Context of Punjab

 

Punjab (; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; Punjabi: [pə̞ɲˈdʒäːb] (listen); also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, on the Indus Plain comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. Punjab's major cities are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Sialkot, Chandigarh, Shimla, Jalandhar, Gurugram, and Bahawalpur.

Punjab grew out of the settlements along the five rivers, which served as an important route to the Near East as early as the ancient Indus Valley civilization, dating back to 3000 BCE, and had numerous migrations by the Indo-Aryan peoples. Agriculture has been the major economic feat...Read more

 

Punjab (; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; Punjabi: [pə̞ɲˈdʒäːb] (listen); also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, on the Indus Plain comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. Punjab's major cities are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Sialkot, Chandigarh, Shimla, Jalandhar, Gurugram, and Bahawalpur.

Punjab grew out of the settlements along the five rivers, which served as an important route to the Near East as early as the ancient Indus Valley civilization, dating back to 3000 BCE, and had numerous migrations by the Indo-Aryan peoples. Agriculture has been the major economic feature of the Punjab and has therefore formed the foundation of Punjabi culture, with one's social status being determined by land ownership. The Punjab emerged as an important agricultural region, especially following the Green Revolution during the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, and has been described as the "breadbasket of both India and Pakistan."

Besides being known for agriculture and trade, the Punjab is also a region that over the centuries has experienced many foreign invasions and consequently has a long-standing history of warfare, as the region is vulnerably situated on the principal route of invasions through the northwestern frontier of the Indian subcontinent, including those of Persians, Macedonians, Scythians, Parthians, Kushans, Huns, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols until the eighteenth century which promoted a lifestyle that entailed engaging in warfare to protect the land, with the Marathas, Durranis and British invading the region in subsequent decades.

The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts and thus the geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire the Punjab region was divided into three, with the Lahore Subah in the west, the Delhi Subah in the east and the Multan Subah in the south. In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi, and the Pakistani regions of Punjab, and Islamabad Capital Territory.

The predominant ethnolinguistic group of the Punjab region are the Punjabi people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Punjabi language. Punjabi Muslims are the majority in West Punjab (Pakistan), while Punjabi Sikhs are the majority in East Punjab (India). Other religious groups include Hinduism, Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia.

More about Punjab

Population, Area & Driving side
  • Area 355591
History
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    Ancient period
     
     
    Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
     
     
    One of the first known kings of ancient Punjab, King Porus who fought against Alexander the Great.

    The Punjab region is noted as the site of one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished from about 3000 B.C. and declined rapidly 1,000 years later, following the Indo-Aryan migrations that overran the region in waves between 1500 and 500 B.C.[1] Frequent intertribal wars stimulated the growth of larger groupings ruled by chieftains and kings, who ruled local kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas.[1] The rise of kingdoms and dynasties in the Punjab is chronicled in the ancient Hindu epics, particularly the Mahabharata.[1] The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are chronicled as being fought in what is now the state of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas, and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[2] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr. L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas, and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab."[3]

    Invasions of Alexander the Great (c. 4th century BCE )

    The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus, who fought the famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander the Great. His kingdom spanned between rivers Hydaspes (Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab); Strabo had held the territory to contain almost 300 cities.[4] He (alongside Abisares) had a hostile relationship with the Kingdom of Taxila which was ruled by his extended family.[4] When the armies of Alexander crossed Indus in its eastward migration, probably in Udabhandapura, he was greeted by the-then ruler of Taxila, Omphis.[4] Omphis had hoped to force both Porus and Abisares into submission leveraging the might of Alexander's forces and diplomatic missions were mounted, but while Abisares accepted the submission, Porus refused.[4] This led Alexander to seek for a face-off with Porus.[4] Thus began the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC; the exact site remains unknown.[4] The battle is thought to be resulted in a decisive Greek victory; however, A. B. Bosworth warns against an uncritical reading of Greek sources who were obviously exaggerative.[4]

    Alexander later founded two cities—Nicaea at the site of victory and Bucephalous at the battle-ground, in memory of his horse, who died soon after the battle.[4][a] Later, tetradrachms would be minted depicting Alexander on horseback, armed with a sarissa and attacking a pair of Indians on an elephant.[4][5] Porus refused to surrender and wandered about atop an elephant, until he was wounded and his force routed.[4] When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king".[6] Despite the apparently one-sided results, Alexander was impressed by Porus and chose to not depose him.[7][8][9] Not only was his territory reinstated but also expanded with Alexander's forces annexing the territories of Glausaes, who ruled to the northeast of Porus' kingdom.[7]

    After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Perdiccas became the regent of his empire, and after Perdiccas's murder in 321 BCE, Antipater became the new regent.[10] According to Diodorus, Antipater recognized Porus's authority over the territories along the Indus River. However, Eudemus, who had served as Alexander's satrap in the Punjab region, treacherously killed Porus.[11]

    Mauryan empire (c. 320–180 BCE)

    Chandragupta Maurya, with the aid of Kautilya, had established his empire around 320 B.C. The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is not clear. Kautilya enrolled the young Chandragupta in the university at Taxila to educate him in the arts, sciences, logic, mathematics, warfare, and administration. Megasthenes' account, as it has survived in Greek texts that quote him, states that Alexander the Great and Chandragupta met, which if true would mean his rule started earlier than 321 BCE. As Alexander never crossed the Beas river, so his territory probably lied in Punjab region.[12] He has also been variously identified with Shashigupta (who has same etymology as of Chandragupta) of Paropamisadae (western Punjab) on the account of same life events.[13] With the help of the small Janapadas of Punjab, he had gone on to conquer much of the North West Indian subcontinent.[14] He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus when the latter invaded. In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus 500 elephants.[12] The chief of the Mauryan military was also always a Yaudheyan warrior according to the Bijaygadh Pillar inscription, which states that the Yaudheyas elected their own chief who also served as the general for the Mauryans.[15][16] The Mauryan military was also made up vastly of men from the Punjab Janapadas.[17]

    Chandragupta's rule was very well organised. The Mauryans had an autocratic and centralised administration system, aided by a council of ministers, and also a well-established espionage system. Much of Chandragupta's success is attributed to Chanakya, the author of the Arthashastra. According to buddhist sources Chanakya was native of the Punjab who resided in Taxila. Much of the Mauryan rule had a strong bureaucracy that had regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial activities, mining, statistics and data, maintenance of public places, and upkeep of temples.[12]

    Medieval period Hindu Shahis (c. 820–1030 CE)

    In the 9th century, the Hindu Shahi dynasty, with their origins disputed between the region of Oddiyana and with roots as Punjabi Brahmins,[18][page needed] replaced the Taank kingdom, ruling Western Punjab along with eastern Afghanistan.[1][19][20] The tribe of the Gakhars/Khokhars, formed a large part of the Hindu Shahi army according to the Persian historian Firishta.[21] The most notable rulers of the empire were Lalliya, Bhimadeva and Jayapala who were accredited for military victories.

    Lalliya had reclaimed the territory at and around Kabul between 879 and 901 CE after it had been lost under his predecessor to the Saffarid dynasty.[18][page needed] He was described as a fearsome Shahi. Two of his ministers reconstructed by Rahman as Toramana and Asata are said to of have taken advantage of Amr al-Layth's preoccupation with rebellions in Khorasan, by successfully raiding Ghazna around 900 CE.[18][page needed]

    After a defeat in Eastern Afghanistan suffered on the Shahi ally Lawik, Bhimadeva mounted a combined attack around 963 CE.[18][page needed] Abu Ishaq Ibrahim was expelled from Ghazna and Shahi-Lawik strongholds were restored in Kabul and adjacent areas.[18][page needed] This victory appears to have been commemorated in the Hund Slab Inscription (HSI).[18][page needed]

    Turkic rule (c. 1030–1320 CE)
     
     
    Silver copper coin of Khizr Khan, founder of the Sayyid dynasty.[22]

    The Turkic Ghaznavids in the tenth century overthrew the Hindu Shahis and consequently ruled for 157 years in Western Punjab, gradually declining as a power until the Ghurid conquest of Lahore by Muhammad of Ghor in 1186, deposing the last Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau Malik.[23] Following the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206 by Punjabi assassins near the Jhelum river, the Ghurid state fragmented and was replaced in northern India by the Delhi Sultanate.

    Tughlaq dynasty (c. 1320–1410 CE)

    The Tughlaq dynasty's reign formally started in 1320 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq after defeating Khusrau Khan at the Battle of Lahrawat.

    During Ghazi Maliks reign, in 1321 he sent his eldest son Jauna Khan, later known as Muhammad bin Tughlaq, to Deogir to plunder the Hindu kingdoms of Arangal and Tilang (now part of Telangana). His first attempt was a failure.[24] Four months later, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq sent large army reinforcements for his son asking him to attempt plundering Arangal and Tilang again.[25] This time Jauna Khan succeeded and Arangal fell, it was renamed to Sultanpur, and all plundered wealth, state treasury and captives were transferred from the captured kingdom to the Delhi Sultanate.The Muslim aristocracy in Lukhnauti (Bengal) invited Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq to extend his coup and expand eastwards into Bengal by attacking Shamsuddin Firoz Shah, which he did over 1324–1325 AD,[24] after placing Delhi under control of his son Ulugh Khan, and then leading his army to Lukhnauti. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq succeeded in this campaign.

    After his fathers death in 1325 CE, Muhammed Bin Tughlaq assumed power and his rule saw the empire expand to most of the Indian subcontinent, its peak in terms of geographical reach.[26] He attacked and plundered Malwa, Gujarat, Lakhnauti, Chittagong, Mithila and many other regions in India[27] His distant campaigns were expensive, although each raid and attack on non-Muslim kingdoms brought new looted wealth and ransom payments from captured people. The extended empire was difficult to retain, and rebellions all over Indian subcontinent became routine.[28]Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in March 1351[29] while trying to chase and punish people for rebellion and their refusal to pay taxes in Sindh and Gujarat.[30]

    The Tughlaq empire after Muhammed Bin Tughluqs death was in a state of disarray with many regions assuming independance, it was at this point that Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Ghazi Maliks nephew, took reign. His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik) who had the title Sipahsalar. His mother Naila was a Punjabi Bhatti princess (daughter of Rana Mal) from Dipalpur and Abohar according the historian William Crooke.[31][32] The southern states had drifted away from the Sultanate and there were rebellions in Gujarat and Sindh", while "Bengal asserted its independence." He led expeditions against Bengal in 1353 and 1358. He captured Cuttack, desecrated the Jagannath Temple, Puri, and forced Raja Gajpati of Jajnagar in Orissa to pay tribute.[33][34] He also laid siege to the Kangra Fort and forced Nagarkot to pay tribute.[35] During his time Tatar Khan of Greater Khorasan attacked Punjab however he was defeated and his face slashed by the sword given by Feroz Shah Tughlaq to Raja Kailas Pal who ruled the Nagarkot region in Punjab.[36]

    Sayyid dynasty (c. 1410–1450 CE)

    Khizr Khan established the Sayyid dynasty, the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate after the fall of the Tughlaqs.[37]

    Following Timur's 1398 Sack of Delhi,[38] he appointed Khizr Khan as deputy of Multan (Punjab).[39] He held Lahore, Dipalpur, Multan and Upper Sindh.[40][41] Khizr Khan captured Delhi on 28 May 1414 thereby establishing the Sayyid dynasty.[39] Khizr Khan did not take up the title of Sultan, but continued the fiction of his allegiance to Timur as Rayat-i-Ala(vassal) of the Timurids - initially that of Timur, and later his son Shah Rukh.[42][43] After the accession of Khizr Khan, the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Sindh were reunited under the Delhi Sultanate, where he spent his time subduing rebellions.[44] Punjab was the powerbase of Khizr Khan and his successors as the bulk of the Delhi army during their reigns came from Multan and Dipalpur.[45]

    Khizr Khan was succeeded by his son Mubarak Shah after his death on 20 May 1421. Mubarak Shah referred to himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah on his coins, removing the Timurid name with the name of the Caliph, and declared himself a Shah.[46][47] He defeated the advancing Hoshang Shah Ghori, ruler of Malwa Sultanate and forced him to pay heavy tribute early in his reign.[48] Mubarak Shah also put down the rebellion of Jasrath Khokhar and managed to fend off multiple invasions by the Timurids of Kabul.[49]

    The last ruler of the Sayyids, Ala-ud-Din, voluntarily abdicated the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on 19 April 1451, and left for Badaun, where he died in 1478.[50]

    Langah sultanate (c. 1450–1540 CE)

    In 1445, Sultan Qutbudin, chief of Langah, a Jat Zamindar tribe[51][52][53][54] established the Langah Sultanate in Multan after the fall of the Sayyid dynasty. Husseyn Langah I (reigned 1456–1502) was the second ruler of Langah Sultanate. He undertook military campaigns in Punjab and captured Chiniot and Shorkot from the Lodis. Shah Husayn successfully repulsed attempted invasion by the Lodis led by Tatar Khan and Barbak Shah, as well as his daughter Zeerak Rumman.[55]

    Modern period Mughal empire (c. 1526–1761 CE)

    The Mughals came to power in the early sixteenth century and gradually expanded to control all of the Punjab from their capital at Lahore. During the Mughal era, Saadullah Khan, born into a family of Punjabi agriculturalists[56] belonging to the Thaheem tribe[57] from Chiniot[58] remained Grand vizier (or Prime Minister) of the Mughal Empire in the period 1645–1656.[58] Other prominent Muslims from Punjab who rose to nobility during the Mughal Era include Wazir Khan,[59] Adina Beg Arain,[60] and Shahbaz Khan Kamboh.[61] The Mughal Empire ruled the region until it was severely weakened in the eighteenth century.[1] As Mughal power weakened, Afghan rulers took control of the region.[1] Contested by Marathas and Afghans, the region was the center of the growing influence of the Misls, who expanded and established the Khalsa Raj as the Mughals and Afghans weakened, ultimately ruling the Punjab,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and territories north into the Himalayas.[1]

    Sikh Empire (c. 1799–1849 CE)

    In the 19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire based in the Punjab.[62] The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849, when it was defeated and conquered in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.[63][64] At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. It was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital; Multan, also in Punjab; Peshawar; and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831 (making it the 19th most populous country at the time),[65] it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British Empire.

    British Punjab (c. 1849–1947 CE)
     
     
    Illustration of Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire.

    The Sikh Empire ruled the Punjab until the British annexed it in 1849 following the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars.[66] Most of the Punjabi homeland formed a province of British India, though a number of small princely states retained local rulers who recognized British authority.[1] The Punjab with its rich farmlands became one of the most important colonial assets.[1] Lahore was a noted center of learning and culture, and Rawalpindi became an important military installation.[1] Most Punjabis supported the British during World War I, providing men and resources to the war effort even though the Punjab remained a source of anti colonial activities.[67]: 163  Disturbances in the region increased as the war continued.[1] At the end of the war, high casualty rates, heavy taxation, inflation, and a widespread influenza epidemic disrupted Punjabi society.[1] In 1919 a British officer ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of demonstrators, mostly Sikhs in Amritsar. The Jallianwala massacre fueled the indian independence movement.[1] Nationalists declared the independence of India from Lahore in 1930 but were quickly suppressed.[1] When the Second World War broke out, nationalism in British India had already divided into religious movements.[1] Many Sikhs and other minorities supported the Hindus, who promised a secular multicultural and multireligious society, and Muslim leaders in Lahore passed a resolution to work for a Muslim Pakistan, making the Punjab region a center of growing conflict between Indian and Pakistani nationalists.[1] At the end of the war, the British granted separate independence to India and Pakistan, setting off massive communal violence as Muslims fled to Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh Punjabis fled east to India.[1]

    The British Raj had major political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai. At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.[68] The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following partition, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.[69][70][71][72]

    Another major consequence of partition was the sudden shift towards religious homogeneity occurred in all districts across Punjab owing to the new international border that cut through the province. This rapid demographic shift was primarily due to wide scale migration but also caused by large-scale religious cleansing riots which were witnessed across the region at the time. According to historical demographer Tim Dyson, in the eastern regions of Punjab that ultimately became Indian Punjab following independence, districts that were 66% Hindu in 1941 became 80% Hindu in 1951; those that were 20% Sikh became 50% Sikh in 1951. Conversely, in the western regions of Punjab that ultimately became Pakistani Punjab, all districts became almost exclusively Muslim by 1951.[73]

    ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 257–259. ISBN 978-1-59884-659-1. ^ Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36. ^ Joshi, L. M., and Fauja Singh. History of Panjab, Vol I. p. 4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bosworth, Albert Brian (1993). "The campaign of the Hydaspes". Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press. pp. 125–130. ^ Holt, Frank Lee (2003). Alexander the Great and the mystery of the elephant medallions. University of California Press. ^ Rogers, p.200 ^ a b Bosworth, Albert Brian (1993). "From the Hydaspes to the Southern Ocean". Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press. ^ Anson, Edward M. (2013). Alexander the Great: Themes and Issues. Bloomsbury. p. 151. ISBN 9781441193797. ^ Roy 2004, pp. 23–28. ^ Heckel, Waldemar (2006). Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire. Wiley. ISBN 9781405112109. ^ Irfan Habib; Vivekanand Jha (2004). Mauryan India. A People's History of India. Aligarh Historians Society / Tulika Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-81-85229-92-8. ^ a b c "History of Punjab", Wikipedia, 20 January 2023, retrieved 22 January 2023 ^ Seth, H. C. (1937). "Did Candragupta Maurya Belong to North Western India?". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 18 (2): 158–165. ISSN 0378-1143. JSTOR 41688339. ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (1 January 2016). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 22. ISBN 978-81-208-0433-3. ^ Gupta, Gyan Swarup (1999). India: From Indus Valley Civlization to Mauryas. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-763-2. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1969). Corporate Life in Ancient India. Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. p. 222. ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (1 January 2016). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0433-3. ^ a b c d e f Rehman 1976. ^ Rahman, Abdul (2002). "New Light on the Khingal, Turk and the Hindu Sahis" (PDF). Ancient Pakistan. XV: 37–42. The Hindu Śāhis were therefore neither Bhattis, or Janjuas, nor Brahmans. They were simply Uḍis/Oḍis. It can now be seen that the term Hindu Śāhi is a misnomer and, based as it is merely upon religious discrimination, should be discarded and forgotten. The correct name is Uḍi or Oḍi Śāhi dynasty. ^ Meister, Michael W. (2005). "The Problem of Platform Extensions at Kafirkot North" (PDF). Ancient Pakistan. XVI: 41–48. Rehman (2002: 41) makes a good case for calling the Hindu Śāhis by a more accurate name, "Uḍi Śāhis". ^ Rehman 1976, pp. 48–50. ^ Richard M. Eaton (2019). India in the Persianate Age: 1000–1765. p. 117. ISBN 978-0520325128. The career of Khizr Khan, a Punjabi chieftain belonging to the Khokar clan... ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1979). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-207-0617-0. ^ a b William Lowe (Translator), Muntakhabu-t-tawārīkh, p. 296, at Google Books, Volume 1, pages 296-301 ^ Tarikh-I Firoz Shahi Ziauddin Barni, The History of India by its own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Volume 3, Trubner London, pages 233-234 ^ Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Tarikh-I Firoz Shahi Ziauddin Barni, The History of India by its own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Volume 3, Trubner London, pp. 236–237 ^ Tarikh-I Firoz Shahi Ziauddin Barni, The History of India by its own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Volume 3, Trubner London, pp. 235–240 ^ Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521543293. ^ Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp. 242–248, Oxford University Press ^ Crooke, William (1890). An Ethnographical Hand-book for the N.-W. Provinces and Oudh. North-Western provinces and Oudh government Press. p. 144. ^ Proceedings - Punjab History Conference. Publication Bureau, Punjab University. 1966. p. 82. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Psychology Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4. ^ Haque, Mohammed Anwarul (1980). Muslim Administration in Orissa, 1568-1751 A.D. Punthi Pustak. p. 20. ^ Jauhri, R. C. (1990). Firoz Tughluq, 1351-1388 A.D. ABS Publications. p. 74. ISBN 978-81-7072-029-4. ^ Hutchison, John; Vogel, Jean Philippe (1994). History of the Panjab Hill States. Asian Educational Services. p. 221. ISBN 978-81-206-0942-6. ^ Richard M. Eaton (2019). India in the Persianate Age: 1000–1765. p. 117. ISBN 978-0520325128. ^ Jackson 2003, p. 103. ^ a b Kumar 2020, p. 583. ^ Kenneth Pletcher (2010). The History of India. p. 138. ISBN 9781615301225. ^ V. D. Mahajan (2007). History of Medieval India. p. 229. ISBN 9788121903646. ^ Proceedings:Volume 55. Indian History Congress. 1995. p. 216. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.237 ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers] Bharatpur. Printed at Government Central Press. 1971. p. 52. ^ Lal, Kishori Saran (1980). Twilight of the Sultanate: A Political, Social and Cultural History of the Sultanate of Delhi from the Invasion of Timur to the Conquest of Babur 1398-1526. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 978-81-215-0227-6. This considerably depleted Iqbal's strength and encouraged Khizr Khan to collect his forces of Multan, Deopalpur and the Punjab ^ V. D. Mahajan (2007). History of Medieval India. ^ Iqtidar Alam Khan (2008). Historical Dictionary of Medieval India. p. 103. ^ Lal, Kishori Saran (1980). Twilight of the Sultanate: A Political, Social and Cultural History of the Sultanate of Delhi from the Invasion of Timur to the Conquest of Babur 1398-1526. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 978-81-215-0227-6. Hoshang tried his luck against Sultan of Delhi but he was beaten back by Mubarak Shah Saiyyad to whom he had to pay a handsome tribute ^ Lal, Kishori Saran (1980). Twilight of the Sultanate: A Political, Social and Cultural History of the Sultanate of Delhi from the Invasion of Timur to the Conquest of Babur 1398-1526. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 109. ISBN 978-81-215-0227-6. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, Now Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.244 ^ Ahmed, Iftikhar (1984). "Territorial Distribution of Jatt Castes in Punjab c. 1595 – c. 1881". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Indian History Congress. 45: 429, 432. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44140224. Retrieved 28 July 2022. ^ Mubārak, A.F.; Blochmann, H. (1891). The Ain I Akbari. Bibliotheca Indica. Asiatic Society of Bengal. p. 321. Retrieved 28 July 2022. ^ Lambrick, H. T. (1975). Sind : a general introduction. Hyderabad: Sindhi Adabi Board. p. 212. ISBN 0-19-577220-2. OCLC 2404471. ^ Roseberry, J.R. (1987). Imperial Rule in Punjab: The Conquest and Administration of Multan, 1818–1881. Manohar. p. 177. ISBN 978-81-85054-28-5. Retrieved 28 July 2022. ^ "Battles in chiniot and shorkot" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 9. ^ Journal of Central Asia. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University. 1992. p. 84. Retrieved 30 July 2022. Sadullah Khan was the son of Amir Bakhsh a cultivator of Chiniot . He belongs to Jat family. He was born on Thursday, the 10th Safar 1000 A.H./1591 A.C. ^ Quddus, S.A. (1992). Punjab, the Land of Beauty, Love, and Mysticism. Royal Book Company. p. 402. ISBN 978-969-407-130-5. Retrieved 29 July 2022. ^ a b Siddiqui, Shabbir A. (1986). "Relations Between Dara Shukoh and Sa'adullah Khan". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 47: 273–276. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44141552. ^ Koch, Ebba (2006). The complete Taj Mahal : and the riverfront gardens of Agra. Richard André. Barraud. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-500-34209-1. OCLC 69022179. ^ Chhabra, G.S. (2005). Advance Study in the History of Modern India (Volume-1: 1707–1803). Lotus Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-81-89093-06-8. ^ Chisti, AA Sheikh Md Asrarul Hoque (2012). "Shahbaz Khan". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. OL 30677644M. Retrieved 26 April 2023. ^ "Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. (Date:1989. ISBN 8170172446)". Exoticindiaart.com. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2009. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ranjit Singh" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 892. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab, Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63764-3. ^ Amarinder Singh's The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar ^ Grewal, J. S. (1998). "The Sikh empire (1799–1849) - Chapter 6". The Sikhs of the Punjab. The New Cambridge History of India (Revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 126–128. ISBN 0-521-63764-3. ^ Cite error: The named reference hibb 1980 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Pakistan Geotagging: Partition of Punjab in 1947". 3 October 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.. Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved 12 July 2013. ^ Talbot, Ian (2009). "Partition of India: The Human Dimension". Cultural and Social History. 6 (4): 403–410. doi:10.2752/147800409X466254. S2CID 147110854. The number of casualties remains a matter of dispute, with figures being claimed that range from 200,000 to 2 million victims. ^ D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-0415565660. ^ Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India. Duke University Press. ^ Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1134378258. ^ Dyson 2018, pp. 188–189.


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