曲阜市

( Qufu )

Qufu (pronounced [tɕʰý.fû]; Chinese: 曲阜) is a city in southwestern Shandong province, East China. It is located about 130 kilometres (81 mi) south of the provincial capital Jinan and 45 km (28 mi) northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu has an area of 815 square kilometers, and a total population of 653,000 inhabitants, of which, 188,000 live in urban areas.

Qufu is best known as the hometown of Confucius, who is traditionally believed to have been born at nearby Mount Ni. The city contains numerous historic palaces, temples and cemeteries. The three most famous cultural sites of the city, collectively known as San Kong (三孔; 'the Three Confucian [sites]', are the Temple of Confucius (Chinese: 孔庙; pinyin: Kǒngmiào), t...Read more

Qufu (pronounced [tɕʰý.fû]; Chinese: 曲阜) is a city in southwestern Shandong province, East China. It is located about 130 kilometres (81 mi) south of the provincial capital Jinan and 45 km (28 mi) northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu has an area of 815 square kilometers, and a total population of 653,000 inhabitants, of which, 188,000 live in urban areas.

Qufu is best known as the hometown of Confucius, who is traditionally believed to have been born at nearby Mount Ni. The city contains numerous historic palaces, temples and cemeteries. The three most famous cultural sites of the city, collectively known as San Kong (三孔; 'the Three Confucian [sites]', are the Temple of Confucius (Chinese: 孔庙; pinyin: Kǒngmiào), the Cemetery of Confucius (孔林; Kǒnglín), and the Kong Family Mansion (孔府; Kǒngfǔ). Together, these three sites have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994. In July 2015, Qufu became the third International Cittaslow in China.

Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in QufuUNESCO World Heritage Site 
Apricot Platform in the Confucius Temple
CriteriaCultural: i, iv, viReference704Inscription1994 (18th Session)

During the Shang, the area around Qufu was home to the people of Yan, who were counted by the Chinese among the "Eastern Barbarians" or Dongyi. Along with Pugu (around Binzhou) and Xu (along the Huai River), Yan joined the Shang prince Wu Geng and the Three Guards in their failed rebellion against the Duke of Zhou c. 1042 BC. After the rebels' defeat, the Duke launched punitive campaigns against the Dongyi, forcing their submission and placing their territory under loyal nobles. The territory of the Yan became part of the state of Lu, who made Qufu their capital throughout the Spring and Autumn period. This city had walls considerably larger than the present Ming-era fortifications, including more land to the east and north.

During the Tang dynasty and the early days of the Song dynasty the city was centered around the present-day Temple of Duke Zhou, at the northeastern corner of today's walled city. At 1012, Qufu was renamed to Xianyuan County (仙源县), and relocated to the new site, some 4 km (2.5 mi) east of today's walled city, next to the supposed birthplace of the legendary Yellow Emperor and the tomb of his son Shaohao. A temple in honor of the Yellow Emperor was built there; all that remains today are two giant stelae (the Shou Qiu site).[1]

After the conquest of the northern China by the Jurchens, the new Jin dynasty renamed Xianyuan back to Qufu (in 1142), but the city stayed at its Song location. It was not until the reign of the Jiajing Emperor of the Ming dynasty (1522) that the present-day city wall was built. The site of the city in 1012–1522 is now Jiuxian Village (旧县村).[1]

During the Southern Song dynasty the descendant of Confucius at Qufu, the Duke Yansheng Kong Duanyou fled south with the Song Emperor to Quzhou in Zhejiang, while the newly established Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in the north appointed Kong Duanyou's brother Kong Duancao who remained in Qufu as Duke Yansheng.[2][3] From that time up until the Yuan dynasty, there were two Duke Yanshengs, one in the north in Qufu and the other in the south at Quzhou. An invitation to come back to Qufu was extended to the southern Duke Yansheng Kong Zhu by the Yuan dynasty emperor Kublai Khan. The title was taken away from the southern branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation,[4] so the northern branch of the family kept the title of Duke Yansheng. The southern branch still remained in Quzhou where they lived to this day. Confucius's descendants in Quzhou alone number 30,000.[5][6] The Hanlin Academy rank of Wujing boshi 五經博士 was awarded to the southern branch at Quzhou by a Ming emperor while the northern branch at Qufu held the title Duke Yansheng.[7][8][9][10] Kong Ruogu (孔若古), also known as Kong Chuan (孔傳)[11] 47th generation[12] was claimed to be the ancestor of the Southern branch after Kong Zhu died by Northern branch member Kong Guanghuang.[10][13][14]

In 1948, Qufu played a minor role in the Yanzhou Campaign of the Chinese Civil War.

The artifacts of the historical sites at Qufu suffered extensive damage during the Cultural Revolution when about 200 staff members and students of Beijing Normal University led by Tan Houlan (谭厚兰, 1937–1982), one of the five most powerful student leaders of the Cultural Revolution, came to Qufu and destroyed more than 6000 artifacts in November 1966.[15][16][17]

Before the wide adoption of Pinyin, the name of the city (often viewed as a county seat, i.e. Qufu xian) was transcribed in English in a variety of ways, such as Ch'ü-fou-hien,[18] Kio-feu-hien,[19] Kio-fou-hien,[19]Kiu-fu,[20]Kiuh Fow, Keuhfow, Kufow, and Chufou.[21]

^ a b Bo Chonglan et al. (2002), p. 109 ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2016-05-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Wilson, Thomas (1 August 1996). "The Ritual Formation of Confucian Orthodoxy and the Descendants of the Sage". Journal of Asian Studies. 55 (3): 559–584. doi:10.2307/2646446. JSTOR 2646446. S2CID 162848825. Retrieved 4 April 2018 – via ResearchGate. Wilson, Thomas A. "Cult of Confucius". academics.hamilton.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2018. ^ "- Quzhou City Guides - China TEFL Network". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-04. "confucianism". kfz.freehostingguru.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018. "Nation observes Confucius anniversary". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 4 April 2018. "Confucius Anniversary Celebrated". www.china.org.cn. Retrieved 4 April 2018. "孔子家族全书:家事本末_17.孔浈不幸被夺爵_米花在线书库". Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2016-05-03. ^ Thomas Jansen; Thoralf Klein; Christian Meyer (21 March 2014). Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present. BRILL. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-90-04-27151-7. ^ "Nation observes Confucius anniversary". China Daily. 2006-09-29. ^ "Confucius Anniversary Celebrated". China Daily. September 29, 2006. ^ Thomas A. Wilson (2002). On Sacred Grounds: Culture, Society, Politics, and the Formation of the Cult of Confucius. Harvard University Asia Center. pp. 69, 315. ISBN 978-0-674-00961-5. ^ Thomas Jansen; Thoralf Klein; Christian Meyer (21 March 2014). Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present. BRILL. pp. 188–. ISBN 978-90-04-27151-7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) p. 14. ^ a b https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248653434_The_Ritual_Formation_of_Confucian_Orthodoxy_and_the_Descendants_of_the_Sage p. 575. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) p. 5. ^ *磐安发现一处宋墓 墓主是孔子47代裔孙(图). js.ifeng.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 磐安孔氏家庙. zjfeiyi.cn. April 23, 2014. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2016. 金华磐安发现一处宋代古墓 墓主疑是孔子47代裔孙--浙江省殡葬协会. www.zjbzxh.org. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2018. "中国深圳孔氏联谊会-榉溪孔氏家庙". Archived from the original on 2016-09-23. Retrieved 2016-05-21. "孔传:孔传 锁定 本缺少名片图,补充相关内". Archived from the original on 2016-06-05. Retrieved 2016-05-21. 孔氏六帖 南宋 孔传(孔若古)衢州派始祖. kong.org.cn. October 18, 2003. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. ^ "AAS Abstracts: China Session 45". Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-07-24. ^ Wilson, Thomas A.. 1996. "The Ritual Formation of Confucian Orthodoxy and the Descendants of the Sage". The Journal of Asian Studies 55 (3). [Cambridge University Press, Association for Asian Studies]: 559–84. doi:10.2307/2646446. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2646446 p. 575. ^ "Cultural revolution in Current Events". Weekly Reader Corp. September 29, 2006. Archived from the original on April 17, 2008. Retrieved 2007-03-04. ^ Wang Liang, "The Confucius Temple Tragedy of the Cultural Revolution," in Thomas A. Wilson, ed., On Sacred Grounds, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002) ^ Sang Ye and Geremie R. Barmé (2009): The Fate of the Confucius Temple, the Kong Mansion and Kong Cemetery, China Archived 2010-11-21 at the Wayback Machine Heritage Quarterly, No. 20, December 2009 ^ Armstrong, Alexander (1896), In a mule litter to the tomb of Confucius, J. Nisbet ^ a b Legge, James (1867). Confucius and the Chinese classics. A. Roman. pp. 384, 388. - Rev. A. Williamson's account of his visit to Qufu in 1865 ^ Markham (1870), "Journey through Shantung", Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, J. Murray, 40: 223 ^ Colby, Frank Moore; Williams, Talcott, eds. (1918), The New international encyclopædia, Volume 13 (2 ed.), Dodd, Mead and company, p. 276
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