The Vittoriale degli italiani (English translation: The shrine of victories of the Italians) is a hillside estate in the town of Gardone Riviera overlooking Lake Garda in province of Brescia, in Lombardy. It is where the Italian poet and novelist Gabriele D'Annunzio lived after his defenestration in 1922 until his death in 1938. The estate consists of the residence of D'Annunzio called the Prioria (priory), an amphitheatre, the protected cruiser Puglia set into a hillside, a boathouse containing the MAS vessel used by D'Annunzio in 1918 and a circular mausoleum. Its grounds are now part of the Grandi Giardini Italiani.

References to the Vittoriale range from a "monumental citadel" to a "fascist lunapark", the site inevitably inheriting the controversy surrounding its creator.

The house, Villa Cargnacco, had belonged to the German art historian of the Italian Renaissance Henry Thode, from whom it was confiscated by the Italian state, including artworks, a collection of books, and a piano which had belonged to Liszt. [1][2] d'Annunzio rented it in February 1921 and within a year reconstruction started under the guidance of architect Giancarlo Maroni. Due to d'Annunzio's popularity and his disagreement with the fascist government on several issues, such as the alliance with Nazi Germany, the fascists did what they could to please d'Annunzio in order to keep him away from political life in Rome. Part of their strategy was to make huge funds available to expand the property, to construct and/or modify buildings, and to create the impressive art and literature collection. In 1924 the airplane that d'Annunzio used for his pamphleteering run over Vienna during World War I was brought to the estate, followed in 1925 by the MAS naval vessel used by him to taunt the Austrians in 1918 in the Beffa di Buccari. In the same year the bow section of the protected cruiser Puglia was hauled up the hill and placed in the woods behind the house, and the property was expanded by acquisition of surrounding lands and buildings.

In 1926 the government donated an amount of 10 million lire, which allowed a considerable enlargement of the Villa, with a new wing named the Schifamondo. In 1931 construction was started on the Parlaggio, the name for the amphitheatre. The mausoleum was designed after d'Annunzio's death but not actually built until 1955, and d'Annunzio's remains were finally brought there in 1963.

^ Scott, Malcolm (31 August 2013). "Henry Thode's mansion at Lake Garda". To Ephesus With Love. Retrieved 5 December 2015. ^ "Thode, Henry". Dictionary of Art Historians. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
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This Photo was taken by Wolfgang Moroder. Feel free to use my photos, but please mention me as - CC BY-SA 4.0
Biblioteca Vittoriale - Public domain
This Photo was taken by Wolfgang Moroder. Feel free to use my photos, but please mention me as - CC BY-SA 4.0
This Photo was taken by Wolfgang Moroder. Feel free to use my photos, but please mention me as - CC BY-SA 4.0
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