Context of Punjab

Punjab (; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; Punjabi: [pənˈdʒaːb] (listen); also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, on the Indus Plain comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. Punjab's major cities are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Sialkot, Chandigarh, Shimla, Jalandhar, Gurugram, and Bahawalpur.

Punjab grew out of the settlements along the five rivers, which served as an important route to the Near East as early as the ancient Indus Valley civilization, dating back to 3000 B...Read more

Punjab (; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; Punjabi: [pənˈdʒaːb] (listen); also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, on the Indus Plain comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. Punjab's major cities are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Sialkot, Chandigarh, Shimla, Jalandhar, Gurugram, and Bahawalpur.

Punjab grew out of the settlements along the five rivers, which served as an important route to the Near East as early as the ancient Indus Valley civilization, dating back to 3000 BCE, and had numerous migrations by the Indo-Aryan peoples. Agriculture has been the major economic feature of the Punjab and has therefore formed the foundation of Punjabi culture, with one's social status being determined by land ownership. The Punjab emerged as an important agricultural region, especially following the Green Revolution during the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, and has been described as the "breadbasket of both India and Pakistan."

The Punjab is accredited for its colourful history in terms of its native dynasties and empires. Following Alexander the Great's invasion and his conflicts with Porus and the Malli tribe of Multan, Chandragupta allied with various Punjabi tribes to defeat Dhana Nanda and form the Mauryan empire After its decline the Indo-Greeks, Kushan Empire and Indo-Scythians successively established kingdoms in Punjab however they were defeated by various Eastern Punjab republics (c. 4th BCE - 4th CE) who previously established the Mauryan empire. These include the Yaudheyas, Trigartas, Audumbaras, Arjunayanas and Kunindas in which the victories can be confirmed through their coinage.The devastating Hunnic invasions of Punjab occurred in the 5th and 6th CE however they were ultimately defeated by the Vardhana dynasty (originally based in Eastern Punjab) which proceeded to rule over Northern India for the next century. Most of the western Punjab region became unified under the Taank kingdom, established in the 6th century, however little is known about this kingdom due to the lack of historical description. In the 8th century it was replaced with the Hindu Shahis, their roots described as Punjabi Brahmins and accredited for the defeat of the Saffarid dynasty and Samanid Empire. In the same period, between the 8th and 12th century, the Tomara dynasty and Katoch dynasty controlled the eastern Punjab region and resisted many invasion attempts from the Ghaznavids. Islam became established in Western Punjab under the Ghaznavids, after whom the Delhi Sultanate followed. It contained many heavily Punjab influenced and originating dynasties such as the reign of Razia Sultana, the Sayyid dynasty and the Tughlaq dynasty. The Langah Sultanate ruled much of south Punjab at the time of the Lodi dynasty in the 15th century CE, and is praised for its victory over them which inevitably led to a treaty being signed during the Sikandar Lodi reign. After a long period of anarchy due to the decline of the Mughals in the 18th century, the Khalsa Raaj in 1799 CE formed and began various conquests into Kashmir and Durrani Empire held territories.

The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts and thus the geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire, the Punjab was split into the Lahore Subah, consisting of Punjab till Jallandhar with jammu as its northern boundary and the Delhi subah which comprised the area east of Jallandhar till western UP(visit: Subah). In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi, and the Pakistani regions of Punjab, and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.

The predominant ethnolinguistic group of the Punjab region are the Punjabi people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Punjabi language. Punjabi Muslims are the majority in West Punjab (Pakistan), while Punjabi Sikhs are the majority in East Punjab (India). Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia.

More about Punjab

Basic information
  • Native name ਪੰਜਾਬ
Population, Area & Driving side
  • Area 355591
  • Wikipedia History
    Ancient period
    Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
    One of the first known kings of ancient Punjab, King Porus who fought against Alexander the Great.

    The Punjab region is noted as the site of one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished from about 3000 B.C. and declined rapidly 1,000 years later, following the Indo-Aryan migrations that overran the region in waves between 1500 and 500 B.C.[1] Frequent intertribal wars stimulated the growth of larger groupings ruled by chieftains and kings, who ruled local kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas.[1] The rise of kingdoms and dynasties in the Punjab is chronicled in the ancient Hindu epics, particularly the Mahabharata.[1] The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are chronicled as being fought in what is now the state of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas, and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[2] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr. L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas, and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab."[3]

    Alexanders invasions

    The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus, who fought the famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander the Great. His kingdom spanned between rivers Hydaspes (Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab); Strabo had held the territory to contain almost 300 cities.[4] He (alongside Abisares) had a hostile relationship with the Kingdom of Taxila which was ruled by his extended family.[4] When the armies of Alexander crossed Indus in its eastward migration, probably in Udabhandapura, he was greeted by the-then ruler of Taxila, Omphis.[4] Omphis had hoped to force both Porus and Abisares into submission leveraging the might of Alexander's forces and diplomatic missions were mounted, but while Abisares accepted the submission, Porus refused.[4] This led Alexander to seek for a face-off with Porus.[4] Thus began the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC; the exact site remains unknown.[4] The battle is thought to be resulted in a decisive Greek victory; however, A. B. Bosworth warns against an uncritical reading of Greek sources who were obviously exaggerative.[4]

    Alexander later founded two cities—Nicaea at the site of victory and Bucephalous at the battle-ground, in memory of his horse, who died soon after the battle.[4][a] Later, tetradrachms would be minted depicting Alexander on horseback, armed with a sarissa and attacking a pair of Indians on an elephant.[4][5] Porus refused to surrender and wandered about atop an elephant, until he was wounded and his force routed.[4] When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king".[6] Despite the apparently one-sided results, Alexander was impressed by Porus and chose to not depose him.[7][8][9] Not only was his territory reinstated but also expanded with Alexander's forces annexing the territories of Glausaes, who ruled to the northeast of Porus' kingdom.[7]

    After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Perdiccas became the regent of his empire, and after Perdiccas's murder in 321 BCE, Antipater became the new regent.[10] According to Diodorus, Antipater recognized Porus's authority over the territories along the Indus River. However, Eudemus, who had served as Alexander's satrap in the Punjab region, treacherously killed Porus.[11]

    Eastern Punjab republics (4th BCE - 4th CE)

    The Eastern Punjab republics, known as the Punjab Janapadas, were a group of republics during the ancient period of Punjab which were militaristic in nature, consisting of the Yaudheyas, Arjunayanas, Kunindas, Trigartas and the Audumbaras. Before the rise of the Mauryan empire and the eventual defeat of the Nanda Empire, Chandragupta sought an alliance with these republics, most notably the Yaudheyas and the Trigartas, before pursuing Dhana Nanda. According to the Sanskrit and Jain texts Mudrarakshasa and Parishishtaparvan, Chandragupta made an alliance with the Trigarta chief Parvatek who's dominion spread into the Himachal hills and his capital at Jalandhar.[12] The chief of the Mauryan military was always a Yaudheyan warrior according to the Bijaygadh Pillar inscription, which states that the Yaudheyas elected their own chief who also served as the general for the Mauryan army.[13] The core of the Mauryan army and Chandraguptas initial military when battling the Nandas, was made of up men from the Punjab Janapadas according to Thomas William Rhys Davids.[14]

    After the eventual fall of the Mauryans, the Indo-Greek Kingdom took its place in the Western Punjab. The Eastern Punjab supposedly wouldn't become subdued till the rule of Menander I, however there is little evidence of conflicts with the republics till after his death[15] where the republics then begin to battle with his successors. The Trigartas producing their own coinage, the Yaudheyas and Arjunayanas winning "victory by the sword" and the Audumbaras under their ruler Dharagosha checking the indo Greek advance to the upper bari doab (ravi river) defining their control in the region.[16][17]

    C. Two centuries after defeating the Indo-Greeks, the republics would become controlled by the Kushans under Kanishka, with him conquering Punjab. However in the early 3rd century BCE after his death, a union formed between the republics to expel the Kushans, resulting in a Kushan defeat and them being pushed out of Eastern Punjab, as stated by the historian Anant Sadashiv Altekar. This can also be confirmed through their coinage inscription stating 'Yaudheyanam jayamantra daramanam' boasting their military victory.[18][12][19]

    A century later, according to the Allahabad pillar inscription, the republics would become tributaries of the Guptas however this would be done without a fight and according to Upinder Singh there is no specific mention of them proving troops indicating a loose tie.[20][21] This period ultimately saw the disappearance of the republics.

    Mauryan empire (c. 320 – c. 180 BCE)

    Chandragupta Maurya, with the aid of Kautilya, had established his empire around 320 B.C. The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is not clear. Kautilya enrolled the young Chandragupta in the university at Taxila to educate him in the arts, sciences, logic, mathematics, warfare, and administration. Megasthenes' account, as it has survived in Greek texts that quote him, states that Alexander the Great and Chandragupta met, which if true would mean his rule started earlier than 321 BCE. As Alexander never crossed the Beas river, so his territory probably lied in Punjab region.[22] He has also been variously identified with Shashigupta (who has same etymology as of Chandragupta) of Paropamisadae (western Punjab) on the account of same life events.[23] With the help of the small Janapadas of Punjab, he had gone on to conquer much of the North West Indian subcontinent.[24] He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus when the latter invaded. In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus 500 elephants.[22] The chief of the Mauryan military was also always a Yaudheyan warrior according to the Bijaygadh Pillar inscription, which states that the Yaudheyas elected their own chief who also served as the general for the Mauryans.[25] The Mauryan military was also made up vastly of men from the Punjab Janapadas.[26]

    Chandragupta's rule was very well organised. The Mauryans had an autocratic and centralised administration system, aided by a council of ministers, and also a well-established espionage system. Much of Chandragupta's success is attributed to Chanakya, the author of the Arthashastra. According to buddhist sources Chanakya was native of the Punjab who resided in Taxila. Much of the Mauryan rule had a strong bureaucracy that had regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial activities, mining, statistics and data, maintenance of public places, and upkeep of temples.[22]

    Medieval period Vardhana empire (c. 500 CE – c. 650 CE)

    In the 6th century CE the Vardhana dynasty, based in the area of Thanesar (Ambala district of Eastern Punjab), rose to prominence during the second hunnic wars. Its first notable ruler, Adityavardhana, according to the Mandsaur fragmentary inscription conquered the region of Mandsaur between 497 and 500 CE, later also taking part in the Battle of Sondani with Yashodharman which saw the defeat of the Alchon hun ruler Mihirakula.[27][28]

    Adityavardhanas successor, Prabhakaravardhana, according to Bāṇabhaṭṭa, who was the court poet for Harsha, credits him with a strong stance against the Hunas, describing him as :"A lion to the Huna deer, a burning fever to the king of the Indus land (Sindh), a troubler of the sleep of Gujarat king, a billious plague to that scent-elephant, the lord of Gandhara, a destroyer of the skill of the Latas." Inferring various conquests during his reign.[29][30]

    His death in 605 CE led to his eldest son Rajyavardhana, who was battling the Huns in Ghandara with his brother Harsha at the time of his death, succeeding him.[31] The Maukhari king, Grahavarman, was married to Rajyavardhanas sister, but some years later he had been killed by the king of Malwa, leading to her being captured. In retaliation, Rajyavardhana marched against the King and defeated him. However Shashanka of Gauda (Eastern Bengal), in secret alliance with the Malwa king, entered Magadha as a friend of Rajyavardhana.[31] but treacherously murdered him in c. 606 CE.[32]

    The Harshacharita states that Prabhakara's younger son Harsha-Vardhana then vowed to destroy the Gauda (Eastern Bengal) king and their allies. He formed an alliance with Bhaskar Varman, the king of Kamarupa, and forced Shashanka to retreat. Subsequently, Harsha was formally crowned as an emperor [33] after he united the small republics from Punjab to central India. Their representatives crowned him king at an assembly in April 606 CE giving him the title of Maharaja. Harsha established an empire that brought all of northern India under his control.[34]

    The rough territorial extent of the Vardhana empire according to Cunningham was between the areas of Kashmir, Maharashtra and Ganjam,[35] and from the description of Xuanzang his empire comprised the 'most fertile and richest provinces of India' which includes the area of Punjab and Bengal.[35]

    Hindu Shahis (c. 820 CE – c. 1030 CE)

    In the 9th century, the Hindu Shahi dynasty, with their origins disputed between the region of Oddiyana and with roots as Punjabi Brahmins,[36][page needed] replaced the Taank kingdom in the Western Punjab, ruling Western Punjab along with eastern Afghanistan.[1][37][38] The tribe of the Gakhars/Khokhars, formed a large part of the Hindu Shahi army according to the Persian historian Firishta.[39] The most notable rulers of the empire were Lalliya, Bhimadeva and Jayapala who were accredited for military victories.

    Lalliya had reclaimed the territory at and around Kabul between 879 and 901 CE after it had been lost under his predecessor to the Saffarid dynasty.[36][page needed] He was described as a fearsome Shahi. Two of his ministers reconstructed by Rahman as Toramana and Asata are said to of have taken advantage of Amr al-Layth's preoccupation with rebellions in Khorasan, by successfully raiding Ghazna around 900 CE.[36][page needed]

    After a defeat in Eastern Afghanistan suffered on the Shahi ally Lawik, Bhimadeva mounted a combined attack around 963 CE.[36][page needed] Abu Ishaq Ibrahim was expelled from Ghazna and Shahi-Lawik strongholds were restored in Kabul and adjacent areas.[36][page needed] This victory appears to have been commemorated in the Hund Slab Inscription (HSI).[36][page needed]

    Tomar and Katoch dynasties (10th CE - 12th CE)

    After the Ghaznavids conquest of the Hindu Shahis which led to the annexation of Western Punjab into their empire in the 11th century CE, two Punjab dynasties who ruled the territory in the East, the Katoch dynasty based in the region from Himachal Pradesh to Jalandhar and the Tomara dynasty based in the regions of modern day Haryana, Delhi and East Punjab, became heavily involved in conflicts with the Ghaznavids.

    According to the Dutch sanskritist J. Ph. Vogel, in 1043 CE, the Raja of the Tomaras conquered the occupied cities of Hansi,Thanesar and other places held by Ghaznavid garrisons under Mawdud of Ghazni, before sucessfully besieging the once captured Nagarkot fort, located in the Kangra district of modern day Himachal Pradesh, Eastern Punjab. [40][41][42] He further states that Mahmud of Ghazni's, son Abd al-Rashid, captured the fort in c. 1052 CE but the Kangra rajas led an expedition which successfully recaptured the Kangra fort in 1060 CE, he then concludes that for the next 300 years it would remain in their control.[43][41][44][45]During the reign of Ibrahim of Ghazna (1059-1099) an army of ghazis consisting of 40,000 cavalry was sent to raid the Doab of the Punjab region under his son Mahmud,[43] c. 1070 CE which led to a battle near the city of Jalandhar. The outcome of the battle is uncertain and Jalandhar is not noticed in Ghaznavid annals however according to the Diwan-i-salman it was described as eclipsing the battles of Rustam and Isfandiyar.[46]

    During the reign of Ibrahim of Ghazna, the Tomar raja popularly as Anangpal Tomar, as per his contemporary Vibudh Shridhar's Parshwanath Charit, defeated the Turks at Himachal pradesh. According to J. Ph. Vogel, the Bard chand states that the Kangra and its mountain chiefs owed allegience to Anangpal showing that it was potentially subject to the Tomaras.[47]

    Arrival of Islam and the Emirate of Multan

    He's also known for the construction of the Lal Kot fort in Delhi.

    Turkic rule (c. 1030 CE – c. 1320 CE)
    Silver copper coin of Khizr Khan, founder of the Sayyid dynasty.[48]

    The Turkic Ghaznavids in the tenth century overthrew the Hindu Shahis and consequently ruled for 157 years in Western Punjab, gradually declining as a power until the Ghurid conquest of Lahore by Muhammad of Ghor in 1186, deposing the last Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau Malik.[49] Following the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206 by Punjabi assassins near the Jhelum river, the Ghurid state fragmented and was replaced in northern India by the Delhi Sultanate which consisted of five unrelated dynasties.

    Sayyid dynasty (c. 1410 CE – 1450 CE)

    Khizr Khan established the Sayyid dynasty, the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate after the fall of the Tughlaqs.[50] A contemporary writer Yahya Sirhindi mentions in his Takhrikh-i-Mubarak Shahi that Khizr Khan was a descendant of prophet Muhammad.[51] Members of the dynasty derived their title, Sayyid, or the descendants of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, based on the claim that they belonged to his lineage through his daughter Fatima. However, Yahya Sirhindi based his conclusions on unsubstantial evidence, the first being a casual recognition by the famous saint Sayyid Jalaluddin Bukhari of Uch Sharif of his Sayyid heritage,[52] and secondly the noble character of the Sultan which distinguished him as a Prophet's descendant.[53] According to Richard M. Eaton, Khizr Khan was son of a Punjabi chieftain.[50] He was a Khokhar chieftain who travelled to Samarkand and profited from the contacts he made with the Timurid society.[54] Although consisting of a short 40 year reign, the empire is accredited for the annexation and forced tribute payment of many regions of North India.

    Langah sultanate (c. 1450 CE – 1540 CE)

    In 1445, Sultan Qutbudin, chief of Langah, a Jat Zamindar tribe[55][56][57][58] established the Langah Sultanate in Multan. Husseyn Langah I (reigned 1456–1502) was the second ruler of Langah Sultanate. He undertook military campaigns in Punjab and captured Chiniot and Shorkot. Shah Husayn successfully repulsed attempted invasion by the Lodis led by Tatar Khan and Barbak Shah, as well as his daughter Zeerak Rumman.[59]

    Modern period

    The Mughals came to power in the early sixteenth century and gradually expanded to control all of the Punjab from their capital at Lahore. During the Mughal era, Saadullah Khan, born into a family of Jat agriculturalists[60] belonging to the Thaheem tribe[61] from Chiniot[62] remained Grand vizier (or Prime Minister) of the Mughal Empire in the period 1645–1656.[62] Other prominent Muslims from Punjab who rose to nobility during the Mughal Era include Wazir Khan,[63] Adina Beg Arain,[64] and Shahbaz Khan Kamboh.[65] The Mughal Empire ruled the region until it was severely weakened in the eighteenth century.[1] As Mughal power weakened, Afghan rulers took control of the region.[1] Contested by Marathas and Afghans, the region was the center of the growing influence of the Sikhs, who expanded and established the Sikh Empire as the Mughals and Afghans weakened, ultimately ruling the Punjab, western Afghanistan, and territories north into the Himalayas.[1]

    Illustration of Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire.

    The Sikh Empire ruled the Punjab until the British annexed it in 1849 following the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars.[66] Most of the Punjabi homeland formed a province of British India, though a number of small princely states retained local rulers who recognized British authority.[1] The Punjab with its rich farmlands became one of the most important colonial assets.[1] Lahore was a noted center of learning and culture, and Rawalpindi became an important military installation.[1] Most Punjabis supported the British during World War I, providing men and resources to the war effort even though the Punjab remained a source of anti colonial activities.[67]: 163  Disturbances in the region increased as the war continued.[1] At the end of the war, high casualty rates, heavy taxation, inflation, and a widespread influenza epidemic disrupted Punjabi society.[1] In 1919 a British officer ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of demonstrators, mostly Sikhs in Amritsar. The Jallianwala massacre fueled the indian independence movement.[1] Nationalists declared the independence of India from Lahore in 1930 but were quickly suppressed.[1] When the Second World War broke out, nationalism in British India had already divided into religious movements.[1] Many Sikhs and other minorities supported the Hindus, who promised a secular multicultural and multireligious society, and Muslim leaders in Lahore passed a resolution to work for a Muslim Pakistan, making the Punjab region a center of growing conflict between Indian and Pakistani nationalists.[1] At the end of the war, the British granted separate independence to India and Pakistan, setting off massive communal violence as Muslims fled to Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh Punjabis fled east to India.[1]

    The British Raj had major political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai. At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.[68] The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following partition, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.[69][70][71][72]

    Another major consequence of partition was the sudden shift towards religious homogeneity occurred in all districts across Punjab owing to the new international border that cut through the province. This rapid demographic shift was primarily due to wide scale migration but also caused by large-scale religious cleansing riots which were witnessed across the region at the time. According to historical demographer Tim Dyson, in the eastern regions of Punjab that ultimately became Indian Punjab following independence, districts that were 66% Hindu in 1941 became 80% Hindu in 1951; those that were 20% Sikh became 50% Sikh in 1951. Conversely, in the western regions of Punjab that ultimately became Pakistani Punjab, all districts became almost exclusively Muslim by 1951.[73]

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India: From Indus Valley Civlization to Mauryas. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-763-2. ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (1 January 2016). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0433-3. ^ Somānī, Rāmavallabha (1996). Temples of Rajasthan. Publication Scheme. ISBN 978-81-85263-87-8. ^ Somānī, Rāmavallabha (1995). Maharana Kumbha and His Times: A Glorious Hindu King. Jaipur Publishing House. ^ "Project South Asia". www.columbia.edu. Retrieved 21 February 2023. ^ Krishnamoorthy, K. (1982). Banabhatta (Sanskrit Writer). Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-7201-674-6. ^ a b Singh, Dhananjay Kumar (8 January 2021). Historiography of Bāṇa Bhaṭṭa. OrangeBooks Publication. ^ Sinha, Bindeshwari Prasad (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. ^ Bakker, Hans (29 June 2015). The World of the Skandapurāṇa. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-27714-4. ^ Jan, Changez (18 July 2022). Forgotten Kings: The Story of the Hindu Sahi Dynasty. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-93-92099-01-4. ^ a b Ahmad, Aijazuddin (2009). Geography of the South Asian Subcontinent: A Critical Approach. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-568-1. ^ a b c d e f Rehman 1976. ^ Rahman, Abdul (2002). "New Light on the Khingal, Turk and the Hindu Sahis" (PDF). Ancient Pakistan. XV: 37–42. The Hindu Śāhis were therefore neither Bhattis, or Janjuas, nor Brahmans. They were simply Uḍis/Oḍis. It can now be seen that the term Hindu Śāhi is a misnomer and, based as it is merely upon religious discrimination, should be discarded and forgotten. The correct name is Uḍi or Oḍi Śāhi dynasty. ^ Meister, Michael W. (2005). "The Problem of Platform Extensions at Kafirkot North" (PDF). Ancient Pakistan. XVI: 41–48. Rehman (2002: 41) makes a good case for calling the Hindu Śāhis by a more accurate name, "Uḍi Śāhis". ^ Rehman 1976, pp. 48–50. ^ "Medieval History of Himachal Pradesh". hpgeneralstudies. Retrieved 7 July 2022. ^ a b "History Himachal Pradesh | PDF | Himalayas | Forests". Scribd. Retrieved 4 February 2023. ^ Hutchison, John; Vogel, Jean Philippe (1994). History of the Panjab Hill States. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0942-6. ^ a b Wink, André (1997). Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquests 11th-13th centuries. Vol. II. Brill. p. 134. ^ Charak, Sukh Dev Singh (1978). Himachal Pradesh. Light & Life Publishers. ^ Hutchison, John; Vogel, Jean Philippe (1994). History of the Panjab Hill States. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0942-6. ^ Hutchison, John; Vogel, Jean Philippe (1994). History of the Panjab Hill States. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0942-6. ^ Hutchison, John; Vogel, Jean Philippe (1994). History of the Panjab Hill States. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0942-6. ^ Richard M. Eaton (2019). India in the Persianate Age: 1000–1765. p. 117. ISBN 978-0520325128. The career of Khizr Khan, a Punjabi chieftain belonging to the Khokar clan... ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1979). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-207-0617-0. ^ a b Richard M. Eaton (2019). India in the Persianate Age: 1000–1765. p. 117. ISBN 978-0520325128. ^ Porter, Yves; Degeorge, Gérard (2009). The Glory of the Sultans: Islamic Architecture in India. Though Timur had since withdrawn his forces, the Sayyid Khizr Khān, the scion of a venerable Arab family who had settled in Multān, continued to pay him tribute: Flammarion. ISBN 978-2-08-030110-9. ^ The Cambridge History of India. The claim of Khizr Khān, who founded the dynasty known as the Sayyids, to descent from the prophet of Arabia was dubious, and rested chiefly on its causal recognition by the famous saint Sayyid Jalāl – ud – dīn of Bukhārā .: S. Chand. 1958. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1951). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Delhi sultanate. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. ^ Orsini, Francesca (2015). After Timur left : culture and circulation in fifteenth-century North India. Oxford Univ. Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-19-945066-4. OCLC 913785752. ^ Ahmed, Iftikhar (1984). "Territorial Distribution of Jatt Castes in Punjab c. 1595 – c. 1881". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Indian History Congress. 45: 429, 432. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44140224. Retrieved 28 July 2022. ^ Mubārak, A.F.; Blochmann, H. (1891). The Ain I Akbari. Bibliotheca Indica. Asiatic Society of Bengal. p. 321. Retrieved 28 July 2022. ^ Lambrick, H. T. (1975). Sind : a general introduction. Hyderabad: Sindhi Adabi Board. p. 212. ISBN 0-19-577220-2. OCLC 2404471. ^ Roseberry, J.R. (1987). Imperial Rule in Punjab: The Conquest and Administration of Multan, 1818–1881. Manohar. p. 177. ISBN 978-81-85054-28-5. Retrieved 28 July 2022. ^ "Battles in chiniot and shorkot" (PDF). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help) ^ Journal of Central Asia. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University. 1992. p. 84. Retrieved 30 July 2022. Sadullah Khan was the son of Amir Bakhsh a cultivator of Chiniot . He belongs to Jat family. He was born on Thursday, the 10th Safar 1000 A.H./1591 A.C. ^ Quddus, S.A. (1992). Punjab, the Land of Beauty, Love, and Mysticism. Royal Book Company. p. 402. ISBN 978-969-407-130-5. Retrieved 29 July 2022. ^ a b Siddiqui, Shabbir A. (1986). "Relations Between Dara Shukoh and Sa'adullah Khan". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 47: 273–276. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44141552. ^ Koch, Ebba (2006). The complete Taj Mahal : and the riverfront gardens of Agra. Richard André. Barraud. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-500-34209-1. OCLC 69022179. ^ Chhabra, G.S. (2005). Advance Study in the History of Modern India (Volume-1: 1707–1803). Lotus Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-81-89093-06-8. ^ Chisti, AA Sheikh Md Asrarul Hoque (2012). "Shahbaz Khan". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 22 February 2023. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1998). "The Sikh empire (1799–1849) - Chapter 6". The Sikhs of the Punjab. The New Cambridge History of India (Revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 126–128. ISBN 0-521-63764-3. ^ Cite error: The named reference hibb 1980 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Pakistan Geotagging: Partition of Punjab in 1947". 3 October 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.. Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved 12 July 2013. ^ Talbot, Ian (2009). "Partition of India: The Human Dimension". Cultural and Social History. 6 (4): 403–410. doi:10.2752/147800409X466254. S2CID 147110854. The number of casualties remains a matter of dispute, with figures being claimed that range from 200,000 to 2 million victims. ^ D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-0415565660. ^ Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India. Duke University Press. ^ Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1134378258. ^ Dyson 2018, pp. 188–189.

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