Westminster Abbey

Niels Elgaard Larsen - (WT-en) Elgaard at English Wikivoyage - CC BY-SA 4.0 Abubakr Saeed judy dean Tjflex2 js hsu www.chrisbirds.com Tjflex2 It's No Game sagesolar andrewtijou js hsu Tjflex2 Croydon Clicker vgm8383 Elentari86 Doolallyally It's No Game Gretje Michiyo Photo Tjflex2 Taylor.McBride™ Ian E. Abbott Arslan Shakespearesmonkey acase1968 fotodibar.es judy dean Al Case stusmith_uk pablocabezos RG TLV Tjflex2 reallyboring Scouse Smurf Essential London It's No Game A.Kreicberga grassrootsgroundswell vgm8383 jmc4 - Church Explorer It's No Game Leshaines123 ChrisLej stusmith_uk J. A. Alcaide grassrootsgroundswell wim hoppenbrouwers string_bass_dave Fotografik33 - www.fotografik33.com diamond geezer wim hoppenbrouwers stusmith_uk J.Salmoral nikkorsnapper Lawrence OP stusmith_uk BioDivLibrary Wootang01 stusmith_uk jmc4 - Church Explorer Loco Steve Joe Passe jmc4 - Church Explorer andrewtijou It's No Game ..Adnan rverc jmc4 - Church Explorer stusmith_uk barry.marsh1944 Daniel Gillaspia Mark Wordy Kris Olin stusmith_uk Kotomi_ stusmith_uk failing_angel alexmerwin13 string_bass_dave PnP! grassrootsgroundswell barry.marsh1944 Ian E. Abbott The Trump White House Archived hjjanisch grassrootsgroundswell jmc4 - Church Explorer failing_angel UGArdener Jez B Anne & David (Use Albums) Commonwealth Secretariat stusmith_uk brimidooley Alchimiæ Robert.Pittman Cornell University Library Commonwealth Secretariat Mark Wordy Pjposullivan1 Derringdos DigitalUrban Der Toco djking rverc Catholic Church (England and Wales) failing_angel Spencer Means It's No Game Jez B Lawrence OP wallyg reallyboring Swamibu failing_angel The Library of Congress failing_angel failing_angel [noone] Better Than Bacon grassrootsgroundswell Leonard Bentley failing_angel Defence Imagery carolyngifford lisby1 profzucker Stevie Parker It's No Game OwenXu carolyngifford bobaliciouslondon AKMA slack12 BWJones Leonard Bentley Pjposullivan1 Gareth1953 All Right Now Juan Enrique Gilardi garryknight Leonard Bentley failing_angel Cornell University Library Cornell University Library lisby1 Kurayba grassrootsgroundswell mmmavocado failing_angel UK Parliament Pjposullivan1 Snap Man Catholic Church (England and Wales) wallyg Wootang01 jmc4 - Church Explorer failing_angel failing_angel wallyg DUP Photos failing_angel byzantiumbooks afagen ell brown jmc4 - Church Explorer failing_angel jay galvin Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) Joe Mabel It's No Game Matt's Adventures In Pics failing_angel lisby1 Pjposullivan1 Catholic Church (England and Wales) Marco40134 failing_angel diamond geezer PJMixer roger4336 Commonwealth Secretariat edwin.11 Gene Hunt UK Prime Minister jmc4 - Church Explorer Ashley.Wang. It's No Game The Library of Congress Lawrence OP jmc4 - Church Explorer Jules & Jenny edwin.11 Monkey Mash Button Alan Light wallyg Commonwealth Secretariat Suzanne Hamilton Cornell University Library aaranged Ewan-M Pjposullivan1 Adelaide Archivist profzucker edwin.11 J. A. Alcaide wallyg UK Prime Minister Kotomi_ Catholic Church (England and Wales) Catholic Church (England and Wales) UK Prime Minister lisby1 Commonwealth Secretariat Leonard Bentley Marcus Meissner AKMA Catholic Church (England and Wales) kevinofsydney byzantiumbooks UK Prime Minister Catholic Church (England and Wales) wallyg UK Prime Minister jmc4 - Church Explorer Commonwealth Secretariat Commonwealth Secretariat byzantiumbooks UK Prime Minister Commonwealth Secretariat Commonwealth Secretariat domfell Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) Kol Tregaskes Commonwealth Secretariat Alan Light Rhubarble aaranged Commonwealth Secretariat edwin.11 UK Prime Minister Context Travel Alan Light hugh llewelyn Sean Munson aaranged jmc4 - Church Explorer mobbotaxi It's No Game carolyngifford edtenny Leonard Bentley Nick Sherman Alan Light stusmith_uk failing_angel It's No Game Mark Fischer failing_angel aaranged Manolo Blanco usembassylondon Alan Light mobbotaxi markhillary failing_angel Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) Smalloy aaranged Ian E. Abbott mobbotaxi failing_angel XOques UK in Holy See Cornell University Library Catholic Church (England and Wales) bensons failing_angel Joe Mabel Karen Roe ktom17 failing_angel bryangeek ell brown Karen Roe AKMA Clara T S H aaranged Paul Ryan Sketchbooks etc aaranged Rhubarble Rhubarble jmc4 - Church Explorer byzantiumbooks aaranged Alexandr Trubetskoy aaranged Jose and Roxanne failing_angel bryan... Catholic Church (England and Wales) jmc4 - Church Explorer dannyman csmramsden Paul Ealing 2011 Commonwealth Secretariat RyanSMcKee Sean Munson Jules & Jenny Matt From London Warren Elsmore Can Pac Swire Samuel Rivas aaranged bryangeek Joe Passe aaranged shining.darkness Catholic Church (England and Wales) Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) Arnoldo Riker eastercat Jose and Roxanne Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) adactio Shawn Carter jpellgen (@1179_jp) aaranged MasterChef614 failing_angel Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) wallyg tony.evans nikoretro failing_angel Kathleen Tyler Conklin failing_angel mobbotaxi aaranged Joe Mabel Rhubarble failing_angel Leonard Bentley failing_angel RichardTurnerPhotography martha_jean failing_angel Leonard Bentley failing_angel Daveography.ca Jorge Franganillo serena_tang aaranged aaranged Context Travel Leonard Bentley eugene_o j.c peaguda failing_angel failing_angel hugh llewelyn Alex Adkins Clive G' aaranged Joe Mabel James.Stringer Alan Light J. Gustavo Góngora failing_angel Alex Guibord crux catalyst jmc4 - Church Explorer Sandra Moy Rick Scully jpundt79 failing_angel failing_angel Catholic Church (England and Wales) Eberle_cast aaranged aaranged zenra UK Government gadgetdude aaranged kyteacher amandabhslater Warren Elsmore ~Ealasaid~ dconvertini BenRogersWPG Andrew and Annemarie amandabhslater Dorron failing_angel failing_angel failing_angel jimg944 Joe Mabel failing_angel failing_angel failing_angel aaranged aaranged failing_angel Anguskirk kmoliver Angela Llop aaranged José López wirewiper amandabhslater Mikepaws failing_angel Veronique Debord aaranged failing_angel jpundt79 failing_angel jpundt79 failing_angel failing_angel DanieVDM RachelC nikoretro failing_angel jon.roberts failing_angel frozenchipmunk Olivier Bruchez jmc4 - Church Explorer Boston Public Library marttj Hyougushi jimg944 One lucky guy Dougtone stevecadman otubo Rain Rabbit stusmith_uk tournorfolk jericho1ne notmydayjobphotography J. Gustavo Góngora failing_angel budgetplaces.com OliverN5 UK in Holy See Darren Foreman RachelC daves_archive _inactive at current time theducks failing_angel dbaron ~Ealasaid~ failing_angel AESanfacon ChrisYunker Catholic Church (England and Wales) ~Ealasaid~ psd serena_tang aaranged failing_angel crux catalyst Bobcatnorth Pesky Library LostCarPark Kwong Yee Cheng Dougtone badvoodoo404 gadgetdude stusmith_uk failing_angel Gail Frederick www.zoqy.net spi516 DG Jones Mark Fischer Mark Wordy @dino jon.roberts UK Prime Minister Leonard Bentley Kincuri ell brown RachelC Daveography.ca James.Stringer Djof budgetplaces.com Toni Birrer pinoyphotographer It's No Game Claudia De Facci Mr Miyagi Rennett Stowe Dougtone Abubakr Saeed Tjflex2 Tjflex2 js hsu www.chrisbirds.com Tjflex2 It's No Game andrewtijou Jocelyn777 Love Europe Tjflex2 Wootang01 It's No Game Doolallyally It's No Game hernanpba Taylor.McBride™ Arslan fotodibar.es judy dean Al Case stusmith_uk pablocabezos pablocabezos RG TLV jmc4 - Church Explorer Essential London reallyboring Scouse Smurf sweis78 vgm8383 It's No Game jmc4 - Church Explorer It's No Game ChrisLej nick.garrod lisby1 The National Archives UK wim hoppenbrouwers Jim_Nix Billy Wilson Photography Leshaines123 string_bass_dave vgm8383 wim hoppenbrouwers andrewtijou J.Salmoral nikkorsnapper Arjan Richter davidghawkins eastleighbusman jmc4 - Church Explorer jmc4 - Church Explorer Syvanen andrewtijou barry.marsh1944 Lawrence OP Kiril Strax Lawrence OP Commonwealth Secretariat Mark Wordy stusmith_uk failing_angel alexmerwin13 grassrootsgroundswell PnP! Ian E. Abbott jmc4 - Church Explorer UK Prime Minister failing_angel Anne & David (Use Albums) failing_angel Jacopo Aneghini Photos © Pjposullivan1 The Trump White House Archived Karen Roe UK Prime Minister Wootang01 stusmith_uk brimidooley DigitalUrban Robert.Pittman Kotomi_ Derringdos Cornell University Library wallyg Shakespearesmonkey reallyboring Lawrence OP It's No Game jon.roberts UK Prime Minister Dimitry B failing_angel Der Toco wallyg Swamibu Catholic Church (England and Wales) UK Prime Minister failing_angel J.Salmoral SPIngram Catholic Church (England and Wales) carolyngifford Leonard Bentley OwenXu Cornell University Library grassrootsgroundswell carolyngifford BWJones AKMA Pjposullivan1 grassrootsgroundswell Leonard Bentley garryknight az1172 Gareth1953 All Right Now failing_angel failing_angel summonedbyfells Kurayba lisby1 Queensland State Archives byzantiumbooks It's No Game wallyg ign0me Snap Man Wootang01 Leonard Bentley jmc4 - Church Explorer failing_angel Catholic Church (England and Wales) failing_angel antefixus21 Wootang01 Lawrence OP Catholic Church (England and Wales) Catholic Church (England and Wales) Joe Mabel Catholic Church (England and Wales) lisby1 lisby1 failing_angel Pjposullivan1 Carbon Visuals UK Prime Minister diamond geezer Marco40134 lisby1 jmc4 - Church Explorer bshamblen PJMixer roger4336 Joe Shlabotnik kurtmunz edwin.11 Ewan-M failing_angel jmc4 - Church Explorer Defence Imagery Ashley.Wang. lisby1 Kalense Kid Warren Elsmore Catholic Church (England and Wales) jmc4 - Church Explorer Alan Light Gene Hunt genibee UK Prime Minister wallyg Leonard Bentley profzucker edwin.11 SuperGLS Kotomi_ kevinofsydney Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) lisby1 UK Prime Minister Cornell University Library jmc4 - Church Explorer Catholic Church (England and Wales) Commonwealth Secretariat Leonard Bentley Rhubarble UK Prime Minister Commonwealth Secretariat string_bass_dave AKMA wallyg edwin.11 UK Prime Minister byzantiumbooks 2benny UK Prime Minister Suzanne Hamilton Alexandre Dolique Catholic Church (England and Wales) failing_angel byzantiumbooks Alan Light Commonwealth Secretariat UK Prime Minister Commonwealth Secretariat failing_angel Alan Light Commonwealth Secretariat RachelC It's No Game edwin.11 kevinpoh UK Prime Minister UK Prime Minister Leonard Bentley aaranged usembassylondon Commonwealth Secretariat Context Travel aaranged csmramsden jmc4 - Church Explorer bensons antefixus21 Nick Sherman failing_angel stusmith_uk It's No Game carolyngifford failing_angel bryangeek domfell byzantiumbooks KenBromleyArtSupplies failing_angel Catholic Church (England and Wales) Karen Roe mobbotaxi failing_angel Alan Light Ian E. Abbott Grumbler %-| wallyg aaranged Joe Mabel Smalloy nick.garrod aaranged XOques oatsy40 ell brown Matt From London Cornell University Library failing_angel aaranged Kevan dannyman failing_angel failing_angel failing_angel failing_angel aaranged neilalderney123 failing_angel Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) Rennett Stowe UK in Holy See Manolo Blanco Commonwealth Secretariat antefixus21 Mikepaws RyanSMcKee Arnoldo Riker Bobcatnorth Can Pac Swire Catholic Church (England and Wales) aaranged Defence Imagery Sean Munson Dougtone mobbotaxi Joe Passe Warren Elsmore ell brown Samuel Rivas Shawn Carter bryangeek aaranged Jorge Franganillo Rhubarble Catholic Church (England and Wales) Jose and Roxanne Leonard Bentley Alexandr Trubetskoy jpellgen (@1179_jp) aaranged Catholic Church (England and Wales) aaranged failing_angel MasterChef614 aaranged Giuseppe Milo (www.pixael.com) Leonard Bentley Leonard Bentley eugene_o J. Gustavo Góngora lisby1 wallyg Clive G' jmc4 - Church Explorer Joe Mabel Rhubarble failing_angel tony.evans bryan... aaranged aaranged RichardTurnerPhotography aaranged aaranged Leonard Bentley failing_angel Leonard Bentley zenra failing_angel happyride247 aaranged j.c peaguda failing_angel jpundt79 adKinn hugh llewelyn Ron Cogswell aaranged Joe Mabel OliverN5 diamond geezer James.Stringer aaranged Alan Light José López failing_angel mobbotaxi BenRogersWPG failing_angel Warren Elsmore Olivier Bruchez bensons aaranged UK Government k_tjaaa terencechisholm Andrew and Annemarie Olivier Bruchez gadgetdude Alex Adkins theducks Olivier Bruchez dconvertini daves_archive _inactive at current time failing_angel In Memoriam: PhillipC aaranged DanieVDM jimg944 hyku failing_angel failing_angel jpundt79 aaranged failing_angel tsaiid Angela Llop failing_angel Boston Public Library failing_angel failing_angel jimg944 tournorfolk Kincuri aaranged crux catalyst bandarji Olivier Bruchez failing_angel gadgetdude Steve Cherrier Dorron Jorge Franganillo stevecadman failing_angel failing_angel stusmith_uk jon.roberts wallyg dzhingarov stevecadman Hyougushi daves_archive _inactive at current time Leonard Bentley failing_angel RachelC crux catalyst James.Stringer One lucky guy Robert Scarth failing_angel failing_angel David McKelvey Sandra Moy Dougtone otubo jpundt79 dbaron jericho1ne failing_angel failing_angel stusmith_uk budgetplaces.com kmoliver OliverN5 failing_angel Boobook48 failing_angel Deseronto Archives Veronique Debord AESanfacon Catholic Church (England and Wales) Mark Wordy marttj Dougtone amandabhslater psd failing_angel Leonard Bentley Joe Shlabotnik Pesky Library Claudia De Facci LostCarPark budgetplaces.com @bastique gm_lo Rennett Stowe bshamblen DG Jones Gail Frederick J. Gustavo Góngora Mark Fischer RC_Fotos Paul Miller garryknight EvelynHill J. Gustavo Góngora bryan... Commonwealth Secretariat Serithian James.Stringer J. Gustavo Góngora J. Gustavo Góngora Ben Sutherland Dougtone failing_angel Pjposullivan1 failing_angel Dougtone failing_angel @dino mcoughlin DanieVDM serena_tang AESanfacon jmc4 - Church Explorer amandabhslater @bastique Owen Blacker Toni Birrer failing_angel Jessicastjohn GoSporranGo Catholic Church (England and Wales) carolyngifford ell brown Karen Roe timjeby Alaskan Dude KJGarbutt [email protected] David Baggins Toni Birrer Dougtone timjeby wuestenigel Gene Hunt Shakespearesmonkey rafitorres Ben Sutherland Dougtone

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is an Anglican church in the City of Westminster, London, England. Since 1066, it has been the location of the coronations of 39 English and British monarchs, and a burial site for 18 English, Scottish and British monarchs. At least 16 royal weddings have occurred at the abbey since 1100.

Although the origins of the church are obscure, there was certainly an abbey operating on the site by the mid-10th century, housing Benedictine monks. The church got its first grand building in the 1060s under the auspices of the English king Edward the Confessor, who is buried inside. Construction of the present church began in 1245 on the orders of Henry III. The monastery was dissolved in 1559 and the church was made a royal peculiar—a Church of...Read more

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is an Anglican church in the City of Westminster, London, England. Since 1066, it has been the location of the coronations of 39 English and British monarchs, and a burial site for 18 English, Scottish and British monarchs. At least 16 royal weddings have occurred at the abbey since 1100.

Although the origins of the church are obscure, there was certainly an abbey operating on the site by the mid-10th century, housing Benedictine monks. The church got its first grand building in the 1060s under the auspices of the English king Edward the Confessor, who is buried inside. Construction of the present church began in 1245 on the orders of Henry III. The monastery was dissolved in 1559 and the church was made a royal peculiar—a Church of England church responsible directly to the sovereign—by Elizabeth I. In 1987, the abbey, together with the Palace of Westminster and St. Margaret's Church, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site because of its outstanding universal value.

The Gothic architecture of the church is chiefly inspired by French and English styles from the 13th century, although some sections of the church show earlier Romanesque styles or later Baroque and modern styles. The Henry VII Chapel at the east end of the church is a typical example of Perpendicular Gothic architecture, and was called by the antiquarian John Leland the orbis miraculum (the wonder of the world).

The abbey is the burial site of more than 3,300 people, many of prominence in British history: monarchs, prime ministers, poets laureate, actors, scientists, military leaders, and the Unknown Warrior. The fame of the figures buried there has led to the abbey being called a "National Valhalla".

Although historians agree that there was a monastery dedicated to St. Peter on the site prior to the 11th century, its exact origin is somewhat obscure. One legend claims that it was founded by the Saxon King of Essex Sæberht, and another that its founder was the fictional 2nd-century British king Lucius.[1] One tradition claims that a young fisherman on the River Thames had a vision of Saint Peter near the site. This seems to have been quoted as the origin of the salmon that Thames fishermen offered to the abbey, a custom still observed annually by the Fishmongers' Company.[2] The recorded origins of the abbey date to the 960s or early 970s, when Saint Dunstan and King Edgar installed a community of Benedictine monks on the site.[3] At that time, the location was an island in the middle of the River Thames called Thorn Ey.[4] The buildings from this time would have been wooden, and have not survived.[5]

11th century: Edward the Confessor's abbey

Between 1042 and 1052, Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St. Peter's Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church. It was built in the Romanesque style and was the first church in England built on a cruciform floorplan.[6] The master stonemason for the project was Leofsi Duddason,[7] with Godwin and Wendelburh Gretsyd (meaning "fat purse") as patrons, and Teinfrith as "churchwright", probably meaning someone who worked on the carpentry and roof.[8] Increased endowments supported a community that increased from a dozen monks during Dunstan's time, up to as many as eighty monks.[9] The building was completed around 1060 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066.[10] A week later, he was buried in the church; nine years later, his wife Edith was buried alongside him.[11] His successor, Harold Godwinson, was probably crowned here, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror later that year.[12]

The only extant depiction of Edward's abbey is in the Bayeux Tapestry. The foundations still survive under the present church, and above ground, some of the lower parts of the monastic dormitory survive in the undercroft, including a door said to come from the previous Saxon abbey. It was a little smaller than the current church, with a central tower.[13]

In 1103, thirty-seven years after his death, Edward's tomb was re-opened by Abbot Gilbert Crispin and Henry I, who discovered that his body was still in perfect condition. This was considered proof of his saintliness, and he was canonised in 1161. Two years later he was moved to a new shrine, during which time his ring was removed and placed in the abbey's collection.[14]

A medieval tapestry of a group of people carrying Edward the Confessor's coffin towards Westminster Abbey. 
Westminster Abbey at the time of Edward the Confessor's funeral, as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry, 11th century
refer to caption 
Plan showing relative positions of the 11th-century church (in red) and the present church (in blue)
A stone room with a vaulted ceiling an an altar. 
The Chamber of the Pyx, one of the few remaining 11th-century sections of the church
13th–14th centuries: Construction of the present church

The abbot and monks, being adjacent to the Palace of Westminster (the seat of government from the late 13th century), became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest, with the Abbot of Westminster taking a seat in the House of Lords. The abbot remained lord of the manor of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand people grew around the abbey: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale, the abbey helped fuel the town's economy, and relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages.[15]

Westminster Abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings, but none were buried there until Henry III began to rebuild it in the Gothic style as a shrine to venerate King Edward the Confessor, as a competitor to match the great French churches such as Rheims Cathedral and Sainte-Chapelle,[16] and as a burial place for himself and his family.[17] Edward's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonisation.[3] Construction began on 6 July 1245 under Henry's master mason, Henry of Reynes.[7] The first building stage included the entire eastern end, the transepts, and the easternmost bay of the nave. The Lady Chapel, built from around 1220 at the extreme eastern end, was incorporated into the chevet of the new building, but has since been replaced by the Henry VII Chapel. Around 1253, Henry of Reynes was replaced by John of Gloucester, who was replaced by Robert of Beverley around 1260.[18] During the summer, there were up to 400 workers on the site at a time,[19] including stonecutters, marblers, stone-layers, carpenters, painters and their assistants, marble polishers, smiths, glaziers, plumbers, and general labourers.[20] From 1257, Henry III held assemblies of local representatives in Westminster Abbey's chapter house, which were a precursor to the House of Commons. Henry III also commissioned the Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar.[21] Further building work carried the nave an additional five bays, bringing it to one bay west of the choir. Here, construction stopped in about 1269. By 1261 alone Henry had spent £29,345 19s 8d on the abbey, and the final sum may have been in the region of £50,000.[22] A consecration ceremony was held on 13 October 1269, during which the remains of Edward the Confessor were moved to their present location at the shrine behind the main altar,[23] but after Henry's death and burial in the abbey in 1272, construction did not resume and Edward the Confessor's old Romanesque nave remained attached to the new building for over a century.[18]

In 1296, Edward I captured the Scottish coronation stone, the Stone of Scone, and had a Coronation Chair made to hold it, which he entrusted to the abbot at Westminster Abbey.[24] In 1303, the small crypt underneath the chapter house was broken into and a great deal of the king's treasure stolen. It was thought that the thieves must have been helped by the abbey monks, fifty of whom were subsequently imprisoned in the Tower of London.[25]

From 1376, Abbot Nicholas Litlyngton[26] and Richard II donated large sums to finish the church, and the remainder of the old nave was pulled down and rebuilding recommenced, with his mason, Henry Yevele, closely following the original (and by then outdated) design.[27] During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, Richard prayed at Edward the Confessor's shrine for "divine aid when human counsel was altogether wanting" before meeting the rebels at Smithfield. To this day, the abbey holds his full-length portrait, the earliest of an English king, on display near the west door.[28] However, building work was not to be fully completed for many years. Henry V, disappointed with the abbey's unfinished state, gave extra funds towards the rebuilding, and in his will left instructions for a chantry chapel to be built over his tomb, which can be viewed from ground level today.[29] Building work finally reached the end of the nave, finishing with the west window, in 1495.[30]

Under Henry VII, the 13th-century Lady Chapel was demolished and rebuilt in a Perpendicular style, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1503 (known as the "Henry VII Chapel" or the "Lady Chapel"). The chapel was finished c.1519.[27] Henry's original reason for building such a grand chapel was to have a place suitable for the burial of another saint alongside the Confessor, as he planned on having Henry VI canonised. The Pope asked Henry VII for a large sum of money to achieve sainthood for his predecessor, which he was not willing to hand over, and so instead Henry VII is buried in the centre of the chapel with his wife, Elizabeth of York.[31]

A view of the abbey dated 1532 shows a lantern tower above the crossing,[32] but it is not shown in any later depiction. It is unlikely that the loss of this feature was caused by any catastrophic event, but structural failure seems more likely.[33] However, other sources maintain that a lantern tower was never built. The current squat pyramid dates from the 18th century; the painted wooden ceiling below it was installed during repairs to wartime bomb damage.[34]

In the early 16th century, a project began under Abbot John Islip to add two towers to the western end of the church. These were partially built up to the roof level of the church when building work stopped because of the uncertainty caused by the English Reformation.[35]

The inside of Westminster Abbey north transept, with a high vaulted ceiling and a rose window at the end. 
The north transept, completed in the 13th century during the reign of Henry III
The inside of Westminster Abbey's nave, with a high vaulted ceiling and large stained-glass window at the end. 
The west end of the nave, designed by Henry Yevele and completed in 1495
The inside of Westminster Abbey's nave, with a high vaulted ceiling. 
The vault of the nave, looking west from the crossing
A painting of Richard II, wearing a crown, sitting on a grand chair, and holding an orb and sceptre. 
Coronation portrait of Richard II, on display in the abbey
16th–17th centuries: Dissolution and Reformation

In the 1530s, Henry VIII broke away from the authority of the Catholic Church in Rome and seized control of England's monasteries, including Westminster Abbey, beginning the English Reformation and seizing control of monasteries across the country.[36] In 1535, when the king's officers assessed the abbey's funds, their annual income was £3,000.[37] Henry's agents removed many relics, saints' images, and treasures from the abbey: the golden feretory that housed the coffin of Edward the Confessor was melted down, and the monks even hid his bones to save them from destruction.[38] Henry VIII assumed direct control of the abbey in 1539 and granted it the status of a cathedral by charter in 1540, simultaneously issuing letters patent establishing the Diocese of Westminster. By granting the abbey cathedral status, Henry VIII gained an excuse to spare it from the destruction or dissolution which he inflicted on most English abbeys during this period.[39] The abbot, William Benson, instead became dean of the cathedral, while the prior and five of the monks were among the twelve newly created canons.[40]

The Westminster diocese was dissolved in 1550, but the abbey was recognised (in 1552, retroactively to 1550) as a second cathedral of the Diocese of London until 1556.[41] The already-old expression "robbing Peter to pay Paul" may have been given a new lease of life when money meant for the abbey, which is dedicated to Saint Peter, was diverted to the treasury of St. Paul's Cathedral.[42]

The abbey saw the return of Benedictine monks under the Catholic Mary I, but they were again ejected under Elizabeth I in 1559.[43] In 1560, Elizabeth re-established Westminster as a "royal peculiar" – a church of the Church of England responsible directly to the sovereign, rather than to a diocesan bishop – and made it the Collegiate Church of St. Peter (that is, a non-cathedral church with an attached chapter of canons, headed by a dean). From this date onwards, although the building is still called an abbey, it is, strictly speaking, simply a church.[44] Elizabeth also re-founded Westminster School, providing for 40 students known as the King's (or Queen's) Scholars and their schoolmasters. The King's Scholars have the duty of shouting Vivat Rex or Vivat Regina ("Long live the King/Queen") during the coronation of a new monarch. To this day, the Dean of Westminster Abbey remains the chair of the school governors.[23]

In the early 17th century, the abbey hosted two of the six companies of churchmen, led by Lancelot Andrewes, Dean of Westminster, who translated the King James Version of the Bible.[45]

In 1642, the English Civil War broke out between Charles I and his own Parliament. The Dean and Chapter fled the abbey at the outbreak of war, and were replaced by priests loyal to Parliament.[46] The abbey itself suffered damage during the war, when altars, stained glass, the organ and the crown jewels were damaged or destroyed.[47] Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell was given an elaborate funeral there in 1658, only for a body thought to be Cromwell's to be disinterred in January 1661 and posthumously hanged from a gibbet at Tyburn.[48] In 1669, the abbey was visited by the diarist Samuel Pepys, who saw the body of the 15th-century queen Catherine de Valois. She had been buried in the 13th-century Lady Chapel in 1437, but was exhumed during building work for the Henry VII Chapel and not reburied in the intervening 150 years. Pepys leaned into the coffin and kissed her on the mouth, writing "This was my birthday, thirty-six years old and I did first kiss a queen." She has since been re-interred close to her husband, Henry V.[49] In 1685, during preparations for the coronation of James II, a workman accidentally put a scaffolding pole through the coffin of Edward the Confessor. A chorister, Charles Taylour, pulled a cross on a chain out of the coffin and gave it to the king, who then gave it to the Pope. Its whereabouts today are unknown.[50]

18th–19th centuries: Western towers constructed
The west front, before and after the construction of the western towers
An engraving of Westminster Abbey's western facade without towers 
Westminster Abbey's western facade with two towers 

At the end of the 17th century, the architect Sir Christopher Wren was appointed the abbey's first Surveyor of the Fabric, and began a project to restore the exterior of the church,[35] which was continued by his successor, William Dickinson.[47] After over two hundred years, the abbey's two western towers were finally built between 1722 and 1745 by Nicholas Hawksmoor and John James, constructed from Portland stone to an early example of a Gothic Revival design. Purbeck marble was used for the walls and the floors, although the various tombstones are made of different types of marble.[51]

During an earthquake in 1750, the top of one of the piers on the north side fell, with the iron and lead that had fastened it. Several houses fell in, and many chimneys were damaged. Another shock had been felt during the preceding month.[52]

On 11 November 1760, the funeral of George II was held at the abbey and the king was interred next to his late wife, Caroline of Ansbach. He left instructions for the sides of his and his wife's coffins to be removed so that their remains could mingle.[53] He was the last monarch to be buried in the abbey.[54] Similarly, during this period the tomb of Richard II had developed a hole through which visitors could put their hand. Several of his bones went missing, including a jawbone, which was taken by a boy from Westminster School and kept in the family until 1906, when it was returned to the abbey.[55]

In the 1830s, the previous screen dividing the nave from the choir, which had been designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, was replaced by one designed by Edward Blore. The screen contains the monuments for the scientist Isaac Newton and the military general James Stanhope.[56]

Further rebuilding and restoration occurred in the 19th century under the architect George Gilbert Scott, who rebuilt the façade of the north transept, changing the rose window and porches on that side,[57] and designed a new altar and reredos for the crossing.[58] A narthex (a portico or entrance hall) for the west front was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in the mid-20th century but was not built.[59]

20th century
A large grey stone with two rings attached, propped up on two smaller stones. 
Replica of the Stone of Scone at Scone Palace in Scotland

The abbey saw "Prayers For Prisoners" suffragette protests in 1913 and 1914. Protesters attended services and interrupted proceedings by chanting "God Save Mrs. Pankhurst" and praying for suffragette prisoners. In one protest, a woman chained herself to her chair during a sermon by the Archbishop of Canterbury.[60] On 11 June 1914, a bomb planted by suffragettes of the Women's Social and Political Union exploded inside the abbey.[61] The abbey was busy with visitors, with around 80–100 people in the building at the time of the explosion.[62][63] Some were as close as 20 yards (18 m) from the bomb and the explosion caused a panic for the exits, but no serious injuries were reported.[63] The bomb blew off a corner of the Coronation Chair.[61] It also caused the Stone of Scone to break in half, although this was not discovered until 1950, when four Scottish nationalists broke into the church to steal the stone and return it to Scotland.[61] The bomb had been packed with nuts and bolts to act as shrapnel.[63] The event was part of a campaign of bombing and arson attacks carried out by suffragettes nationwide between 1912 and 1914.[64] Churches were a particular target, as it was believed that the Church of England was complicit in reinforcing opposition to women's suffrage – 32 churches were attacked nationwide between 1913 and 1914.[63][65] Coincidentally, at the time of the explosion, the House of Commons only 100 yards (90 m) away was debating how to deal with the violent tactics of the suffragettes.[63] Many in the Commons heard the explosion and rushed to the scene.[63] Two days after the Westminster Abbey bombing, a second suffragette bomb was discovered before it could explode in St. Paul's Cathedral.[64]

Westminster suffered minor damage during the Blitz on 15 November 1940. On 10/11 May 1941, the Westminster Abbey precincts and roof were hit by incendiary bombs.[66] Although the Auxiliary Fire Service and the abbey's own fire-watchers were able to stop the fire spreading to the whole of the church, the deanery and three residences of abbey clergy and staff were badly damaged, and the lantern tower above the crossing collapsed, leaving the abbey open to the sky.[67] The cost of the damage was estimated at £135,000.[68] Some damage can still be seen in the RAF Chapel, where a small hole in the wall was created by a bomb that fell outside the chapel.[69]

Because of its outstanding universal value, the abbey was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987, together with the nearby Palace of Westminster and St. Margaret's Church.[70]

In 1997, the abbey, which was then receiving approximately 1.75 million visitors each year, began charging admission fees to visitors at the door[71] (although a fee for entering the eastern half of the church had existed prior to 1600).[72]

21st century

In June 2009 the first major building work in 250 years was proposed.[73] A corona – a crown-like architectural feature – was suggested to be built around the lantern over the central crossing, replacing an existing pyramidal structure dating from the 1950s.[74] This was part of a wider £23m development of the abbey completed in 2013.[73] On 4 August 2010, the Dean and Chapter announced that, "[a]fter a considerable amount of preliminary and exploratory work", efforts toward the construction of a corona would not be continued.[75]

refer to caption 
Conservators carrying out restoration work on the Cosmati pavement, 2009

The Cosmati pavement was re-dedicated by the Dean at a service on 21 May 2010 after undergoing a major cleaning and conservation programme.[76] On 17 September 2010, Pope Benedict XVI became the first pope to set foot in the abbey,[77] and on 29 April 2011, the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton took place at the abbey.[78]

In 2018, the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Galleries were created in the medieval triforium. This is a display area for the abbey's treasures in the galleries high up around the sanctuary. A new Gothic access tower with lift was designed by the abbey architect and Surveyor of the Fabric, Ptolemy Dean.[79][80]

In 2020, a 13th-century sacristy was uncovered in the grounds of the abbey as part of an archaeological excavation. The sacristy was used by the monks of the abbey to store objects used in the Mass, such as vestments and chalices. Also on the site were hundreds of burials, mostly of abbey monks.[81]

On 10 March 2021, a vaccination centre opened in Poets' Corner to administer doses of COVID-19 vaccines.[82]

^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 10. ^ Cavendish, Richard (12 December 2015). "The consecration of Westminster Abbey". History Today. Retrieved 7 February 2023. ^ a b Page 1909. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 11. ^ Westlake 1927, pp. 51–52. ^ Wilkinson 2013, p. 6. ^ a b Corrigan 2018, p. 148. ^ Corrigan 2018, p. 159. ^ Harvey 1993, p. 2. ^ Fernie 2009, pp. 139–143. ^ Stafford 2009, p. 137. ^ Carr 1999, p. 2. ^ Trowles 2008, p. 8. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 11. ^ Harvey 1993, p. 6. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 27. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 16. ^ a b Jenkyns 2004, p. 12. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 17. ^ Corrigan 2018, p. 56. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, pp. 17–18. ^ Corrigan 2018, p. 41. ^ a b Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 7. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 23. ^ Wilkinson 2013, p. 41. ^ Trowles 2008, p. 10. ^ a b Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England) 1924. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, pp. 27–29. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, pp. 30–33. ^ Trowles 2008, p. 11. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 53. ^ Rodwell 2010, p. 17. ^ Rodwell 2010, pp. 23–28. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 34. ^ a b Jenkyns 2004, p. 13. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 43. ^ Harvey 2007. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 44. ^ Dixon 1908. ^ Horn 1992, pp. 65–67. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 56. ^ Brewer 2001, p. 923. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, pp. 45–47. ^ "England by Diocese". Anglicans online. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018. ^ "HM The Queen attends King James Bible Service". Westminster Abbey. 16 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 53. ^ a b Jenkyns 2004, p. 64. ^ Ashley, Maurice; Morrill, John S. "Oliver Cromwell: Administration As Lord Protector". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 21 February 2023. Retrieved 2 March 2023. ^ Wilkinson 2013, p. 19. ^ Wilkinson 2013, p. 16. ^ "Nicholas Hawksmoor". Westminster Abbey. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018. ^ Thornbury 1878, pp. 401–411. ^ Black 2007, p. 253. ^ Wilkinson & Knighton 2010, p. 57. ^ Wilkinson 2013, pp. 16–18. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 113. ^ Scott 1863, pp. 41–43, 56–58. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 154. ^ Lutyens, Edwin Landseer (1943). "Preliminary designs for a proposed narthex for Westminster Abbey". Royal Institute of British Architects. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022. ^ "Westminster Abbey (The Collegiate Church of St Peter), Non Civil Parish – 1291494 | Historic England". Historic England. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2023. ^ a b c Webb 2014, p. 148. ^ Walker, Rebecca (2020). "Deeds, Not Words: The Suffragettes and Early Terrorism in the City of London". The London Journal. 45 (1): 59. doi:10.1080/03058034.2019.1687222. ISSN 0305-8034. S2CID 212994082. ^ a b c d e f Jones 2016, p. 65. ^ a b Riddell, Fern (6 February 2018). "Suffragettes, violence and militancy". The British Library. Archived from the original on 30 December 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2021. ^ Bearman, C. J. (2005). "An Examination of Suffragette Violence". The English Historical Review. 120 (486): 378. doi:10.1093/ehr/cei119. ISSN 0013-8266. JSTOR 3490924. ^ "General Structure of the Abbey Intact". The Scotsman. 13 May 1941. p. 5. Retrieved 31 January 2023. ^ "Famous London buildings severely damaged". Irish Independent. 12 May 1941. p. 5. Retrieved 31 January 2023. ^ "Westminster Abbey: £135,000 Damage in Raids". Belfast News-Letter. 17 May 1941. p. 6. Retrieved 31 January 2023. ^ Wilkinson 2013, p. 22. ^ Cite error: The named reference :5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Westminster Abbey now example of how to handle tourists". Episcopal News Service. 6 March 2002. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017. ^ Jenkyns 2004, p. 112. ^ a b "Building work announced for Abbey". BBC News. 28 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 October 2022. Retrieved 29 June 2009. ^ Kennedy, Maev (29 June 2009). "Dean lines up new crown shaped roof for Westminster Abbey". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2009. ^ "Abbey Development Plan Update". Westminster Abbey. 4 August 2010. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2010. ^ "Cosmati pavement". Westminster Abbey. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013. ^ Schjonberg, Mary Frances (17 September 2010). "Benedict becomes first pope to visit Lambeth, Westminster Abbey". Episcopal Life Online. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2010. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "The Queen opens The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Galleries with the Prince of Wales". Royal.UK. 8 June 2018. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Brown, Mark (23 August 2020). "Lost medieval sacristy uncovered at Westminster Abbey". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 December 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2023. ^ Vanderhoof, Erin (23 March 2021). "Kate and William Visit One of the U.K.'s Most Surprising Vaccination Clinics". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 24 June 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
Photographies by:
Niels Elgaard Larsen - (WT-en) Elgaard at English Wikivoyage - CC BY-SA 4.0
Statistics: Position (field_position)
1035
Statistics: Rank (field_order)
93932

Add new comment

Esta pregunta es para comprobar si usted es un visitante humano y prevenir envíos de spam automatizado.

Security
746813529Click/tap this sequence: 4959

Google street view

Where can you sleep near Westminster Abbey ?

Booking.com
397.653 visits in total, 8.863 Points of interest, 395 Destinations, 84 visits today.