عمريت

( Amrit )

Amrit (Arabic: عمريت), the classical Marathus (Greek: Μάραθος, Marathos), was a Phoenician port located near present-day Tartus in Syria. Founded in the third millennium BC, Marat (Phoenician: 𐤌𐤓𐤕, MRT) was the northernmost important city of ancient Phoenicia, with relations to nearby Arwad. During the 2nd century BC, Amrit was defeated and its site largely abandoned, leaving its ruins well preserved and without extensive remodeling by later generations.

 A coin of Marathus with the Phoenician name of the city, MRT

The city lies on the Mediterranean coast around 6 km (3.7 mi) south of modern-day Tartus. Two rivers cross the city: Nahr Amrit, near the main temple, and Nahr al-Kuble near the secondary temple, a fact that might be linked to the importance of water in the religious traditions in Amrit.[1] The city was probably founded by the Arvadites,[2] an was considered one of the "daughters of Arwad" on the coastline.[3][4] Marathus served as Arwad's continental base,[5] although the port of Arwad in the mainland was Carne.[6][7] It grew to be one of the wealthiest towns in the dominion of Arwad. The city surrendered, along with Arwad, to Alexander the Great in 333 BC.[8] During Seleucid times the town, known as Marathus, was probably larger and more prosperous than Arwad.[9] In 219 BC Marathus gained independence from Arwad, and was later sacked by forces from the latter city in 148 BC.[2] Strabo described Marathus as ruins at his time.[4]

^ Cite error: The named reference Maqdissi was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Baedeker, Karl (1876). Palestine and Syria, handbook for travellers. p. 536. ^ Renan, Ernest (1864). Mission de Phénicie. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale. p. 20 ^ a b Strabo, Geographica, 16.2.12 (Greek source and English translation) ^ Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the People and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persians Empire. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-15908-6. ^ Hill, George Francis (1965). Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Phoenicia. Arnaldo Forni - Editore. pp. xxxviii. ^ Renan, Ernest (1864). Mission de Phénicie. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale. p. 55, 97 ^ Kuhrt, Amelie (2007). The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Routledge. p. 439. ISBN 978-1-134-07634-5. ^ Fattah, Hala Mundhir; Caso, Frank (2009). A brief history of Iraq. Infobase Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8160-5767-2.
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