Dùn Èideann

( Edinburgh )

Edinburgh ( (listen) Scots: [ˈɛdɪnbʌrə]; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˌt̪un ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. The city was historically part of the county of Midlothian (formally called the "county of Edinburgh" or Edinburghshire until 1947), but was administered separately from the surrounding county from 1482. It is located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. Edinburgh is Scotland's second-most populous city, after Glasgow, and the seventh-most populous city in the United Kingdom.

Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh ...Read more

Edinburgh ( (listen) Scots: [ˈɛdɪnbʌrə]; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˌt̪un ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. The city was historically part of the county of Midlothian (formally called the "county of Edinburgh" or Edinburghshire until 1947), but was administered separately from the surrounding county from 1482. It is located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. Edinburgh is Scotland's second-most populous city, after Glasgow, and the seventh-most populous city in the United Kingdom.

Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the highest courts in Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the British monarchy in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scottish law, literature, philosophy, the sciences and engineering. It is the second-largest financial centre in the United Kingdom, and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the UK's second-most visited tourist destination, attracting 4.9 million visits, including 2.4 million from overseas in 2018. Time Out magazine rated Edinburgh the best city in the world in 2022.

Edinburgh's official population estimates are 506,520 (mid-2020) for the locality, 518,500 (mid-2019) for the City of Edinburgh council area, which takes in some outlying villages in the western part of its territory, and 1,384,950 (2019) for the wider Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region which also includes East Lothian, Fife, Midlothian, the Scottish Borders and West Lothian.

The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national cultural institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of three in the city, is considered one of the best research institutions in the world, most recently placing 15th in the QS World University Rankings for 2023. The city is also known for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.

Early history
Edinburgh, showing Arthur's Seat, one of the earliest known sites of human habitation in the area

The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c. 8500 BC.[1] Traces of later Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been found on Castle Rock, Arthur's Seat, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hills.[2]

When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, they found a Brittonic Celtic tribe whose name they recorded as the Votadini.[3] The Votadini transitioned into the Gododdin kingdom in the Early Middle Ages, with Eidyn serving as one of the kingdom's districts. During this period, the Castle Rock site, thought to have been the stronghold of Din Eidyn, emerged as the kingdom's major centre.[4] The medieval poem Y Gododdin describes a war band from across the Brittonic world who gathered in Eidyn before a fateful raid; this may describe a historical event around AD 600.[5][6][7]

In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria, and around this time control of Lothian passed to the Angles. Their influence continued for the next three centuries until around 950, when, during the reign of Indulf, son of Constantine II, the "burh" (fortress), named in the 10th-century Pictish Chronicle as oppidum Eden,[8] was abandoned to the Scots. It thenceforth remained, for the most part, under their jurisdiction.[9]

The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, though the date of its charter is unknown.[10] The first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline.[11] The shire of Edinburgh seems to have also been created in the reign of David I, possibly covering all of Lothian at first, but by 1305 the eastern and western parts of Lothian had become Haddingtonshire and Linlithgowshire, leaving Edinburgh as the county town of a shire covering the central part of Lothian, which was called Edinburghshire or Midlothian (the latter name being an informal, but commonly used, alternative until the county's name was legally changed in 1947).[12][13]

Edinburgh was largely in English hands from 1291 to 1314 and from 1333 to 1341, during the Wars of Scottish Independence. When the English invaded Scotland in 1298, King Edward I chose not to enter the English controlled town of Edinburgh but passed by with his army.[14]

In the middle of the 14th century, the French chronicler Jean Froissart described it as the capital of Scotland (c. 1365), and James III (1451–88) referred to it in the 15th century as "the principal burgh of our kingdom".[15] In 1482 James III granted the burgh the right to appoint its own sheriff and coroner, making the burgh administratively independent from the surrounding county, with it becoming a county of itself.[16][17] Despite the destruction caused by an English assault in 1544, the town slowly recovered,[18] and was at the centre of events in the 16th-century Scottish Reformation[19] and 17th-century Wars of the Covenant.[20] In 1582, Edinburgh's town council was given a royal charter by King James VI permitting the establishment of a university;[21] founded as Tounis College (Town's College), the institution developed into the University of Edinburgh, which contributed to Edinburgh's central intellectual role in subsequent centuries.[22]

17th century
Edinburgh in the 17th century
Edinburgh, around 1690

In 1603, King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English throne, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England in a personal union known as the Union of the Crowns, though Scotland remained, in all other respects, a separate kingdom.[23] In 1638, King Charles I's attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.[24] Subsequent Scottish support for Charles Stuart's restoration to the throne of England resulted in Edinburgh's occupation by Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth of England forces – the New Model Army – in 1650.[25]

In the 17th century, Edinburgh's boundaries were still defined by the city's defensive town walls. As a result, the city's growing population was accommodated by increasing the height of the houses. Buildings of 11 storeys or more were common,[26] and have been described as forerunners of the modern-day skyscraper.[27][28] Most of these old structures were replaced by the predominantly Victorian buildings seen in today's Old Town. In 1611 an act of parliament created the High Constables of Edinburgh to keep order in the city, thought to be the oldest statutory police force in the world.[29]

18th century
A painting showing Edinburgh characters (based on John Kay's caricatures) behind St Giles' Cathedral in the late 18th century

Following the Treaty of Union in 1706, the Parliaments of England and Scotland passed Acts of Union in 1706 and 1707 respectively, uniting the two kingdoms in the Kingdom of Great Britain effective from 1 May 1707.[30] As a consequence, the Parliament of Scotland merged with the Parliament of England to form the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London. The Union was opposed by many Scots, resulting in riots in the city.[31]

By the first half of the 18th century, Edinburgh was described as one of Europe's most densely populated, overcrowded and unsanitary towns.[32][33] Visitors were struck by the fact that the social classes shared the same urban space, even inhabiting the same tenement buildings; although here a form of social segregation did prevail, whereby shopkeepers and tradesmen tended to occupy the cheaper-to-rent cellars and garrets, while the more well-to-do professional classes occupied the more expensive middle storeys.[34]

During the Jacobite rising of 1745, Edinburgh was briefly occupied by the Jacobite "Highland Army" before its march into England.[35] After its eventual defeat at Culloden, there followed a period of reprisals and pacification, largely directed at the rebellious clans.[36] In Edinburgh, the Town Council, keen to emulate London by initiating city improvements and expansion to the north of the castle,[37] reaffirmed its belief in the Union and loyalty to the Hanoverian monarch George III by its choice of names for the streets of the New Town: for example, Rose Street and Thistle Street; and for the royal family, George Street, Queen Street, Hanover Street, Frederick Street and Princes Street (in honour of George's two sons).[38] The consistently geometric layout of the plan for the extension of Edinburgh was the result of a major competition in urban planning staged by the Town Council in 1766.[39]

In the second half of the century, the city was at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment,[40] when thinkers like David Hume, Adam Smith, James Hutton and Joseph Black were familiar figures in its streets. Edinburgh became a major intellectual centre, earning it the nickname "Athens of the North" because of its many neo-classical buildings and reputation for learning, recalling ancient Athens.[41] In the 18th-century novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker by Tobias Smollett one character describes Edinburgh as a "hotbed of genius".[42] Edinburgh was also a major centre for the Scottish book trade. The highly successful London bookseller Andrew Millar was apprenticed there to James McEuen.[43]

From the 1770s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favour of the more elegant "one-family" residences of the New Town, a migration that changed the city's social character. According to the foremost historian of this development, "Unity of social feeling was one of the most valuable heritages of old Edinburgh, and its disappearance was widely and properly lamented."[44]

19th and 20th centuries
Edinburgh Castle from the Grassmarket, photographed by George Washington Wilson circa 1875
An aerial photo of Edinburgh with an aeroplane visible 
Edinburgh, c. 1920

Despite an enduring myth to the contrary,[45] Edinburgh became an industrial centre[46] with its traditional industries of printing, brewing and distilling continuing to grow in the 19th century and joined by new industries such as rubber works, engineering works and others. By 1821, Edinburgh had been overtaken by Glasgow as Scotland's largest city.[47] The city centre between Princes Street and George Street became a major commercial and shopping district, a development partly stimulated by the arrival of railways in the 1840s. The Old Town became an increasingly dilapidated, overcrowded slum with high mortality rates.[48] Improvements carried out under Lord Provost William Chambers in the 1860s began the transformation of the area into the predominantly Victorian Old Town seen today.[49] More improvements followed in the early 20th century as a result of the work of Patrick Geddes,[50] but relative economic stagnation during the two world wars and beyond saw the Old Town deteriorate further before major slum clearance in the 1960s and 1970s began to reverse the process. University building developments which transformed the George Square and Potterrow areas proved highly controversial.[51]

Since the 1990s a new "financial district", including the Edinburgh International Conference Centre, has grown mainly on demolished railway property to the west of the castle, stretching into Fountainbridge, a run-down 19th-century industrial suburb which has undergone radical change since the 1980s with the demise of industrial and brewery premises. This ongoing development has enabled Edinburgh to maintain its place as the United Kingdom's second largest financial and administrative centre after London.[52][53] Financial services now account for a third of all commercial office space in the city.[54] The development of Edinburgh Park, a new business and technology park covering 38 acres (15 ha), 4 mi (6 km) west of the city centre, has also contributed to the District Council's strategy for the city's major economic regeneration.[54]

In 1998, the Scotland Act, which came into force the following year, established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive (renamed the Scottish Government since September 2007[55]). Both based in Edinburgh, they are responsible for governing Scotland while reserved matters such as defence, foreign affairs and some elements of income tax remain the responsibility of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London.[56]

21st century

In 2022, Edinburgh was affected by the 2022 Scotland bin strikes.[57] In 2023, Edinburgh became the first capital city in Europe to sign the global Plant Based Treaty, which was introduced at COP26 in 2021 in Glasgow.[58] Green Party councillor Steve Burgess introduced the treaty. The Scottish Countryside Alliance and other farming groups called the treaty "anti-farming."[59]

^ "Earliest evidence found of settlers in Scotland: hazelnuts and stone tools excavated near Edinburgh date to around 8500 BC". Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013. ^ Coghill, Hamish (2008). Lost Edinburgh. Birlinn Ltd. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-84158-747-9. ^ Ritchie, J. N. G. and A. (1972). Edinburgh and South-East Scotland. Heinemann. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-435-32971-6. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2015. ^ Driscoll, Stephen; Yeoman, Peter A. (1997). Excavations within Edinburgh Castle in 1988–91. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland monograph series. Vol. 12. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-903-903127. ^ Williams, Ifor (1972). The Beginnings of Welsh Poetry: Studies. University of Wales Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7083-0035-0. ^ Chadwick, Nora K. (1968). The British Heroic Age: the Welsh and the Men of the North. University of Wales Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7083-0465-5. ^ Dumville, David (1994). "The eastern terminus of the Antonine Wall: 12th or 13th century evidence". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 124: 293–98. ^ Watson, William (1926). The Celtic Place Names of Scotland. p. 340. ISBN 978-1-906566-35-7. ^ Lynch, Michael (2001). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford University Press. p. 658. ISBN 978-0-19-923482-0. ^ Daiches, David (1978). Edinburgh. Hamish Hamilton. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-241-89878-9. Retrieved 6 November 2015. ^ Barrow, Geoffrey (1999). The Charters of King David I: The Written Acts of David I King of Scots ... p. 63. ISBN 978-0851157313. ^ Chalmers, George (1889). "Edinburghshire: Of its establishment as a shire". Caledonia. Paisley: Alexander Gardner. p. 579. Retrieved 24 December 2022. ^ "Local Government (Scotland) Act 1947: Section 127", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 1947 c. 43 (s. 127), retrieved 24 December 2022 ^ Prestwich, Michael (1988). Edward I. University of California Press. p. 479. ISBN 9780520062665. ^ Dickinson, W C (1961). Scotland, From The Earliest Times To 1603. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson. p. 119. ^ Marwick, J. D., ed. (1869). "Appendix: Abstracts of charters and other documents". Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Edinburgh, 1403–1528. Edinburgh: Scottish Burgh Records Society. pp. 314–339. Retrieved 26 December 2022. ^ The Parliamentary Register. London: J. Almon. 1776. p. 429. Retrieved 27 December 2022. ^ Dickinson, W C (1961). Scotland, From The Earliest Times To 1603. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson. pp. 236–8. ^ Donaldson, Gordon (1960). The Scottish Reformation. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-521-08675-2. ^ "Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association". covenanter.org. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013. ^ "Charter by King James VI, 14 April 1582". University of Edinburgh - Our History. Retrieved 15 August 2021. ^ Grant, Alexander (1884). The Story of the University of Edinburgh during Its First Three Hundred Years. London: Longmans, Green. ^ Donaldson, Gordon (1967). Scottish Kings. Batsford. p. 213. ^ Newman, P R (1990). Companion to the English Civil Wars. Oxford: Facts on File Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8160-2237-3. ^ Stephen C. Manganiello (2004). The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1639–1660. Scarecrow Press. p. 587. ISBN 978-0-8108-5100-9. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013. ^ Chambers, Robert (1824). Notices of the most remarkable fires in Edinburgh, from 1385 to 1824. C. Smith & Company. p. 11. Retrieved 17 February 2013. ^ Peet, Gerard (2011). "The Origin of the Skyscraper" (PDF). CTBUH Journal. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2019. ^ Wilson, Neil (2008). Edinburgh Encounter. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-74179-306-2. ^ "High praise for city's first police". www.scotsman.com. August 2011. ^ Scott, Paul (1979). 1707: the Union of Scotland and England. Chambers. pp. 51–54. ISBN 978-0-550-20265-9. ^ Kelly (1998). The making of the United Kingdom and Black peoples of the Americas. Heinemann. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-435-30959-6. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2011. ^ Defoe, Daniel (1978). A Tour Through The Whole Island of Britain. London: Penguin. p. 577... I believe, this may be said with truth, that in no city in the world so many people live in so little room as at Edinburgh.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link) ^ Topham, E. (1971). Letters from Edinburgh 1774–1775. Edinburgh: James Thin. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-236-68255-0. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2013... I make no manner of doubt but that the High Street in Edinburgh is inhabited by a greater number of persons than any street in Europe.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link) ^ Graham, H. G. (1906). The Social Life of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century. London: Adam and Charles Black. p. 85. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2013. ^ Lenman, Bruce (1986). The Jacobite Cause. Richard Drew Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-86267-159-4. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2013. ^ Ferguson, W (1987). Scotland, 1689 to the Present. Edinburgh: Mercat Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-901824-86-8--These clans were mainly Episcopalian (70 per cent) and Roman Catholic (30 per cent), p.151{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link) ^ Keay, K; Keay, J (1994). Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. HarperCollins. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-00-255082-6. ^ "History of Princes Street". princes-street.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2013. ^ Alexis Joachimides, "Edinburgh's First New Town from a Transnational Perspective – Continental Sources for Eighteenth-Century Town Planning in Britain", in Maria Effinger, et al. (eds.), Von analogen und digitalen Zugängen zur Kunst: Festschrift für Hubertus Kohle zum 60. Geburtstag (Heidelberg University: arthistoricum.net, 2019), pp. 71–82. ^ William Robertson (1997). William Robertson and the expansion of empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780521570831. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2011. ^ Blackwood's Edinburgh magazine. Vol. 11. 1822. p. 323. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2011. ^ "Letter from Matthew Bramble on August 8". The Expedition of Humphry Clinker. Project Gutenberg. 2000. Retrieved 13 October 2013. ^ "The manuscripts, Letter from Andrew Millar to Robert Wodrow, 15 July, 1725. Andrew Millar Project. University of Edinburgh". www.millar-project.ed.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016. ^ Youngson, A J (1988). The Making of Classical Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-85224-576-7. ^ Madgin, Rebecca; Rodger, Richard (2013). "Inspiring Capital ? Deconstructing myths and reconstructing urban environments, Edinburgh, 1860–2010". Research Output. Edinburgh University. 40 (3): 507–529. doi:10.1017/S0963926813000448. S2CID 145373686. Retrieved 23 July 2021. ^ "The modern city". Edinburgh. Britannica.com. Retrieved 23 July 2021. ^ Pryde, George Smith (1962). Scotland from 1603 to the present day. Nelson. p. 141. Population figures for 1801 – Glasgow 77,385; Edinburgh 82,560; for 1821 – Glasgow 147,043; Edinburgh 138,325 ^ Hogg, A (1973). "Topic 3:Problem Areas". Scotland: The Rise of Cities 1694–1905. London: Evans Brothers Ltd. ISBN 978-0237286569. ^ McWilliam, C (1975). Scottish Townscape. London: Collins. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-00-216743-7. ^ McWilliam, C (1975). Scottish Townscape. London: Collins. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-00-216743-7. ^ Coghill, H (2008). Lost Edinburgh. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. pp. 219–220. ISBN 978-1-84158-747-9. ^ "Financial services". www.investinedinburgh.com. Edinburgh City Council. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017. ^ Keay, John (1994). Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. 1994. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-00-255082-6. ^ a b Rae, William (1994). Edinburgh, Scotland's Capital City. Mainstream. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-85158-605-9. ^ "Scottish Executive renames itself". Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2014. ^ "Scotland Act 1998". 19 November 1998. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2013. ^ "Edinburgh wakes up to the bin strike hangover". BBC News. 30 August 2022. Retrieved 31 August 2022. ^ "Edinburgh becomes first European capital to commit to shift towards vegan diets". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 23 January 2023. ^ "Anger as Edinburgh council signs 'Plant Based Treaty'". Farmers Weekly. 21 January 2023. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
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