( Naryn-Kala )

Naryn-Kala (Russian: Нарын-кала) is an ancient pre-Arab citadel, part of the Derbent fortress, connected to the Caspian Sea by double walls designed to block the so-called Caspian gates to the Persian state. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Derbent is located in the most strategically vulnerable place of the Caspian Pass, where the Greater Caucasus Mountains are closest to the sea, leaving a single narrow 3 km strip of plain. Derbent Fortress is part of a large defensive system that protected the peoples of Transcaucasia and Western Asia from invasions by nomads from the north. The system included city walls, a citadel, embankments, and the Dagh-Bary mountain wall.[1]

From the west, the Derbent walls adjoin the Naryn-Kala citadel, which was built after the 10th century, since before that a signal fire was kindled at this place when the enemy approached.[2]

The fortress known today was built in the 6th century on the Dzhalgan ridge[3] by order of the Persian ruler Khosrov I Anushirvan (531-579) ("Immortal in Soul") from the Sasanian dynasty.[1]

Since 735, Derbent and Naryn-Kala became the military-administrative center of the Arab Caliphate in Dagestan, as well as the largest trading port and the center of the spread of Islam in this land.[3]

As a result of the Caspian campaign, the city of Derbent became part of the Russian Empire. From the dugout, which is now a local landmark, Emperor Peter the Great moved to the Khan's palace, to whom the beys of Derbent presented the city keys on a silver platter covered with Persian brocade (stored in the Kunstkamera of Saint Petersburg) with words.[4]

In some sources, the Derbent fortress was called the "wall of Alexander the Great"[5] because of the belief in the legend that it was built by the great conqueror.[4][6] But Alexander the Great was never at the Derbent gates.[7]

During the Persian expedition of 1796, the fortress was retaken by Russian troops under the leadership of General-in-chief Valerian Zubov, who placed the general headquarters in the citadel.[8]

Archaeological excavations are still underway on the territory of Naryn-Kala. Today, Naryn-Kala is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List and is one of the important sights.[9][10]

^ a b Cite error: The named reference shikhabudin was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference essays was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Cite error: The named reference places was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Vasily Potto. From ancient times to Yermolov. Caucasian war. In 5 volumes. Tsentrpoligraf, 2006. Vol. 1. p. 528 p. 3000 copies. ISBN 5952421059. ^ Mohammed Muslimovich Kurbanov. The soul and memory of the people: the genre system of Tabasaran folklore and its historical evolution. Dagestan book. publishing house, 1996. p. 232 ^ Boris Nikolaevich Rzhonsnitsky, Boris Yakovlevich Rosen. E. Kh. Lenz. Thought, 1987. pp. 95-152 ^ Barmankulov M.K. Turkic universe. Bilim, 1996. pp. 62-248 ^ Alexey Shishov. Order of Saint George. All about the most honorable award of the Russian Empire. — M. Yauza, Eksmo, 2013. pp. 227-745. ISBN 9785457595934 ^ Cite error: The named reference era was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Nikolay Protsenko. Very respectable hero of the day. Expert South. 2014. No. 1-2. pp. 50-52.
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