Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο

( Panathenaic Stadium )

The Panathenaic Stadium (Greek: Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο, romanized: Panathinaïkó Stádio, [panaθinaiˈko sˈtaðio]) or Kallimarmaro (Καλλιμάρμαρο, [kaliˈmarmaro], lit. "beautiful marble") is a multi-purpose stadium in Athens, Greece. One of the main historic attractions of Athens, it is the only stadium in the world built entirely of marble.

A stadium was built on the site of a simple racecourse by the Athenian statesman Lykourgos (Lycurgus) c. 330 BC, primarily for the Panathenaic Games. It was rebuilt in marble by Herodes Atticus, an Athenian Roman senator, by 144 AD it had a capacity of 50,000 seats. After the rise of Christianity in the 4th century it was largely abandoned. The stadium was excavated in 1869 and hosted the Zappas Oly...Read more

The Panathenaic Stadium (Greek: Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο, romanized: Panathinaïkó Stádio, [panaθinaiˈko sˈtaðio]) or Kallimarmaro (Καλλιμάρμαρο, [kaliˈmarmaro], lit. "beautiful marble") is a multi-purpose stadium in Athens, Greece. One of the main historic attractions of Athens, it is the only stadium in the world built entirely of marble.

A stadium was built on the site of a simple racecourse by the Athenian statesman Lykourgos (Lycurgus) c. 330 BC, primarily for the Panathenaic Games. It was rebuilt in marble by Herodes Atticus, an Athenian Roman senator, by 144 AD it had a capacity of 50,000 seats. After the rise of Christianity in the 4th century it was largely abandoned. The stadium was excavated in 1869 and hosted the Zappas Olympics in 1870 and 1875. After being refurbished, it hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the first modern Olympics in 1896 and was the venue for 4 of the 9 contested sports. It was used for various purposes in the 20th century and was once again used as an Olympic venue in 2004. It is the finishing point for the annual Athens Classic Marathon. It is also the last venue in Greece from where the Olympic flame handover ceremony to the host nation takes place.

Originally, since the 6th century BC, a racecourse stood at the site. It hosted the Panathenaic Games (also known as the Great Panathenaea), a religious and athletic festival celebrated every four years in honour of the goddess Athena. The racecourse had no formal seating and the spectators sat on the natural slopes on the side of the ravine.[1]

Stadium of Lykourgos

In the 4th century BC the Athenian statesman Lykourgos (Lycurgus) built an 850-foot (260 m) long stadium of poros stone.[2] Tiers of stone benches were arranged around the track. The track was 669 feet (204 m) long and 110 feet (34 m) wide.[1] In the Lives of the Ten Orators Pseudo-Plutarch writes that a certain Deinas, the owner of the property where the stadium was built was persuaded by Lykourgos to donate the land to the city and Lykourgos leveled a ravine.[3][4] IG II² 351 (dated 329 BC), records that Eudemus of Plataea gave 1000 yoke of oxen for the construction of the stadium and theater. According to Romano the "reference to the large number of oxen, indicating a vast undertaking, and the use of the word charadra have suggested the kind of building activity that would have been needed to prepare the natural valley between the two hills near the Ilissos."[4] The stadium of Lykourgos is believed to have been completed for the Panathenaic Games of 330/329 BC.[10] Donald Kyle suggests that it is possible that Lykourgos did not build but "renovated or embellished a pre-existing facility to give it monumental stature."[11] According to Richard Ernest Wycherley the stadium probably had stone seating "only for a privileged few."[6]

Reconstruction by Herodes Atticus  Herodes Atticus rebuilt the stadium in marble by 144 AD

Herodes Atticus, an Athenian who rose to the highest echelons of power in Rome, was responsible for numerous structures in Greece. In Athens he is best known for the reconstruction of the Panathenaic Stadium.[12][a] Tobin suggests that "Herodes built the stadium soon after [his father] Atticus's death, which occurred around A.D. 138. The first Greater Panathenaia following his father's demise was 139/40, and it is probable that at that time Herodes promised the refurbishment of the stadium. According to Philostratus, it was completed four years later, which would have been in 143/4."[12] These dates (139/140-143-144 AD) are now widely cited as construction dates of the stadium of Herodes Atticus.[15][2][8] Welch writes that the stadium was completed by 143, in time for Panathenaic festival.[13]

 The "Biel Throne", a marble chair from the stadium in the British Museum.

The new stadium was built completely of ashlar masonry[16] in Pentelic marble,[1][2] using minimal concrete.[16] The stadium was built at a time of resurgence of Greek culture in the mid-2nd century. Although the stadium was a "quintessentially Greek architectural type",[13] it was "Roman in scale" with a massive capacity of 50,000,[6] which is roughly the same as that of the Stadium of Domitian in Rome.[16] Stadia of the Classical and Hellenistic periods were smaller.[16][5] According to Welch there is a possibility that criminals were executed in the stadium, however, no evidence exists.[17]

A marble throne from the prohedria (front row seating) of the stadium is kept in the British Museum. One side of the throne includes a relief showing an olive tree and a table on which rests set of wreaths and a Panathenaic amphora. The front leg is in the form of an owl.[18] Ten similar thrones have been found around Athens.[19]

Herodes Atticus built it as "an architectural means of self-representation, and it did something analogous. The architecture of the building makes allusions to the Classical past while remaining unmistakably modern. It is Roman in scale, but it self-consciously rejects the distinguishingly Roman features of monumental facade and extensive vaulting."[16] The seats of the cavea were decorated with owls in relief, which symbolize Athena.[16] Katherine Welch wrote in a 1998 article "Greek stadia and Roman spectacles":[20]

Though traditional in building materials and construction technique, the track included modern features that were specifically designed to accommodate Roman entertainments. [...] It may thus be argued that the Panathenaic Stadium of Herodes Atticus, who was both Athens' leading son and a Roman consul, represents a middle ground between two conflicting cultural expectations. Its architectural for was self-consciously old-fashioned, yet in scale and function the building was thoroughly modern. Herodes Atticus built a new Panathenaic Stadium whose architecture reflected the prevailing nostalgia for Classical Greece but whose functions reflected the new realities of Roman power. While the building continued to be used chiefly for athletic competitions, its running track was also a place where during the imperial cult festival wild animals were slaughtered and hardened criminals (gladiators) fought, bled, and died.
Abandonment  The ruins of the stadium in the background, 1835

After Hellenistic festivals and bloody spectacles were banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I in the late 4th century, the stadium was abandoned and fell into ruin. Gradually, its significance was forgotten and a field of wheat covered the site.[15] During the Latin rule of Athens, Crusader knights held feats of arms at the stadium. A 15th century traveler saw "not only several rows of white marble benches, but also the portico at the entrance of the Stadion, which he calls the North entrance, and the Stoa round the koilon, which he calls the South entrance."[21] The derelict stadium's marbles were incorporated into other buildings. European travelers wrote of "magical rites enacted by young Athenian maidens in the ruined vaulted passage, aimed at finding a good husband."[7]

 The stadium 1870, following excavations by ZillerModern reconstruction Excavations and Zappas Olympics

Following Greece's independence, archaeological excavation as early as 1836 uncovered traces of the stadium of Herodes Atticus. Further, more thorough, excavation was conducted by the German-born architect Ernst Ziller in 1869–70.[22] Some marbles of the stadium and four Hermai were found.[23] The Zappas Olympics, an early attempt to revive the ancient Olympic Games, were held at the stadium in 1870 and 1875. They were sponsored by the Greek benefactor Evangelis Zappas.[7] The games had an audience of 30,000 people.[24]

1896 Olympics

The Greek government, through crown prince Constantine, requested the Egypt-based Greek businessman George Averoff, to sponsor the second refurbishment of the stadium prior to the 1896 Olympics.[25] Based on the findings of Ziller, a reconstruction plan was prepared by the architect Anastasios Metaxas in the mid-1890s.[26] Darling writes that "He duplicated the dimensions and design of the second-century structure, arranging the tiers of seats around the U-shaped track."[27] It was rebuilt in Pentelic marble and is "distinguished by its high degree of fidelity to the ancient monument of Herodes."[7] Averoff donated 920,000 drachmas to this project.[27][25] As a tribute to his generosity, a statue of Averoff was constructed and unveiled on 5 April 1896 outside the stadium. It stands there to this day.[28]

The stadium held the opening and closing ceremonies of the 1896 Olympics.[29] On 6 April (25 March according to the Julian calendar then in use in Greece), the games of the First Olympiad were officially opened; it was Easter Monday for both the Western and Eastern Christian Churches and the anniversary of Greece's independence.[30] The stadium was filled with an estimated 80,000 spectators, including King George I of Greece, his wife Olga, and their sons. Most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organizing committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the games.[31] The stadium also served as the venue for Athletics, Gymnastics, Weightlifting and Wrestling.[32]

Reconstruction works at the stadium, 1895 
Reconstruction works at the stadium, 1895
Panorama 
The first day of the 1896 Olympics
Entrance of participants to the stadium. The Acropolis is seen in the background. 
Entrance of participants to the stadium. The Acropolis is seen in the background.
The opening ceremony 
The opening ceremony
1906 Intercalated Games

The stadium hosted the 1906 Intercalated Games from 22 April to 2 May.[33]

 Archery matches in the stadium during the 2004 OlympicsHome of AEK Basketball Club

From the mid- to late 1960s, the stadium was used by AEK Basketball Club. On 4 April 1968, the 1967–68 FIBA European Cup Winners' Cup final was hosted in the stadium where AEK defeated Slavia VŠ Praha in front of around 80,000 seated spectators inside the arena and another 40,000 standing spectators. It is believed that since that game the Panathenaic Stadium holds the world record attendance for any basketball game as of 2021.[34]

Regime of the Colonels

During the Regime of the Colonels (1967–74), large annual events were held at the stadium, particularly the "Festival of the Military Virtues of the Greeks" (in late August-early September) and the "Revolution of 21 April 1967", the date of the coup that brought the right-wing regime to power. In these festivals, the stadium, "with its aura of antiquity stood as a monument to Greek rebirth, national pride, and international interest." The dictators exploited its setting to showcase their supposed popularity and propagate their new, "revolutionary" political culture.[35]

2004 Olympics

The stadium "needed no major refurbishing" prior to the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.[36] During the games the stadium hosted the archery competition (15–21 August) and was the finish of the Marathon for both women (22 August) and men (29 August).[37][38]

2011 Special Olympics World Summer Games

The opening ceremony of the 2011 Special Olympics World Summer Games were held here which featured special appearances such as Stevie Wonder, Vanessa Williams and Zhang Ziyi. The games ran from 25 June to 5 July.

^ a b c Darling 2004, p. 133. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Dinsmoor was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Miller et al was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Romano 1985, p. 444. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference culture.gr was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Wycherley was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference hoc history was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Miller 2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Abrahams, Harold. "Olympic Games". Encyclopædia Britannica. The track-and-field events were held at the Panathenaic Stadium. The stadium, originally built in 330 bce, had been excavated but not rebuilt for the 1870 Greek Olympics and lay in disrepair before the 1896 Olympics, but through the direction and financial aid of Georgios Averoff, a wealthy Egyptian Greek, it was restored with white marble. ^ [5][6][7][8][9] ^ Kyle, Donald G. (1993). Athletics in Ancient Athens. BRILL. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9789004097599. ^ a b Tobin 1993, p. 81. ^ a b c Welch 1998, p. 133. ^ Romano 1985, pp. 444–445. ^ a b Darling 2004, p. 134. ^ a b c d e f Welch 1998, p. 135. ^ Welch 1998, p. 137. ^ "Roman marble throne, known as 'The Biel Throne', from the prohedria of the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens". britishmuseum.org. ^ Cecconi 2020, p. 443. ^ Welch 1998, pp. 137–138. ^ Polites 1896, p. 48. ^ Tobin 1993, p. 82. ^ Hellenic Olympic Committee, "Panathenean Stadium", informative pamphlet, not dated (after 2004). ^ Young 1996, Chapter 4 ^ a b Young 1996, p. 128. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kakissis was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Darling 2004, p. 135. ^ "George Averoff Dead: A Benefactor of Greece and Egypt" (PDF). The New York Times. 4 August 1899. ^ Young 1996, p. 153. ^ Martin, David E.; Gynn, Roger W. H. (2000). "The Olympic Marathon". Running through the Ages. Human Kinetics. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-88011-969-1. OCLC 42823784. ^ Athens 1896 – Games of the I Olympiad, International Olympic Committee ^ "The first Modern Olympic Games". panathenaicstadium.gr. Hellenic Olympic Committee. 2011. ^ Polley, Martin (2013). The British Olympics: Britain's Olympic Heritage 1612-2012. English Heritage. pp. 101. ISBN 9781848022263. ...staged their first Intercalated Games, held once again at the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens, from April 22 to May 2, 1906. ^ "Partizan sets crowd record at Belgrade Arena!". euroleague.net. Euroleague. 5 March 2009. Archived from the original on 15 June 2016. ^ Van Steen, Gonda (2015). Stage of Emergency: Theater and Public Performance Under the Greek Military Dictatorship of 1967-1974. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–167. ISBN 9780198718321. ^ Robbins, Liz (18 July 2004). "The Hurdles Before the Games". The New York Times. ^ Official Report of the XXVIII Olympiad (PDF). Vol. 2. Athens Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. November 2005. pp. 237, 242, 244. ISBN 960-88101-8-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 August 2008. ^ "Athens 2004". panathenaicstadium.gr. Hellenic Olympic Committee. 2011.


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