Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen

วัดปากน้ำ ภาษีเจริญ

( Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen )

Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen (Thai: วัดปากน้ำภาษีเจริญ, RTGS: Wat Paknam Phasi Charoen) is a royal wat ('temple') located in Phasi Charoen district, Bangkok, at the Chao Phraya River. It is part of the Maha Nikaya fraternity and is the origin of the Dhammakaya tradition. It is a large and popular temple, supported by prosperous community members.

Wat Paknam was established in 1610, during the Ayutthaya period, and received support from Thai kings until the late nineteenth century. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the temple had become nearly abandoned and had fallen into disrepair. The temple underwent a major revival and became widely known under the leadership of the meditation master Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro, who was abbot there in the first half of the twentie...Read more

Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen (Thai: วัดปากน้ำภาษีเจริญ, RTGS: Wat Paknam Phasi Charoen) is a royal wat ('temple') located in Phasi Charoen district, Bangkok, at the Chao Phraya River. It is part of the Maha Nikaya fraternity and is the origin of the Dhammakaya tradition. It is a large and popular temple, supported by prosperous community members.

Wat Paknam was established in 1610, during the Ayutthaya period, and received support from Thai kings until the late nineteenth century. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the temple had become nearly abandoned and had fallen into disrepair. The temple underwent a major revival and became widely known under the leadership of the meditation master Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro, who was abbot there in the first half of the twentieth century. Seven years after Luang Pu's death, Somdet Chuang Varapuñño became the new abbot until his death in 2021. Somdet Chuang made international headlines from 2015 onward, when his appointment as Supreme Patriarch (acting head of the Thai monastic community) was stalled and finally withdrawn, due to reasons generally interpreted as political. This has led to heated debate and protests in Thailand. As part of this process, Somdet Chuang and his assistant were accused of tax fraud. It turned out that there was not sufficient reason to charge Somdet Chuang, however. As for the charges remaining against his assistant, the latter was later acquitted due to lack of evidence, two days after Somdet Chuang's nomination as Patriarch was withdrawn.

Wat Paknam is known for its charity and a nationwide project to propagate the five precepts in Thai society. The temple is popular among mae chi (nuns). One of its mae chi, Mae chi Chandra Khonnokyoong, went on to establish another temple which later became widely known: Wat Phra Dhammakaya. Wat Paknam has an international presence and has a long history of activities and contact with Buddhists from other countries. In 2012, Somdet Chuang finished building a huge stupa at the temple, named "Maharatchamongkhon", complete with interior Buddhist art. In 2021, construction was completed of a large bronze Buddha image, placed in front of the stupa. The stupa and the statue has made the temple a popular attraction for international tourists.

Pre-modern times (1610–1915)

Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen is a royal wat ('temple') located in Phasi Charoen district, Bangkok, at the Chao Phraya River. Wat Paknam was established in 1610, during the Ayutthaya period.[1] Records indicate that King Suriyenthrathibodi (1703–1709) called the temple "Wat Prasat Suan Sawan"(วัดปราสาทสวนสวรรค์; literally: 'temple of the heavenly garden palace'). However, the name "Wat Paknam" and "Wat Paknam at the river Bang Luang" (วัดปากน้ำในคลองบางหลวง) appear in historical documents of palace administration from 1780 onward.[2][3] Paknam simply means 'lock in canal', which refers to the position of the temple.[4] The temple was renovated at least three times, during the periods of King Taksin, Rama III, and King Chulalongkorn (eighteenth–early twentieth century).[2] However, during the period of King Rama VI (1881–1925), the temple had greatly deteriorated and had no abbot.[5]

Revival by Luang Pu Sodh (1916–59)
Statue of Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen, placed above his coffin.

In 1916, senior monk Somdet Puean assigned Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro (1884–1959) as abbot.[6][note 1] Luang Pu Sodh was known for his charisma and outspokenness.[10] The temple underwent a major change after he became the abbot, from a temple with only thirteen monks that was in disrepair, to a prosperous center of education and meditation practice with five hundred monks (the highest in Thailand at the time) and hundreds of mae chi.[2][11] The temple became well known through Luang Pu Sodh's meditation method.[12] Apart from teaching meditation, Luang Pu Sodh also built a school for Pali studies in 1950, which became a leading institute of the country.[13] Luang Pu Sodh has had a lasting impact on the temple, as his teachings and guided meditations are still sold at the temple today and his promotion of Buddhist scholarship has still continued. In the time of Luang Pu Sodh, the temple became popular with and well-supported by a prosperous community of high social class, mostly from the Bangkok area.[14] To compensate for the lack of local supporters, and at the same time dealing with the problem of local delinquent children causing trouble for the temple, Luang Pu Sodh set up a free primary school. Later, when the Thai government set up schooling all over the country, Luang Pu Sodh had the government take over the school.[15]

Luang Pu Sodh died in 1959, and his body has been kept in a coffin. The coffin is still a major point of attraction for the temple. His remains have not been cremated, because of the large number of people still visiting the temple to pay their respects.[14][16] Monastics at the temple still hold memorial ceremonies on a regular basis.[17]

One of the most significant parts of Luang Pu Sodh's heritage is the combination of learning and meditation, both in monastic practice and teaching to laypeople.[18][19]

Somdet Chuang Varapuñño as abbot (1960–2012)

When Luang Pu Sodh passed away in 1959, no successors were appointed, which led to discussion about who should be the next abbot.[20][21] For seven years, Somdet Pun Punnasiri, who was a nephew and former attendant of Luang Pu Sodh, was caretaker abbot, waiting for a permanent candidate.[21][22][note 2] He was replaced by Somdet Chuang Varapuñño (born 1925).[23]

Somdet Chuang Varapuñño.

Somdet Chuang, born Chuang Sutprasert,[24] was ordained as a samanera (novice) when he was fourteen years old in 1939, in his hometown in Samutprakan. He heard about Luang Pu Sodh's reputation and aspired to move to Wat Paknam. Two years later, his teacher allowed him to do so, and he lived as a novice at Wat Paknam until he was fully ordained there in 1945, as a monk under Luang Pu Sodh.[25][26] After Somdet Chuang ordained, Luang Pu Sodh saw his potential and had him continue his Pali studies and work as a secretary at Wat Benchamabophit to the fourteenth Supreme Patriarch Somdet Plot [th], who had a reputation for strict discipline. Somdet Chuang learned about the management of temples from him. In reflection, Somdet Chuang has stated about this period that he "learned from different temples, because a temple is also a sort of teacher". After completing his Pali studies, Luang Pu Sodh had Somdet Chuang come back to Wat Paknam to learn about the work at Wat Paknam.[25][26][27]

Somdet Chuang is known to rarely give interviews or answer questions of journalists. However, he has shown strong engagement with Thai society. In 2014, he asked the Thai government to do more to support the monks in the South, who suffer because of the insurgency there. He has also promoted ethics in Thai society, requesting television stations to remind viewers of the five Buddhist precepts during their broadcasts, and reminding viewers himself in a 2016 television broadcast of the Magha Puja festival.[23][28] Since the time of his appointment as an abbot, the temple's activities have expanded, and in 1969, King Bhumibol Adulyadej led the Kathina ceremony at the temple.[29]

Somdet Chuang used to be monastic Chief of Region in the Northeast, South and North, respectively.[26][30] He later became Chief of the Northern Region and supervised missionary work abroad (ธรรมทูต, thammatut, Pali: dhammadūta), as well as Pali studies.[25][31][32] Moreover, Somdet Chuang significantly contributed to the compiling of a special Tipitaka set in honor of King Bhumibol's sixtieth anniversary.[33] In recognition of his merits, he received honorary degrees from the Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University (MCU), Thammasart University and Sripatum University in Thailand.[31][34][35] He received the royal honorific names Phrasrivisuddhimoli (in 1956), Phraratchavethi (in 1962), Phrathepwarawethi (in 1967), Phra Thamthirarathmahamuni (in 1973), Phrathampanyabodi (in 1987) and Phra Maha Ratchamangalacharn (in 1995).[25][26] His last honorific made him officially a member of the Supreme Sangha Council.[25][31] He has presided over meetings of the council since 2005, when he became the acting Supreme Patriarch.[36][24]

Although the number of monks and mae chi has decreased since the time of Luang Pu Sodh, the temple still boasts a number of 200–400 monks, 80–150 novices, 160–300 mae chi ('nuns') and 30–100 resident volunteers, as reported in the 1990s and 2000s.[37]

Appointment as Supreme Patriarch stalled (2013–15)
Somdet Chuang Varapuñño presiding over a ceremony.

After the deaths of Somdet Phra Yanasangworn and caretaker Somdet Kiaw in 2013, Somdet Chuang became the acting Supreme Patriarch.[38][39] However, he did not receive the full position, as the Thai junta refused to forward the nomination to the King for approval.[40][41][42]

In December 2013, during the protests which led up to the 2014 coup d'état, Somdet Chuang made a public statement opposing the protests, asking protest leaders Phra Suwit Dhiradhammo [th] and Suthep Thaugsuban to stop causing civil unrest, in respect of King Bhumibol's birthday.[43][44] After the coup d'état, the junta started a National Reform Council to bring stability to Thai society, which the junta stated was required before elections could be held.[45] As part of the council, a panel was started to reform Thai religion. This panel was led by Paiboon Nititawan, a former senator who had played a crucial role in the coup. Backed by the bureaucracy, military and Royal Palace, Paiboon sought to deal with any shortcomings in the leading Thai Sangha through legislative means. He was joined by coup leader Phra Suwit Dhiradhammo (known under the activist name Phra Phuttha Issara), a then monk and former infantryman.[36][46]

On 5 January 2016, Somdet Chuang had been nominated by the Supreme Sangha Council to take the post of Supreme Patriarch officially. Phra Suwit objected to this nomination, and held a petition to stop it, which succeeded.[32][36] Moreover, in February 2015, Paiboon tried to reopen the 1999 case of Luang Por Dhammajayo's alleged embezzlement of land.[36][47] Somdet Chuang and the rest of the Sangha Council were also involved in this, as they were accused of being negligent in not defrocking Luang Por Dhammajayo.[32] First, the Sangha Council reconsidered the embezzlement and fraud charges, but concluded that Luang Por Dhammajayo had not intended to commit fraud or embezzlement, and had already returned the land concerned; after that, Phra Suwit enlisted the help of the Ombudsman, who asked the General-Attorney and the National Office of Buddhism to reconsider the criminal law case of embezzlement.[48][49]

Next, Phra Suwit Dhiradhammo led two hundred soldiers and civilians to pay a visit to Wat Paknam. He made an offering to Somdet Chuang and asked several critical questions with regard to the verdict of innocence of Luang Por Dhammajayo. The questions were answered by Sangha Council secretary Phra Suchat Dhammaratano (see § Practices and propagation, below) on Somdet Chuang's behalf. Critics interpreted Phra Suwit's visit, followed by his PR through social media, as aggressive, disrespectful, and inappropriate for a monk, and Phra Maha Show, administrator at the MCU, filed a lawsuit against Phra Suwit.[50][51] At this point, criticism against the reform panel rose. Several Thai intellectuals and news analysts asserted that Paiboon and Phra Suwit were abusing the Vinaya (monastic discipline) for political ends, and did not really aim to reform Buddhism.[45][52][53] A number of Buddhist organizations, as well as the National Office of Buddhism, started to charge online news outlets for libel with regard to Somdet Chuang's person and spreading panic, only to be halted by Somdet Chuang himself. He stated simply: "There is no real problem, you don't have to do anything against them".[54] In February 2016, Chao Khun Prasarn, vice-rector of the MCU, assistant abbot of Wat Mahadhatu, and proponent of Somdet Chuang's appointment,[55][56] held a protest of over a thousand of Thai monks in the Phutthamonthon Park, as a response to the postponing of the appointment.[57][58] He demanded that the Thai junta not interfere with the Sangha's affairs, in particular the appointment of the next Supreme Patriarch. The junta responded by sending soldiers to control the site, and it came to a few scuffles. At 9 pm, the protest was ended when the monks announced they would repeat their protests if their demands were not met.[59] However, the junta saw the protests as another reason to stall the appointment.[60]

Inside the museum at Wat Paknam

In response to the rising tensions, eventually junta Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-o-cha intervened and brought an end to the attempt to revive the embezzlement case: it had already been closed in 2006 by the then Attorney-General. He also dissolved the religious panel of the reform council. Paiboon and Phra Suwit continued to address the leading Sangha's shortcomings through judicial means, however, and cited these shortcomings to support the stalling of the appointment.[36][50] Meanwhile, Chao Khun Prasarn was sent to an "attitude adjustment" camp for some time.[61][note 3]

News analysts and scholars have suggested several underlying motivations to explain the conflicts with regard to Somdet Chuang's appointment. It has been pointed out that if Somdet Chuang were to become Supreme Patriarch, it would mean a leader from the Maha Nikaya fraternity, rather than the Dhammayuttika fraternity, which historically has always been the preferred choice by the Thai government and monarchy.[63][64] They also suggested that an important reason for the stalling is that Somdet Chuang is the preceptor (the person who ordained) Luang Por Dhammajayo, abbot of Wat Phra Dhammakaya, and Wat Phra Dhammakaya has been associated with the Red Shirt pressure group, opposing the junta.[32][65][64] As part of the junta's efforts to "de-Thaksinize" the country, i.e. free the country from former PM Thaksin's influence, Wat Paknam and Wat Phra Dhammakaya's influence had to be limited too.[66][64]

The relation between Wat Paknam and Wat Phra Dhammakaya had been subject of speculation since 1999, when Wat Phra Dhammakaya was accused by Phra Adisak Viriyasakko, a former monk of Wat Phra Dhammakaya, of embezzlement and other wrongdoings through a report of television station iTV.[67] Somdet Chuang was displeased by the report and had Phra Adisak leave Wat Paknam,[68] but the latter asked Somdet Chuang for pardon and reconsideration.[69] When Phra Adisak's accusations led to an investigation by the Supreme Sangha Council into Wat Phra Dhammakaya, the council decided there was no need to prosecute Luang Por Dhammajayo, but gave four directives for the abbot to practice.[70] Somdet Chuang's role was disputed as he was both member of the council and preceptor of Luang Por Dhammajayo. In the same year, in an interview with news outlet Thai Rath, Somdet Chuang said he was not favoring Luang Por Dhammajayo, and considered all the accusations in the light of the Vinaya, as a parent would be just to his children.[71] In 2015, nine years after the 1999 charges against Luang Por Dhammajayo had been withdrawn, Paiboon addressed Somdet Chuang's relation with Wat Phra Dhammakaya again. Paiboon pointed out that Somdet Chuang had stated he had received large donations from Wat Phra Dhammakaya for the building of the Phramaharatchamongkhon stupa, which Paiboon believed indicated a relationship of patronage. Chao Khun Prasarn defended Somdet Chuang, however, stating that Somdet Chuang's relation with Luang Por Dhammajayo was typical for a preceptor–student relationship, and that Somdet Chuang had no biases in his role as a Sangha administrator.[36][72]

Withdrawal of appointment (2015–17)
Somdet Chuang Varapuñño (left).

In June 2015, Paiboon and the remaining National Reform Council submitted a number of proposals to reform the Thai Sangha, including increased control of the bank accounts of Thai temples, increased control on monastic disciplinarians, changing the abbots of all Thai temples every five years, and raising taxes for monks, who had been exempt from taxes. Although Sangha Council spokesperson Phra Suchat did understand the need for more financial control, better accounting required nationwide training of abbots, which the National Office of Buddhism had already planned to organize.[73] Furthermore, the Sangha Council protested that the (then still existent) reform council panel should consult them more in their policy-making, and described the measures as "a possible destruction of Buddhism through indirect means".[74] Phra Suchat further criticized the junta: "Previously, when politicians issued new laws or regulations, they did so to facilitate and honor the Sangha to make Buddhism stable in this country. But currently, politicians order monks around, even though they are not always knowledgeable in these matters."[73] Chao Khun Prasarn intended to organize another protest, but was halted by the Sangha Council, who felt that discussion with the junta was becoming more feasible. It seemed the junta was not pushing for new Sangha legislation after all.[75]

Meanwhile, Paiboon and Phra Suwit requested the Department of Special Investigation (DSI), sometimes considered the Thai equivalent of the American FBI,[76] to start an investigation in the assets of the Sangha Council's members, including those of Somdet Chuang. In 2016, the DSI formally summoned Somdet Chuang, because of a vintage car no longer in use, kept in a museum at Wat Paknam. Wat Paknam had asked people to donate second-hand belongings with an educative value to the museum in the stupa. However, the car was not properly registered, which DSI believed was to evade taxes.[77][78][79] There had been an investigation running since 2013 into the car, offered to the temple's museum, which was one of a series of 6000–7000 cars sold, and over which allegedly no tax had been paid. According to a report of newspaper Matichon, the car under investigation was an eighty-old year car that had been fixed by adding new parts to it, before offering it to the museum. Tharit Pengdit, the then director of the DSI, believed Wat Paknam not to be involved in the purported tax evasion.[80] However, Tharit was fired and replaced after the 2014 coup d'état,[81] and the investigation was re-opened when the National Reform Council pushed the DSI to do so. The tax evasion accusation was another reason for the junta to postpone Somdet Chuang's installment.[82] At the same time, Paiboon argued that the nomination of Somdet Chuang by the Sangha Council had been moot from the start, because it had not been done following correct procedure. The Ombudsman agreed with this, but the Council of State [th] dismissed the case, stating it had been done correctly.[83]

Roof of the Phrarathchamongkhon Stupa in Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen.

When in July 2016 it became clear that the junta had still not submitted the appointment of the Supreme Patriarch, Chao Khun Prasarn came out to give the junta an ultimatum of seven days, after which he would "consult with his team what to do next".[60] The junta responded by prohibiting any further gatherings, which had been prohibited under martial law anyway. If Chao Khun Prasarn still continued, he would be sued and defrocked, the junta threatened.[84] In November, the prosecutors decided not to charge Somdet Chuang, because he was not involved in the purchase. They charged attendant Luang Phi Pae instead, and another six people who had taken part in importing the vintage car.[42][85] On 12 January 2017, however, the prosecutor issued a non-prosecution order against Luang Phi Pae, since the DSI had found no evidence of conspiring to evade taxes. The order indicated innocence on the part of Wat Paknam, but followed two days after the withdrawal of Somdet Chuang's nomination as Supreme Patriarch.[86] Paiboon responded that despite the lack of evidence against Somdet Chuang, Somdet Chuang was still not eligible to be the Supreme Patriarch. He argued that Somdet Chuang was too wealthy and had shown favor in not defrocking Luang Por Dhammajayo.[87] At the same time, Banjob Banruchi, a Buddhist studies scholar, stated that

People who don't agree [with the verdict] will not yet stop. But for people with some knowledge of laws and regulations, when they learn that the court, the center of Justice, has given its verdict, will they be able to accept that? ... Since Somdet Phra Maharatchamangalacharn [Somdet Chuang] has been found to be without wrongdoing, every party should consider the goodness he has done, and what he deserves to get for that.[85]

After the first verdict of innocence, the DSI appealed. But in June 2017, the appeal failed when again no evidence could be found. Wat Paknam asked the DSI to publicly admit their wrongdoing in accusing Somdet Chuang and charging Luang Pi Pae, now that two courts had not found any evidence of their guilt. If the DSI did not respond, they would charge the DSI in response, in both a civil (phaen) and criminal (aya) lawsuit. The temple's lawyer stated that although Somdet Chuang and Luang Phi Pae had already forgiven the officers who charged them, the temple committee concluded that the temple's reputation had suffered greatly, and demanded the department take responsibility for their mistakes.[88] The DSI responded that they "would definitely not charge" Luang Phi Pae anymore, after which Wat Paknam withdrew.[89]

Amendment Monastic Act (2016–18)

On 29 December 2016, the National Legislative Assembly amended the 2005 Monastic Act to allow other monks than Somdet Chuang to be appointed Supreme Patriarch.[90] Previously, this had been impossible because the law stipulated that the most senior patriarch (พระราชาคณะ, phra racha khana) of the Sangha Council had to be appointed. Under the new amendment, which was reverting the Monastic Act to its 1992 version, any of the eight patriarchs in the Sangha Council could be appointed.[55] The law was amended within one single day, which was highly unusual. In addition to the adjustments in the nomination process, more authority was given to the King, and less to the Sangha Council.[91][92] The legislative assembly stated that, apart from the role of the King, they wanted to solve further conflict in the Sangha. They therefore decided to remove the Sangha Council from the process of appointing the Supreme Patriarch.[93] While proponents considered the amendment a good way for politicians to solve the problems the Sangha had not been able to solve, opponents described the amendment as "sneaky" (ลักไก่). Chao Khun Prasarn stated the amendment showed a grave lack of respect for the Sangha Council's authority, because the council had not been involved in the amendment at all. He argued that the Monastic Act had always given the final authority to the King anyway, and pointed out that all conflicts about the appointment were caused by the National Reform Council (the junta), not by the Sangha.[93] Despite these objections, on 10 January 2017, the Supreme Sangha Council officially withdrew its nomination of Somdet Chuang, stating that the new amendment had made their nomination moot. However, Somdet Chuang was still the acting Supreme Patriarch. Somdet Chuang himself did not join the council meeting, citing other business to attend to.[94][95] Finally in February, Somdet Amborn was appointed by King Vajiralongkorn to serve as the next Supreme Patriarch.[96]

Phrarathchamongkhon Stupa in Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen.

Before the withdrawal of the nomination, in 2015, Somdet Chuang retired from his supervision of missionary work abroad (พระธรรมทูต) and within Thailand (พระธรรมจาริก, phra thammacharik), as well as his position as Chief of the Northern Region. He cited his old age as reason, and denied any political motivations. Luang Por Wichian Anomaguno, deputy-abbot of Wat Paknam, was appointed as region head instead.[97][98] In 2019, the Royal Thai Government Gazette announced that Somdet Chuang had retired from his position in the Sangha Council, leaving Luang Por Wichian and Phra Suchat as representatives of Wat Paknam on the assembly.[99]

Investigations by AMLO (2017–18)

On 5 July 2017, as part of the ongoing 2017–2020 Thai temple fraud investigations, Somdet Chuang, assistant abbot Phra Prommolee and Wat Paknam's accountant were questioned by the Anti-Money Laundering Office (AMLO). Held at a national scale, the investigations aimed to check whether there were any illegal deals between the National Office of Buddhism and Buddhist temples that asked for or received their funding. Wat Paknam's lawyer Somsak Toraksa did confirm that the temple had received five million baht government funding for renovation of buildings, and another sum of money for other activities. The second sum was estimated by the AMLO to also amount to five million baht. Somsak stated, however, that Wat Paknam had made no illegal deals with corrupt government officers to return money to them. The National Office of Buddhism had contributed the money themselves in 2004–2005, without Wat Paknam making any request for such funding. The lawyer further attested that all financial transactions had been properly recorded.[100] The next day, the AMLO indicated investigations in Wat Paknam were still continuing, though they were nearly over.[101] Junta-appointed director of the National Office Of Buddhism Pongporn Pramsaneh stated later that the AMLO investigations in Wat Paknam were part of a protocol investigation and there were no particular suspicions with regard to Wat Paknam.[102] Apart from Wat Paknam, four other large temples in Bangkok were under investigation.[103]

In December 2021, Somdet Chuang died, aged 96.[104] Phra Phrom Moli, Somdet Chuang's assistant abbot, was then named acting abbot.[105]

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Matichon Publishing. 8 August 2010. p. 14. ^ Scott 2016, p. 207. ^ Chattinawat 2009, p. 70. ^ Nyanasamvara Suvaddhana (17 November 1992). กฎมหาเถรสมาคม ฉบับ ๑/๔ (พ.ศ. ๒๕๓๕) ว่าด้วยอำนาจและเขตปกครองคณะสงฆ์ส่วนภูมิภาค [Law of the Sangha Council article 1/5 (1992): On the authority and regions of governance of provincial Sangha]. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. ^ a b c ถวายปริญญาศิลปศาสตรดุษฎีบัณฑิตกิตติมศักดิ์ แด่สมเด็จพระมหารัชมังคลาจารย์ [Offering an Honorary Arts Degree to Somdet Phra Maha Ratchamangalacharn]. Thai Rath (in Thai). Wacharapol. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2016. ^ a b c d Dubus, Arnaud (18 January 2016). "La Thaïlande se déchire à propos de la nomination du chef des bouddhistes" [Thailand is torn about the appointment of a Buddhist leader]. Églises d'Asie (in French). Information Agency for Foreign Missions of Paris. ^ ฉลองพระไตรปิฎกหินอ่อน [Celebrating the marble Tipitaka]. Siam Rath (in Thai). 24 December 1998. p. 5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pim Thai 2009 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ เจ้าพระคุณสมเด็จพระมหารัชมังคลาจารย์ พระมหาเถระผู้เป็นเสาหลักในสังฆมณฑล [Most Ven. Somdet Phra Maha Ratchamangalacharn, the great elder who is a main pillar of the Sangha]. Banmuang (in Thai). 4 September 2010. p. 14. ^ a b c d e f Dubus, Arnaud (22 June 2016). "Controverse autour du temple bouddhique Dhammakaya: un bras de fer religieux et politique" [Controversy regarding the Dhammakaya Buddhist temple: A religious and political standoff]. Églises d'Asie (in French). Information Agency for Foreign Missions of Paris. ^ See Newell (2008), Gosling (1998, p. 128), Falk (2007) and Chattinawat (2009, p. 52). ^ "New monastic panel chairman named". Bangkok Post. The Post Publishing. 21 August 2013. p. 2. ^ "Abbot, 88, named acting patriarch". Bangkok Post. 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Matichon (in Thai). 8 June 2015. pp. 8–9. ^ ฉุนมติมหาเถรสมาคมอุ้มธรรมกาย พุทธะอิสระยกขบวนพรึบวัดปากน้ำ [Angered about decision SSC protecting Dhammakaya, Buddha Issara suddenly moves procession to Wat Paknam]. Matichon (in Thai). 23 February 2015. p. 12. ^ Phaka, Kham (16 June 2016). ปัญหาธรรมกายสะท้อนข้อจำกัดอำนาจรัฐรวมศูนย์ [Problems with Dhammakaya reflect limitations in the government's centralizing efforts]. Voice TV (in Thai). Retrieved 2 December 2016. ^ สมเด็จวัดปากน้ำขอให้ยุติ ห่วงยืดเยื้อ สปชใโต้ ปัดวางหมากสกัด [Wat Paknam's Somdet [says] to bring [the conflicts] to an end; concerned it will take too long. NRC denies political motivation to block [Somdet Chuang]]. Matichon (in Thai). 25 February 2015. p. 6. ^ "'สมเด็จช่วง' ไม่เอาเรื่อง! สื่อโพสต์หมิ่น" [Somdet Chuang doesn't want to make a problem of media outlets posting humiliating articles]. Thai Rath (in Thai). 18 January 2016. Archived from the original on 29 November 2019. ไม่เป็นอะไร ไม่ต้องไปทำอะไรเขาหรอก ^ a b Constant, Max (29 December 2016). "Thai junta restores law allowing king to pick top monk". Anadolu Agency. Bangkok. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ^ Ekmahasawat, Danai (7 January 2016). จับตา! มหานิกายฮือป้องสมเด็จฯ วัดปากน้ำ [To keep track of: Mahanikaya rallies to protect Somdet Wat Paknam]. Spring News (in Thai). Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2017. ^ Constant, Max (27 February 2016). "Controversial Thai temple denies involvement in politics". Anadolu Agency. Bangkok. Retrieved 9 March 2016. ^ McCargo 2012, p. 635. ^ Wongcha-um, Panu (5 February 2016). "Thai monks protest against state interference in Buddhist governance". Channel News Asia. Mediacorp. Retrieved 28 August 2016. ^ a b นายกฯท้าม็อบพระออกมาเคลื่อนไหวโดนจับแน่ [Prime Minister: If you mobilize a mob, you'll be arrested!]. Spring News (in Thai). 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2016. ^ "Regime detains top monk". Bangkok Post. The Post Publishing. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016. ^ Head, Jonathan (18 April 2016). "How Thailand's military uses 'attitude adjustment' for dissenters". BBC. Retrieved 17 November 2016. ^ McCargo 2012, p. 638. ^ a b c "สุรพศ ทวีศักดิ์: พ.ร.บ.สงฆ์และศาสนจักรคือเครื่องมือรับใช้อุดมการณ์อนุรักษ์นิยม" [Surapot Taweesak: The Monastic Act and religion in general are means to serve political, conservative ideals]. Prachatai (in Thai). 9 January 2017. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Alt URL ^ Scott 2016, pp. 207–8. ^ Mérieau, Eugénie (February 2017). "Le pouvoir royal de nomination du patriarche suprême" [Royal authority in the nomination of the Supreme Patriarch]. Eclairage (in French). p. 41. ^ Banu, Z; Russell, S (17 June 2000). "Roving Report: RR0024/B Thailand: Monk". Associated Press. Event occurs at 1:30. Retrieved 20 September 2016. ^ ไล่พระอดิศักดิ์พ้นวัดปากน้ำใน 2 วัน [Removing Phra Adisak from Wat Paknam within two days]. Matichon (in Thai). 8 January 1999. p. 20. ^ พระอดิศักดิ์ขอเมตตาสมเด็จวัดปากน้ำ [Phra Adisak asks for Somdet Wat Paknam's kindness]. Khao Sod (in Thai). 13 January 1999. p. 11. ^ Udomsi, Sawaeng (2000). "รายงานการพิจารณาดำเนินการ กรณีวัดพระธรรมกาย ตามมติมหาเถรสมาคม ครั้งที่ ๓๒/๒๕๔๑" [Report of Evaluation of the Treatment of the Case Wat Phra Dhammakaya-Verdict of the Supreme Sangha Council 32/2541 B.E.]. วิเคราะห์นิคหกรรม ธรรมกาย [Analysis of Disciplinary Transactions of Dhammakaya] (in Thai). Bangkok. pp. 81–5. ISBN 974-7078-11-2. ^ สมเด็จปากน้ำไม่เข้าคนผิด [The Patriarch of Wat Paknam is not favored to the guilty]. Thai Rath (in Thai). Wacharapol. 28 May 1999. p. 14. ^ พระสังฆราชองค์ที่ ๒๐ [The 20th Supreme Patriarch]. Thai PBS (in Thai). 18 December 2016. Event occurs at 8:50. Retrieved 18 December 2016. ^ a b เปิดรับฟังความเห็นคณะสงฆ์ ประเด็นปฏิรูปพุทธศาสนา 6 แนวทาง [Listening to the Sangha's opinion about 6 ways to reform Buddhism]. Khao Sod (in Thai). 17 June 2015. p. 27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Matichon 2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ มหาเถรสมาคมแจ้งให้พระหนุ่มเณรน้อยหยุดสวดมนต์ลานพระรูป [SSC tells young monks and novices not to chant at the Phutthamonthon park]. Pim Thai (in Thai). 31 March 2015. p. 7. ^ Wechsler, Maxmilian (10 May 2009). "Law enforcement agency tries to shake off shackles". Bangkok Post. The Post Publishing. p. 6. ^ Cochrane, Liam (29 March 2016). "Thailand's head monk to be summoned by police over luxury Mercedes-Benz". ABC News (Australia). Sydney. Retrieved 30 March 2016. ^ "DSI bares illegal import of Somdet Chuang's Mercedes". Bangkok Post. The Post Publishing. 19 February 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016. ^ Cite error: The named reference Khao Sod 2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ เผยรถสมเด็จวัดปากน้ำไม่ผิดกฎหมาย ใช้ซากเบซ์ซ่อมขึ้นใหม่ [Revealing that Somdet Wat Paknam's car is not illegal: old car wreck fixed]. Matichon (in Thai). 9 June 2013. p. 11. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ^ ปปช.ชง บิ๊กตู่ไล่ธาริตออกราชการ! ถูกฟันรวยผิดปกติ-ไม่ได้เป็นผู้บริหารระดับสูง [NACC proposes Prime Minister to fire Tharit: accused of being richer than position would enable]. Isra News Agency (in Thai). ^ Deechuay, Anapat; Samerp, Sakda (12 July 2016). "Prayut refuses to submit nomination of Somdet Chuang as Supreme Patriarch". The Nation. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2016. ^ "เปิดที่มา...เหตุใด รัฐบาลประยุทธ์ตัดสินใจ ผ่าน พ.ร.บ.สงฆ์ ถวายคืนพระราชอำนาจ" [Revealing the reason why Prayuth's junta decided to issue a new Monastic Act and return the power to the King]. Thai Rath (in Thai). 5 July 2018. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Alt URL ^ เจ้าคุณประสานถูกเตือนอาจโดนคดี ถึงขั้นสิ้นความเป็นพระ [Chao Khun Prasarn is warned that he might be sued and defrocked]. Voice TV (in Thai). 14 March 2016. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2016. ^ a b "ชี้' สมเด็จช่วง' พ้นมลทินไม่เกี่ยวข้องรถเบ็นซ์โบราณ" [Pointing out that Somdet Chuang has been acquitted from all wrongdoing, and had nothing to do with vintage Mercedes]. Daily News (in Thai). 13 January 2017. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. ฝ่ายที่เห็นต่างก็คงจะยังไม่หยุดเท่านี้ สำหรับวิญญูชน คนทั่วไปที่มีสติปัญญาที่เข้าใจในกฎเกณฑ์ของกฎหมาย กติกา เมื่อกระบวนการศาล ที่สถิตแห่งความยุติธรรม เมื่อศาลตัดสินออกมาเช่นไร จะยอมรับกันได้หรือไม่ ... ในเมื่อสมเด็จพระมหารัชมังคลาจารย์ ไม่มีมลทิน เป็นเรื่องที่ทุกฝ่ายควรพิจารณาถึงคุณงามความดีที่ท่านได้ทำมา และสิ่งที่ท่านควรจะได้รับบ้างว่า คือ อะไร ^ สั่งไม่ฟ้องหลวงพี่แป๊ะคดีรถโบราณหรูสมเด็จช่วง ชี้ไม่มีหลักฐานรู้เห็นเอกชนเสียภาษีไม่ถูกต้อง [Issuing non-prosecution order for Luang Phi Pae in lawsuit vintage car Somdet Chuang, no evidence of awareness of private company paying taxes incorrectly]. Thai PBS (in Thai). 12 January 2017. ^ ไพบูลย์ยก 3 ข้อ สังคมแคลงใจ สมเด็จช่วงปมซุกรถหรู. Thai Rath (in Thai). Wacharapol. 16 January 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ^ "'สมเด็จช่วง-หลวงพี่แป๊ะ' พร้อมให้อภัย หลังอัยการไม่ฟ้อง คดี 'รถโบราณ'" [Somdet Chuang and Luang Phi Pae are willing to forgive, after prosecutor issued non-prosecution order in lawsuit vintage car]. Prachatai. 14 June 2017. Archived from the original on 24 December 2019. ^ "'ดีเอสไอ'แจ้ง'เจ้าคุณแป๊ะ'ไม่ฟ้องเด็ดขาดคดีเบนซ์" [DSI states that they will definitely not charge Chao Khun Pae [anymore] in the Mercedes lawsuit]. Daily News (in Thai). 9 June 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Alt URL ^ "Thai junta grants king power to appoint top monk". Yahoo! Finance. Agence France-Presse. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ^ "Monks asked not to protest against Monastic Act changes". Thai PBS. 28 December 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ^ สนช.ไฟเขียวผ่านร่างพรบ.สงฆ์3วาระรวด [NLA approves monastic law draft in three readings at once]. Thai News Network (in Thai). 29 December 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ^ a b สัมภาษณ์สด เจ้าคุณประสาร-ส.ศิวรักษ์ แก้พรบ.สงฆ์ [Live interview with Chao Khun Prasarn and S. Sivaraksa about amending the Monastic Act]. New TV (in Thai). 27 December 2016. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ^ มติ มส.เดิมเสนอชื่อสมเด็จพระสังฆราช สิ้นสุดโดยปริยาย [Original nomination of the Supreme Patriarch by the SSC automatically ended]. Thai PBS (in Thai). 10 January 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ^ สำนักพุทธฯ ยันสมเด็จช่วงยังเป็นผู้ปฏิบัติหน้าที่พระสังฆราช [Office of Buddhism confirms that Somdet Chuang is still acting Supreme Patriarch]. Thai Rath (in Thai). Wacharapol. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ^ "Somdet Phra Maha Muneewong appointed new supreme patriarch". The Nation. 7 February 2017. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017. ^ สมเด็จช่วงสละ 3 ตำแนหน่ง ไร้การเมือง [Somdet Chuang retires from three positions, not because of politics]. Matichon (in Thai). 22 June 2015. p. 1. ^ พระวิสุทธิวงศาจารย์ วัดดปากน้ำ ภาษีเจริญ [Phra Visuddhiwongsacharn, Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen]. Khao Sod (in Thai). 16 November 2014. p. 15. ^ "โปรดเกล้าฯ ตั้ง กก.มหาเถรสมาคมชุดใหม่ 20 รูป 'สมเด็จช่วง - ป.อ. ปยุตฺโต' หลุดตำแหน่ง" [By royal decree, a new Sangha Council has been appointed: Somdet Chuang and P.A. Payutto no longer in council]. Prachatai (in Thai). 16 October 2019. Retrieved 23 December 2019. ^ See "ทนาย'สมเด็จช่วง'ออกโรง ยันวัดปากน้ำไม่มีเงินทอน" [Lawyer Somdet Chuang comes forward, affirms Wat Paknam did not receive fraudulent money]. Daily News (in Thai). 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020 Alt URL, Purahong, Kirati (9 July 2017). "แกะปมเงินทอน "วัดปากน้ำ" พศ.ล้อมคอกงบฯ 2.6 พันล้าน" [Analyzing fraud at Wat Paknam: NOB takes a good look at 2.6 M funding]. Now26 (in Thai). Retrieved 5 January 2020 and "ทนายแจง'วัดปากน้ำภาษีเจริญ'ไม่เอี่ยวทุจริตเงินทอน" [Lawyer states that Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen is not involved in funding fraud] (video). TNN (in Thai). 6 July 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2020. For the accounting, the dates, the amount of money and its purpose, see the Now 26 and TNN reports. For the people questioned, see "ทนายวัดปากน้ำเคลียร์ข่าว "เงินทอน"" [Lawyer Wat Paknam clears up questions about affair temple fraud] (video). Spring News (in Thai). 6 July 2017. 10:30. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 5 January 2020. ^ "ทนายแจง'วัดปากน้ำภาษีเจริญ'ไม่เอี่ยวทุจริตเงินทอน" [Lawyer states that Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen is not involved in funding fraud] (video). TNN (in Thai). 6 July 2017. 3:25. Retrieved 5 January 2020. ^ Purahong, Kirati (9 July 2017). "แกะปมเงินทอน "วัดปากน้ำ" พศ.ล้อมคอกงบฯ 2.6 พันล้าน" [Analyzing fraud at Wat Paknam: NOB takes a good look at 2.6 billion funding] (video). Now26 (in Thai). Retrieved 5 January 2020. ^ "สมเด็จพระสังฆราช เป็นปธ.ประชุมมส.กรณีทุจริตเงินร.ร.พระปริยัติ ผอ.พศ.เผย ยังไม่มีหลักฐานครบถ้วน" [The Supreme Patriarch presides over a meeting of the Sangha Council about fraud with school funding; director NOB states that he is still gathering evidence]. Matichon (in Thai). 20 April 2018. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. ^ Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "Revered Somdet Chuang of Wat Pak Nam dies, aged 96". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 21 May 2022. ^ "แต่งตั้ง "พระพรหมโมลี" รักษาการเจ้าอาวาสวัดปากน้ำฯ แทน "สมเด็จช่วง"". คมชัดลึกออนไลน์ (in Thai). 12 December 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2022.

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