Frauenkirche (München)

( Frauenkirche, Munich )

The Frauenkirche (Full name: German: Dom zu Unserer Lieben Frau, Bavarian: Dom zu Unsra Liabm Frau, lit. 'Cathedral of Our Dear Lady') is a church in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, that serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and seat of its Archbishop. It is a landmark and is considered a symbol of the Bavarian capital city. Although called "Münchner Dom" (Munich Cathedral) on its website and URL, the church is referred to as "Frauenkirche" by locals.

Because of local height limits, the church towers are widely visible. As a result of the narrow outcome of a local plebiscite, city administration prohibits buildings with a height exceeding 99 m in the city center. Since November 2004, this prohibition has been provisionally extended outward, and consequently, no buildings may be built in the city over the aforementioned height. The south tower, which is normally open to those wishing to climb the st...Read more

The Frauenkirche (Full name: German: Dom zu Unserer Lieben Frau, Bavarian: Dom zu Unsra Liabm Frau, lit. 'Cathedral of Our Dear Lady') is a church in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, that serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and seat of its Archbishop. It is a landmark and is considered a symbol of the Bavarian capital city. Although called "Münchner Dom" (Munich Cathedral) on its website and URL, the church is referred to as "Frauenkirche" by locals.

Because of local height limits, the church towers are widely visible. As a result of the narrow outcome of a local plebiscite, city administration prohibits buildings with a height exceeding 99 m in the city center. Since November 2004, this prohibition has been provisionally extended outward, and consequently, no buildings may be built in the city over the aforementioned height. The south tower, which is normally open to those wishing to climb the stairs, will offer a unique view of Munich and the nearby Alps after its current renovation is completed.

 General view of Munich from the Nuremberg Chronicle, Frauenkirche in the center Floorplan old and new Frauenkirche

A late Romanesque church was added next to the town's first ring of walls in the 12th century. This new church served as a second city parish following the older, Alter Peter church. The late Gothic cathedral visible today, which replaced the Romanesque church, was commissioned by Duke Sigismund and the people of Munich, and built in the 15th century.

The cathedral was erected in only 20 years' time by Jörg von Halsbach. Because there was not a nearby stone quarry and for other financial reasons, brick was chosen as building material. Construction began in 1468,[1] and when the cash resources were exhausted in 1479, Pope Sixtus IV granted an indulgence.

 Frauenkirche in the evening

The two towers, which are both just over 98 meters (323 feet) tall, were completed in 1488, and the church was consecrated in 1494. There were plans for tall, open-work spires typical of the Gothic style, but given the financial difficulties of the time, the plans could not be realized. The towers remained unfinished until 1525.

German historian, Hartmann Schedel, printed a view of Munich including the unfinished towers in his famous Nuremberg Chronicle, also known as Schedel's World Chronicle. Finally, because rainwater was regularly penetrating the temporary roofing in the tower's ceilings, the towers were completed in 1525, albeit using a more budget-friendly design. This new design was modelled after the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which itself was modelled from late Byzantine architecture and erroneously considered to be Solomon's original temple.[2] The resulting domes atop each tower contributed to making the church a distinctive Munich landmark.

The building has a volume of about 200,000 m³,[3] and originally had the capacity to house 20,000 standing people. Later, pews for ordinary people were introduced. Considering late fifteenth-century Munich had only 13,000 inhabitants and an already established parish church in Alter Peter, it is quite remarkable that a second church of this magnitude was erected in the city.

In 1919, Eugen Leviné, leader of a short-lived Bavarian Socialist Republic, had the Frauenkirche declared a "revolutionary temple."[4]

The cathedral suffered severe damage during the later stages of World War II. After Allied forces' air raids, the church roof collapsed, one of the towers suffered severe damage, and the majority of the church's irreplaceable historical artifacts held inside were lost—either destroyed by bomb raids themselves, or removed with the debris in the aftermath. A multi-stage restoration effort began soon after the war. The final stage of restoration was completed in 1994.[5]

^ "Cathedral to our lady". Munich-info. 2007. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010. ^ "Building History (in German)". Der Münchner Dom. 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2010. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Bronner, Stephen Eric (2012). Modernism at the Barricades: Aesthetics, Politics, Utopia. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-023-115-822-0. ^ "Munich churches:Frauenkirche". My Travel Munich. 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
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