Písac (sitio arqueológico)( Písac )
Písac or Pisac (possibly from Quechua for Nothoprocta, also spelled p'isaqa) is a Peruvian town in the Sacred Valley of the Incas. It is situated on the Vilcanota River. Pisac is most known for its Incan ruins and large market which attracts heavy tourist traffic from nearby Cusco.
The remains of Lucre and Killke pottery that have been found in the area, suggest that the district has been occupied for some time.
An early settlement which probably pre-dated the Inca existed on the hillside between the Quitamayo and Chongo tributaries of the Vilcanota river. This community raised their crops on terraces as well as on the flood plain. Later as the threats from other tribes declined the villagers moved closer to the main road to Cusco and Urcos.
When the Inca Empire conquered the area they constructed a large complex on a mountain ridge overlooking where the current town is now located. The consensus is that it was constructed by the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1471/1472) no earlier than 1440. The consensus among many scholars (among them Kim MacQuarrie) is that Pachacuti constructed it as multi-purpose residence, citadel, observatory and religious site. In this role it would support his panaca (family and descendants), provide a secluded royal retreat located well away from Cusco where he and the nobility could relax between military campaigns, undertake ritual and religious ceremonies, serve as a refuge in times of danger as well as commemorating his victories over the Cuyos. Despite its size and proximity to Cusco the Inca complex is not mentioned by any of the Spanish chroniclers.
Francisco Pizarro and the Spanish conquerors destroyed Inca complex in the early 1530s.
The modern town of Písac was built in the valley below the ruins of the Inca complex by Viceroy Toledo during the 1570s.
The first modern description of the Pisac occurred in the late 19th century when Ephraim George Squier (1821-1888), the US Commissioner to Peru visited Pisac and left a detailed description of the Inca ruins in his 1877 book Peru - Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas. The Austrian-French scientist-explorer, Charles Wiener (1851-1919) also visited Písac and wrote an account of his explorations in Perou et Bolivie (Paris, 1880).
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