the "Buffalo Soldiers") and the 1st Cavalry, stationed two troops at Yosemite.

Bridalveil Fall and El Capitan, by Carleton Watkins (c. 1880)

Muir and his Sierra Club continued to lobby the government and influential people for the creation of a unified Yosemite National Park. In May 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt camped with Muir near Glacier Point for three days. On that trip, Muir convinced Roosevelt to take control of Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove away from California and return it to the federal government. In 1906, Roosevelt signed a bill that did precisely that.[48]

National Park Service

The National Park Service was formed in 1916, and Yosemite was transferred to that agency's jurisdiction. Tuolumne Meadows Lodge, Tioga Pass Road, and campgrounds at Tenaya and Merced lakes were also completed in 1916.[49] Automobiles started to enter the park in ever-increasing numbers following the construction of all-weather highways to the park. The Yosemite Museum was founded in 1926 through the efforts of Ansel Franklin Hall.[50] In the 1920s, the museum featured Native Americans practicing traditional crafts, and many of the Southern Sierra Miwok continued to live in Yosemite Valley until they were completely evicted from Yosemite National Park in the 1960s.[51] Although the National Park Service helped create the Yosemite Museum which showcased some Indigenous presence at the time, its early actions and organizational values were detrimental to the Yosemite Natives and the Ahwahneechee.[5] The National Park Service in the early 20th century criticized and even restricted the expression of Indigenous culture and behavior in Yosemite, for instance Park officials penalized Natives for playing games and drinking during the Indian Field Days of 1924.[2] The NPS had more direct and devastating impacts on the Yosemite Natives though. In 1929, Park Superintendent Charles G. Thomson concluded that the Indian village was aesthetically unpleasant and was limiting white settler development. Thomson eventually ordered the camp be burned down.[5] In 1969, many Natives in the Indian village were forced to leave in search of work as a result of the decline in tourism. The NPS demolished those empty houses, evicted the remaining people from their homes, and destroyed the entire village.[5] This was the last Indigenous settlement to exist within Yosemite's Valley and the National Park, effectively removing all the Ahwahneechee People and other Yosemite Natives from their traditional homelands.[5][6]

In 1903, a dam in the northern portion of the park was proposed. Located in the Hetch Hetchy Valley, its purpose was to provide water and hydroelectric power to San Francisco. Muir and the Sierra Club opposed the project, while others, including Gifford Pinchot, supported it.[52] In 1913, the U.S. Congress authorized the O'Shaughnessy Dam through passage of the Raker Act.[53]

O'Shaughnessy Dam in Hetch Hetchy Valley

In the late 1920s a bid for Yosemite for the 1932 Winter Olympics was put forward. Ultimately, the 1932 Winter Olympics were awarded to Lake Placid, New York.[54] In 1937, conservationist Rosalie Edge, head of the Emergency Conservation Committee (ECC), successfully lobbied Congress to purchase about 8,000 acres of old-growth sugar pines on the perimeter of Yosemite National Park that were to be logged.[55]

In 1984, preservationists persuaded Congress to designate 677,600 acres (274,200 ha), or about 89 percent of the park, as the Yosemite Wilderness—a highly protected wilderness area.[56] The Park Service has reduced artificial inducements to visit the park, such as the Firefall, in which red-hot embers were pushed off a cliff near Glacier Point at night. Traffic congestion and parking in Yosemite Valley during the summer months has become a concern.[57]

In 2016, The Trust for Public Land purchased Ackerson Meadow, a 400-acre tract on the western edge of Yosemite National Park, for $2.3 million in order to preserve habitat and protect the area from development. Ackerson Meadow was originally included in the proposed 1890 park boundary but never acquired by the federal government. The purchase and donation of the meadow was made possible through a cooperative effort by the Trust for Public Land, the National Park Service, and Yosemite Conservancy. On September 7, 2016, the National Park Service accepted the donation of the land, making the meadow the largest addition to Yosemite since 1949.[58]

^ Runte, Alfred (1990). Yosemite: The Embattled Wilderness. University of Nebraska Press. pp. Chapter 1. ISBN 0803238940. ^ a b c d e f g Spence, Mark (1996). "Dispossesing the Wilderness: Yosemite Indians and the National Park Ideal, 1864–1930". Pacific Historical Review. 65 (1): 27–59. doi:10.2307/3640826. ISSN 0030-8684. JSTOR 3640826. ^ W., Greene, Linda (1987). Yosemite, the park and its resources: a history of the discovery, management, and physical development of Yosemite National Park, California : historic resource study. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service. OCLC 568734022. ^ Maranzani, Barbara (August 31, 2018). "8 Things You May Not Know About the California Gold Rush". History.com. Retrieved July 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Solnit, Rebecca (2014). Savage Dreams: a Journey into the Hidden Wars of the American West. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-95792-3. OCLC 876343009. ^ a b c d e "Who We Are". Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation. Retrieved July 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ^ "Sketch of Yosemite National Park and an Account of the Origin of the Yosemite and Hetch Hetchy Valleys (History of Yosemite National Parkr)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved April 19, 2022. ^ Bingaman, John W. (1966). "The Ahwahneechees: A Story of the Yosemite Indians". yosemite.ca.us. Retrieved April 11, 2022. ^ Godfrey, Elizabeth. "Yosemite Indians; Yesterday and Today". Yosemite Indians. Retrieved August 26, 2021. ^ Bunnell, Lafayette H. (1892). "Chapter 17". Discovery of the Yosemite and the Indian War of 1851 Which Led to That Event. F.H. Revell. ISBN 0939666588. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2007. ^ Bunnell, Lafayette H. Discovery of the Yosemite and the Indian War of 1851 Which Led to That Event. ^ Cite error: The named reference Anderson was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Yosemite". Online etymology dictionary. Retrieved September 10, 2010. ^ 1879., Barrett, S. A. (2010). Myths of the southern sierra miwok. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-177-40758-8. OCLC 944730381.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) ^ "Indian Village of the Ahwahnee – Yosemite National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved March 1, 2021. ^ "Yosemite Indians – Yosemite National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved March 1, 2021. ^ "Yosemite Valley map" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2021. ^ a b "Federal Recognition | Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation". SouthernSierra Miwuk. Retrieved April 21, 2022. ^ Wolfley, Jeanette (2016). Reclaiming a presence in ancestral lands : the return of Native Peoples to the National Parks. [University of New Mexico, School of Law]. OCLC 1305864036. ^ Harris 1998, p. 326 ^ Wuerthner 1994, p. 20. ^ Johns, J.S. (1996). "Discovery and Invention in the Yosemite". The Role of Railroads in Protecting, Promoting, and Selling Yellowstone and Yosemite National Parks. University of Virginia. ^ Sargent, Shirley (1961). "Wawona's Yesterdays". ^ Wawona Hotel Complex Cultural Landscape Report , Yosemite National Park. Mundus Bishop for National Park Service. August 2012. p. 15. ^ Schaffer, Jeffrey (June 2006). Yosemite National Park: A complete hiker's guide (5 ed.). Berkley, CA: Wilderness Press. p. 11. ISBN 0899973833. Retrieved August 31, 2021. ^ "The Myth of the Tree You Can Drive Through". nps.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved August 26, 2021. ^ NPS 1989, p. 58. ^ Greene 1987, p. 360. ^ Radanovich, Leroy (2010). Yosemite Valley Railroad. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 9781439640333. Retrieved December 27, 2021. ^ Greene 1987, pp. 362, 364. ^ Wuerthner 1994, p. 40. ^ Greene 1987, p. 387. ^ Gene Rose (March 2003). "The Ahwahnee: Yosemite Grandeur". Skiing Heritage Journal. International Skiing History Association: 21. ISSN 1082-2895. ^ Huth, Hans (March 1948). "Yosemite: The Story of an Idea". Sierra Club Bulletin. Sierra Club (33): 63–76. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2011. ^ a b c Schaffer 1999, p. 48 ^ Sanger, George P., ed. (1866). "Thirty-Eighth Congress, Session I, Chap. 184 (June 30, 1864): An Act authorizing a Grant to the State of California of the "Yo-Semite Valley" and of the Land embracing the "Mariposa Big Tree Grove"" (PDF). The Statutes At Large, Treaties, and Proclamations of the United States of America from December 1863, to December 1865. Vol. 13. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 325. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2011. ^ "History & Culture". United States National Park Service: Yosemite National Park. Retrieved January 27, 2007. ^ "Yosemite "State Park"". www.150.parks.ca.gov. ^ Hutchings v. Low 82 U.S. 77 (1872) ^ Ashburner v. California 103 U.S. 575 (1880) ^ Runte, Alfred (1990). Yosemite : The Embattled Wilderness. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 34–35, 50. ISBN 0803289413. ^ a b Schaffer 1999, p. 49 ^ Law Olmsted, Frederick (1865). Yosemite and the Mariposa Grove: A Preliminary Report. ^ "People – John Muir". The National Parks: America's Best Idea. PBS. ^ Olmsted, Frederick Law. "Olmsted Report on Management of Yosemite, 1865". National Park Service. National Park Service. Retrieved September 1, 2021. ^ a b Schaffer 1999, p. 50 ^ "Yosemite". nps.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved September 1, 2021. ^ "John Muir and President Roosevelt". John Muir National Historic Site, California. National Park Service. Retrieved August 31, 2021. ^ Schaffer 1999, p. 52 ^ NPS 1989, p. 117. ^ "American Indians share their Yosemite story". ^ Moseley, W. G. (2009). "Beyond Knee-Jerk Environmental Thinking: Teaching Geographic Perspectives on Conservation, Preservation and the Hetch Hetchy Valley Controversy". Journal of Geography in Higher Education. 33 (3): 433–51. doi:10.1080/03098260902982492. S2CID 143538071. ^ Schaffer 1999, p. 51 ^ "Badger Pass Ski Resort –Badger Pass Yosemite". Destination360.com. Retrieved April 1, 2012. ^ Furmansky, Dyana Z. (2009). Rosalie Edge, Hawk of Mercy: The Activist Who Saved Nature from the Conservationists. University of Georgia Press. pp. 200–07. ISBN 978-0820336763. ^ 98th U.S. Congress (1984). "California Wilderness Act of 1984" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2010. ^ Sahagun, Louis (September 26, 2017). "Iconic Yosemite National Park is seeing more vehicles than ever clogging its roads". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 7, 2021. ^ National Park Service. "Ackerson Meadow Gifted to Yosemite National Park". Retrieved September 8, 2016.
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